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UN Profile - Malaysia

------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.0. GENERAL BACKGROUND
 
 
The legal system in Malaysia is based on a set of written and unwritten laws.
Among the written are: the Federal Constitution together with the constitutions
of the 13 states comprising the Federation, legislations enacted by the
Parliament and State Assemblies, and delegated or subsidiary legislation made by
bodies under powers conferred on them by Acts of Parliament or State Assemblies.
The unwritten laws are comprised  of the principles of English Common law
adapted to local circumstances, case law and local customary law; Muslim law is
also an important source of law applicable only to the Muslim population and
administered by a separate system of courts.
 
The judicial system
 
The Malaysian Constitution provides for the exercise of powers by the
Legislature, the Executive and the Judiciary.  By virtue of Act 121 (1) of the
Federal Constitution judicial power in the Federation is vested on two High
Courts of Coordinate jurisdiction and status namely the High Court of Malaya and
the High Court of Borneo and the inferior courts.  The Federal Court with its
principal registry in Kuala Lumpur is the Supreme Court in the country.  The
head of the judiciary is the Lord President of the Federal Court and he
exercises direct supervision over all courts.  In the hierarchy of courts the
lowest is the Penghulus Court.   A Penghulu is a headman appointed by a state
government.  The criminal jurisdiction of a Penghulus Court is limited to the
trial of offences of a minor nature which can be adequately punished by a fine
not exceeding $25.00.  The subordinate courts in Malaysia include the Juvenile
Courts, Magistrates Courts and the Sessions Courts.
 
  The courts can pronounce on the legality or otherwise of executive acts of
government.  They can pronounce on the validity or otherwise of any law passed
by parliament and they can pronounce on the meaning of any provision of the
constitution.
 
Law enforcement
 
The nation's police force is headed by an Inspector General of Police, his
Deputy and four Directors of Divisions, viz: the Criminal Investigation
Department, The Special Branch, Security and Public Order, and Management.  The
Inspector General of Police is responsible to the Minister of Home Affairs.  The
police force performs the duties of preventing crime, protection of the general
welfare of the people, investigating and detecting crime, identifying and
apprehending offenders, and prosecuting criminals.  The force also has to
perform the onerous task of jungle operations, tracking down undesirable
elements, investigating the smuggling of drugs, arms, and other contraband
items.
===========================================================================
 
 
  The police and the prison service in the country have established a very close
working relationship.  Such a relationship is clearly outlined in both the
Prison Ordinance of 1952 and the Police Act of 1967.  These two laws establish
the powers and relative duties and responsibilities of the officers in the two
services.  This clearly establishes the fact that not only are the functions
interchangeable, the authority and relative power vested in one can and is
exercised by the other.
 
Selected crimes reported
 
During the third survey period, selected crimes showed a gradual increasing
trend.  Data in Table 1 highlight this trend.  During 1980 to 1986 the number of
intentional homicides recorded by the police ranged between a low of 225 in 1982
and a high of 386 in 1986.
 
 
                                    TABLE 1
                                        
                 Selected Crimes Reported and Rate Per 100 000
                            Population, 1980 to 1986
 
                     1980    1981   1982   1983   1984   1985     1986
 
Int. Homicides  N     279     258    225    303     293     327     386
                R    2.02    1.83   1.56   2.05    1.93    2.08    2.40
 
Assault         N    2019    1955   1931   2059    2163    2684    2622
                R   14.63   13.87  13.41  13.91   14.23   17.10   16.29
 
Robbery         N    4737    4934   4510   5336    5991    7881    9065
                R   34.33   34.99  31.32  36.05   39.41   50.20   56.30
 
Theft           N   63543   63356  60570  65551   68959   77070   82314
                R  460.46  449.33 420.63 442.91  453.68  490.89  511.27
 
 
Relatively speaking, the number of assaults, robberies and thefts showed a
marginally slower increase than intentional homicide.  The crime of theft,
including theft of motor vehicle, house breaking and all other thefts continue
to be the most frequent crime recorded in Malaysia,  currently constituting over
80 per cent of all crimes recorded annually.
 
Offenders in selected crimes
 
The number of offenders coming in contact with the criminal justice system does
not show a trend similar to that noted for crimes recorded.  For example, the
number of intentional homicides recorded by the police peaked in 1986 but the
===========================================================================
 
number of offenders apprehended by the police in 1986 for this crime was the
lowest during the 1980-1986 period.
 
                                    TABLE 2
                                        
                    Number of Arrests by Crime, 1980 to 1986
 
                     1980    1981   1982   1983   1984   1985     1986
 
 
Intention homicide    212     220    252    263     287     266     191
 
Assault               786     809    859   1079    1056    1181     986
 
Robbery               851     839    815    986     987    1220    1047
 
Theft                8596    8541   8119   9057    8952    9999    9224
 
 
 
Similar patterns are obtained for the other three crimes.
 
Offenders prosecuted
 
The number of prosecutions demonstrate a trend similar to that noted for
offenders.  For assaults, robberies and theft the actual number of persons
prosecuted are quite similar to offenders coming in contact with the police.
But it appears that for serious violent crime like intentional homicide far
fewer are prosecuted than apprehended.
 
 
                                    TABLE 3
                                        
                    Prosecution and Conviction, 1980 to 1986
 
                     1980    1981   1982   1983   1984   1985     1986
 
 
Intentional homicide  148     122     80     94      63      73      82
Assault               823     693    893    761     709     759     756
Robbery               885     792    789    853     775     790     977
Theft                8188    8917   9123   8555    7413    9064    9430
 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.1. STATISTICS --BACKGROUND
 
 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
===========================================================================
 
2.2. CRIMINAL JUSTICE STATISTICS (1970-1980) Background
  Insert notes and exceptions to the general definitions and recording
practices.
---------------------------------------------------------------
2.3. Offenses Reported To The Police
 
Crime      Years                     Total Numbers
MURDER     70-75   114       149       206       128       241       192
MURDER     75-80             230                 240                 279
ASSAULT    70-75  1456      1494      1529      1393      1515      1557
ASSAULT    75-80                                1750                2019
SEX CRIME  70-75   520       534       247       580       279       479
RAPE       75-80             289                 312                 368
ROBBERY    70-75   863       960      1280      1567      2464      3390
ROBBERY    75-80            3609                3638                4737
THEFT      70-75 24024     25501     26996     33550     41581     51035
THEFT      75-80           47206               61101               71619
FRAUD      70-75   936      1067      1092       929      1165      1078
FRAUD      75-80                                                    2042
KIDNAPING  70-75     0         0         0         0         0        12
KIDNAPING  75-80              10                                       7
TOTAL CRIMES
           70-75 29537               35001               50681
           75-80           61508               67041               80314
DRUG USE   70-75
DRUG CRIMES
           75-80                                                    5655
DRUG TRAFFIC
           70-75   624       747       983      1161      1165      2516
           75-80
BRIBERY    70-75
BRIBERY    75-80                                                     379
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.4. Offenders apprehended or arrested
OFFENDERS  70-75  4472      5122      4477      4411      5010      5391
OFFENDERS  75-80                                                   16372
JUVENILES  70-75  1248      1387      1310      1393      1515      1557
JUVENILES  75-80
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.5. Offenders Convicted
 
Sentencing
 
The number of persons convicted for selected crimes are shown in Table 4.  A
comparison of number of convictions with number of prosecutions reveal some
interesting patterns.  It appears that a much higher proportion of those
prosecuted for property and property related crimes, eg., robbery and theft,
than that for violent crimes, receive a conviction disposition.  Whereas only
===========================================================================
 
about half of those prosecuted for intentional homicide are eventually
convicted, well over 80 per cent of those prosecuted for theft are found guilty
and convicted.
 
                                    TABLE 4
                                        
               Number of Persons Convicted in the Criminal Courts
                                  1980 to 1986
 
                     1980    1981   1982   1983   1984   1985     1986
 
Intentional homicide   90      72     66     48      43      37      37
Assault               619     552    645    580     492     515     484
Robbery               696     594    631    661     590     598     740
Theft                7146    7955   7892   7503    6690    8127    8014
 
 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.6. Sanctions - Background
 
Imprisonment
 
Imprisonment rates in the countries of the Asian and Pacific Region have been
presented in Part Two.  Table 5 presents information on the number of admissions
to prisons each year for persons charged with selected crimes.  The figures do
not refer only to sentenced prisoners.
 
 
                                    TABLE 5
                                        
                    Number of Admissions to Prison Per Year
                                  1980 to 1986
 
                     1980    1981   1982   1983   1984   1985     1986
 
Intentional homicide   17      13     14     14       5      19      38
Assault                68      52     41     45      40      59     204
Robbery               806     663    427    546     553    1196    1638
Theft                3494    3963   3126   2984    2577    3789    4298
 
 
 
 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.7. Prison Statistics
 
 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
===========================================================================
 
2.8. Criminal Justice Personnel and resources - background
 
Expenditure data, presented in Table 6, show that whereas the police and
prosecution are operating at almost constant cost, expenditure on prisons has
increased over the years.
 
 
                                    TABLE 6
                                        
                        Expenditure on Criminal Justice
                         In Millions of Malaysian Dollars
                                        
                         1982            1984           1986
 
      Police            929.1           835.3          960.8
      Prosecution         1.8             1.7            1.8
      Prisons            57.2            60.9           81.8
 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.9. Criminal Justice Resources Statistics
POLICE    1973    35756
POLICE    75-80
JUDGES    1973       23
PROSEC    70-72      12
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.0. CRIMINAL JUSTICE STATISTICS  (1980-1985)
 
A.  Criminal Records Office, Royal Malaysia police, Kuala Lumpur.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.1. Offenses Reported To The Police
 
              1980       1981     1982      1983      1984     1985      1986
 
TOTAL        80314     83722     81917     89501     94423    105300    109357
INT.HOM.       279       258       225       303       293       327       386
MAJ.ASSAULTS  2019      1955      1931      2059      2163      2684      2622
RAPES          368       360       442       460       470       530       688
ROBBERIES     4737      4934      4510      5336      5991      7881      9065
THEFTS       35392     35038     31025     32103     32128     34305     36343
MAJ.THEFTS   28151     28318     29545     33448     36831     42765     45971
FRAUDS        2042      3105      1740      2767      3447      3810      2687
EMBEZZLEMENT     M         M       420       672      1023      1098       784
KIDNAPPING       7        11        16         7        19        17        21
DRUG POSS.    5386      7881      9808     10263      9945      9791      8774
OTHER DRUG     269       388       592       618       680       716       595
BRIBERY        379       326       710       530       636       496       537
OTHER         1285      1148       898       935       797       880       884
 
===========================================================================
 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.2. Offenders apprehended or arrested
Suspected Offenders
              1980       1981     1982      1983      1984     1985      1986
 
TOTAL        16372     19130     21311     23207     22897     24200     21973
INT.HOM.       212       220       252       263       287       266       191
ASSAULT        786       809       859      1079      1056      1181       986
RAPE           161       185       253       347       276       310       337
ROBBERY        851       839       815       986       987      1220      1047
THEFT         8596      8541      8119      9057      8952      9999      9224
FRAUD            M         M       320       352       381       414       498
KIDNAPPING      20        12        23         5        30        31        32
DRUG POSS.    5610      8269     10400     10881     10606     10483      9340
BRIBERY        119       239       257       220       302       264       270
OTHER           17        16        13        17        20        32        48
---------------------------------------------------------------
3.3. Offenders Convicted
No Data
-----------------------------------------------------------
3.4. Prisoners
 
Prison Admissions
              1980       1981     1982      1983      1984     1985      1986
 
TOTAL        14908     17618     19441     20195     18299     23635     24885
INT.HOM.        17        13        14        14         5        19        38
NON.INT.HOM.   117       152       178       194       142       150        95
ASSAULT         68        52        41        45        40        59       204
RAPE            90       126        87       160       176       312       154
ROBBERY        806       663       427       546       553      1196      1638
THEFT         3494      3963      3126      2984      2577      3789      4298
FRAUD          779       758       705       749       688      1131       882
KIDNAPPING      17        19        24        10         5        86        32
DRUG POSS.    3491      4589      7448      7665      6896      8262      8687
 
Convicted Prisoners
              1980       1981     1982      1983      1984     1985      1986
 
TOTAL         6431      8117      8490      9064      8952     11743     12959
INT.HOM.        66        55        65        77        69        61        77
NON.INT.HOM.   188       196       252       345       303       279       217
ASSAULT         16        14        49        35        33        51       139
RAPE            65        78        74       101        98       142       175
ROBBERY        834       708       531       427       667       817       650
THEFT         1192      1485      1453      1296      1026      1402      1111
FRAUD          393       562       432       402       345       519       777
KIDNAPPING      34        15        36        46        33        56        71
===========================================================================
 
DRUG POSS.    1572      2450      3187      3984      4318      5791      6674
 
------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.5. Criminal Justice Resources Statistics
 
CRJ Personnel
              1980       1981     1982      1983      1984     1985      1986
 
POLICE                           77210               80042               80037
MAN.STF.-ADULT                     522                 525                 551
CUST.STF.-ADULT                   5178                4353                4938
TREAT.STF.-ADULT                    35                  35                  70
OTHER STF.-ADULT                   556                 569                 629
MAN.STF.-JUV.                       51                  51                  51
CUST.STF.-JUV.                     392                 414                 414
TREAT.STF.-JUV.                     15                  15                  15
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4.0. Selected Issues
 
Crime prevention strategies
 
A number of specific measures have been initiated in recent years in the area of
crime prevention.  Basically these are in two main categories -- those which
come within the enlightened police functions and those requiring community
involvement.
 
  1. The role of the Royal Malaysia Police - preventive measures:  A combined
proactive -- situational approach has been adopted by the Royal Malaysia Police
to prevent and control crime in Malaysia.  Circumstances which go towards
constituting a crime risk are constantly evaluated and measures are taken to
remove or at least reduce that risk.  Police action covers every type of action
that can be legally and fairly taken to prevent or reduce the opportunity for
crime.  Some of the preventive and enforcement measures undertaken by the Royal
Malaysia Police are:
 
  - Target-hardening related activities -- such as advising banks, financial
institutions, goldsmiths and other commercial sectors, to upgrade their security
systems and securing their premises from being potential targets of criminal
attacks.  Members of the public are also advised via the mass-media to take
steps to minimise opportunities for the commission of crime;
 
  - Improving the image of the police through improved police-public relations.
 
  - School information program -- police officers are assigned to schools not
only to investigate any crimes involving students but also as guest speakers.
These officers are from time to time called upon by the school to deliver talks
on the various components of the criminal justice system and on specific
criminal matters.
===========================================================================
 
 
 
  2. Community involvement in crime prevention:  Community involvement is a
necessary crime prevention ingredient.  It has been acknowledged as the most
influential component of the Criminal Justice System in Malaysia.  It has been
recognised that because of its pervasiveness people can make a significant
difference in the prevention and detection of crime and in the treatment and
rehabilitation of offenders.  There are voluntary organisations, societies,
clubs and associations that have responded positively to prevention initiatives
and other activities incidental thereto.
 
  Specific programs in this area are:  The formation of Vigilante Corps; one of
the objectives of this corps is to assist in the maintenance of peace and
security in outlying rural areas.
 
  The Neighbourhood Watch Group; this program aims at:
  - fostering closer relationships among the multi-racial communities and
instilling a sense of responsibility among them to maintain the peace that is
prevailing in the community;
  - strengthening the relationship between the government and the people based
on mutual respect, trust and confidence;
  - promoting good citizenship and unity among the multi-racial communities
within a neighbourhood through good neighbourliness.
 
------------------------------------------------------------------
 

TRAITOR McCain

jewn McCain

ASSASSIN of JFK, Patton, many other Whites

killed 264 MILLION Christians in WWII

killed 64 million Christians in Russia

holocaust denier extraordinaire--denying the Armenian holocaust

millions dead in the Middle East

tens of millions of dead Christians

LOST $1.2 TRILLION in Pentagon
spearheaded torture & sodomy of all non-jews
millions dead in Iraq

42 dead, mass murderer Goldman LOVED by jews

serial killer of 13 Christians

the REAL terrorists--not a single one is an Arab

serial killers are all jews

framed Christians for anti-semitism, got caught
left 350 firemen behind to die in WTC

legally insane debarred lawyer CENSORED free speech

mother of all fnazis, certified mentally ill

10,000 Whites DEAD from one jew LIE

moser HATED by jews: he followed the law

f.ck Jesus--from a "news" person!!

1000 fold the child of perdition

 

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