"As director of child welfare for the District of Columbia,
here are my 6 words:
Adopt from foster care; virtually free."
Adoption Tax Credit: The Adoption Tax Credit for 2014 is $13,190.
1) Black Baby = virtually free.
2) Indian Baby = $6.00.
3) Mixed Race Baby = $3,000 "mixed race baby business is booming in the beautiful city of Accra in Ghana. With $3,000, you can have a mixed race baby without having sex with a person of a different race."
4) Latin Baby = $10,000
5) Mexican Baby = $20,000 "Approximate Cost: $15,000-25,000 plus travel and living expenses while in country"
6) Russian Baby = $20,000 "We adopted from Pskov in Feb. 2000 - a precious 2-year-old boy. We used an agency and ended up spending very close to $20,000 when all was said and done! We're considering adopting our son's infant brother"
7) White Baby = $35,000.
8) Caucasian Baby = $45,000.
9) Surrogacy = $100,000.
A good check on the results of twin studies comes from adoption studies. A Danish study (in the 1984 issue of Science) examined 14,427 children separated from their birth parents as infants. Boys were more likely to have a criminal record if their birth parents had a criminal record than if their adoptive parents did. Even though they were brought up in different homes, 20% of the full brothers and 13% of the half-brothers had similar criminal records. Oily 9% of the unrelated boys brought up in the same home both had criminal records.
The Colorado Adoption Project found that genes increase in influence as we age. Between age 3 and 16, adopted children grew to be more like their birth parents in height, weight, and IQ. By age 16 the adopted children did not resemble the people who had reared them. The heritability of height, weight, and IQ in infancy are all about 30%. By the teenage years, they are about 50%, and by adulthood, they are about 80%. Thus, as children grow older, their home environments have less impact and their genes have more impact, just the opposite of what culture theory predicts.
Race and Heritability
Can heritability tell us anything about the differences between races? Yes, a lot! Studies show that when the heritability is high in Whites, it is also high in Orientals and Blacks. When it is low in Whites, it is also low in Orientals and Blacks. For example, the heritability ofIQ
Genes, Environment, or Both? 65
is about 50% for Blacks, Orientals, and other groups, just as it is for Whites. So there is a genetic basis for intelligence in all three races.
One study used the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB), given to many men and women going into the military. It found that in all three races the similarity among siblings was the same. The genetic influence on IQ in Orientals, Whites, and Blacks is about equal. There is no special factor, like the history of slavery or White racism, that has made cultural influences stronger for one race than for another.
Trans-racial Adoption Studies
The best evidence for the genetic basis of race-IQ differences comes from trans-racial adoption studies of Oriental children, Black children, and Mixed-Race children. All these children have been adopted by White parents at an early age and have grown up in middle-class White homes.
One well known trans-racial adoption study is Sandra Scarr's Minnesota project. The adopted children were either White, Black, or Mixed-Race (Black-White) babies. The children took IQ tests when they were seven years old and again when they were 17.
In their initial report, the authors thought that their study proved that a good home could raise the IQs of Black children. At age 7, their IQ was 97, well above the Black average of 85 and almost equal to the White average of 100. However, when the children were retested at age17, the results told another story (reported m the 1992 issue of Intelligence).
At age seven. Black, Mixed-Race, and White adopted children all had higher IQ scores than average for their group. Growing up in a good home helped all the children. Even so, the racial pattern was exactly as predicted by genetic theory, not by culture theory. Black children reared in these good homes had an average IQ of 97. but the Mixed-Race children averaged an IQ of 109, and the White children an IQ of 112-
The evidence for genetic theory got stronger as the children grew older. By age 17, the IQs of the adopted children moved closer to the expected average for their race. At age 17 adopted White children had an IQ of about 106, Mixed-Race adoptees an IQ of about 99, and adopted Blacks had an IQ of about 89. IQ scores are not the only evidence in this study. School grades, class ranks, and aptitude tests show the same pattern.
When Sandra Scarr got the results of her follow-up study at age 17, she changed her mind about the cause of why the Blacks and Whites differed. She wrote, "those adoptees with two African American birth parents had IQs that were not notably higher than the IQ scores of Black youngsters reared in Black families." Growing up in a WTiite middle-class home produced little or no lasting increase in the IQs of Black children.
Some psychologists disagreed with her. They claimed "expectancy effects," not genes, explained the pattern. They argued mat the Black and White children were not treated the same. Even if parents took good care of their children, the schools, classmates, and society as a whole
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discriminated against Black children and this hurt their IQs. Because we expected Black children to do poorly in school, they lived up to our low expectations.
Is there any way to decide between the genetic theory and the expectancy theory? There is. A special analysis of the Scarr study compared parents who believed that they had adopted a Black baby but, really, had adopted a Mixed-Race (Black-White) child. The average IQ for these Mixed-Race children was just about the same as for other Mixed-Race children and above that for adopted Black children. This was true even though fee parents who adopted these Mixed-Race children thought their babies really had two Black parents.
Chart 9 summarizes the results for Oriental children adopted into White middle-class homes. Korean and Vietnamese babies from poor backgrounds, many of whom were malnourished, were adopted by White American and Belgian families. When they grew up, they excelled in school. The IQs of the adopted Oriental children were 10 or more points higher than the national average for the country they grew up in. Trans-raciai adoption does not increase or decrease IQ. The three-way pattern of race differences in IQ remains.
The Minnesota Transracial Adoption Study also showed that there are race differences in personality. Black 17-year-olds were more active and more disruptive than White 17-year-olds. Korean children raised in White American families were quieter and less active than White children.