Table 390.--Mathematics test scores of 13-year-olds in educational systems participating in the International Assessment of Educational Progress: 1991 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | | | | Average percent correct | Percentile scores | Topic averages | Process averages |________________________________|__________________________________________________________________|_______________________________________________________|____________________________________ | | | | | | | | | | | | |Data | | | | Country | | | | | | | | | |Numbers | | |analysis, | | | | | | | | | | | | | |and |Measure- | |statistics,|Algebra |Conceptual | | | Total | Male | Female | 1 | 5 | 10 | 90 | 95 | 99 |operations|ment |Geometry | and | and |under- |Procedural |Problem | | | | | | | | | | | | |probability|functions |standing /1|knowledge /2|solving /3 ________________________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|___________|__________|__________|__________|___________|__________|___________|____________|___________ 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 ________________________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|___________|__________|__________|__________|___________|__________|___________|____________|___________ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | IAEP average............|58.3 --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- | --- --- |61.0 --- |46.9 --- |62.2 --- |69.1 --- |54.2 --- | 60.6 --- | 58.4 --- | 55.9 --- | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Populations | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | (comprehensive) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Korea...................|73.4 (0.6)|74.4 (0.9)|72.2 (1.0)|20.0 (0.0)|33.3 (1.5)|41.3 (1.5)|96.0 (0.0)|97.3 (1.9)|100.0 (0.0)|77.4 (0.6)|59.5 (0.9)|77.4 (0.6)|81.2 (0.7) |70.8 (0.8)| 78.3 (0.5)| 73.4 (0.7) | 68.5 (0.7) Taiwan..................|72.7 (0.7)|73.1 (0.9)|72.4 (0.9)|18.7 (1.4)|26.7 (0.0)|35.0 (3.0)|97.3 (1.3)|98.7 (0.0)|100.0 (0.0)|74.7 (0.6)|63.7 (0.9)|76.6 (0.8)|81.2 (0.6) |69.2 (0.9)| 74.7 (0.7)| 74.7 (0.7) | 68.6 (0.8) Switzerland /4 .........|70.8 (1.3)|72.8 (1.5)|68.7 (1.1)|30.7 (1.2)|42.7 (0.8)|50.7 (1.9)|93.3 (1.3)|94.7 (0.0)| 98.7 (0.0)|73.6 (1.0)|62.0 (1.5)|76.6 (1.3)|81.8 (1.1) |62.7 (1.9)| 71.7 (1.1)| 69.0 (1.4) | 71.9 (1.3) (Former) Soviet Union /5|70.2 (1.0)|70.0 (1.3)|70.3 (0.9)|20.9 (2.4)|35.2 (1.4)|42.7 (0.8)|92.0 (0.0)|94.7 (0.0)| 98.7 (0.0)|69.2 (1.0)|59.7 (1.1)|77.6 (1.0)|76.1 (1.3) |71.9 (1.1)| 70.3 (1.0)| 73.2 (1.2) | 66.7 (1.0) Hungary.................|68.4 (0.8)|68.5 (1.0)|68.3 (0.9)|21.3 (0.9)|32.4 (2.3)|38.7 (1.3)|93.3 (0.0)|96.0 (0.0)| 98.7 (0.0)|69.4 (0.7)|55.1 (1.0)|73.3 (0.8)|75.9 (0.8) |69.8 (0.9)| 69.8 (0.7)| 70.8 (0.8) | 64.2 (0.8) France..................|64.2 (0.8)|65.5 (0.9)|62.8 (0.9)|22.7 (3.0)|30.7 (0.8)|37.3 (1.0)|89.3 (0.0)|92.0 (5.3)| 97.3 (1.3)|65.0 (0.7)|52.7 (1.0)|73.1 (0.8)|79.3 (0.7) |57.0 (1.0)| 67.4 (0.7)| 65.7 (0.9) | 59.3 (0.8) Israel /6...............|63.1 (0.8)|64.4 (0.9)|61.8 (1.1)|21.3 (1.0)|30.7 (1.0)|37.3 (0.2)|87.8 (2.6)|90.7 (0.0)| 96.0 (3.9)|64.8 (0.7)|47.2 (1.1)|65.8 (1.0)|74.8 (0.8) |64.7 (1.0)| 63.8 (0.8)| 65.3 (0.9) | 59.8 (0.9) Canada /7...............|62.0 (0.6)|63.0 (0.7)|60.9 (0.6)|21.3 (0.6)|32.0 (0.0)|37.3 (0.0)|86.7 (0.0)|91.8 (4.3)| 97.3 (1.3)|65.6 (0.6)|49.9 (0.6)|68.1 (0.7)|76.4 (0.6) |52.7 (0.7)| 65.1 (0.6)| 61.9 (0.7) | 58.9 (0.5) Scotland................|60.6 (0.9)|60.4 (1.0)|60.8 (1.1)|21.3 (0.8)|29.0 (2.8)|34.7 (0.0)|86.7 (0.0)|90.7 (0.0)| 96.0 (0.0)|59.7 (0.8)|51.0 (1.2)|69.6 (0.9)|79.1 (0.8) |52.8 (1.2)| 61.8 (0.9)| 59.2 (1.0) | 60.9 (0.9) Ireland.................|60.5 (0.9)|62.6 (1.2)|58.4 (1.1)|17.8 (1.3)|26.8 (1.7)|33.3 (2.0)|86.7 (0.0)|90.7 (0.0)| 96.0 (4.2)|65.1 (0.8)|49.4 (1.0)|59.9 (1.1)|71.8 (1.0) |55.6 (1.1)| 61.5 (0.8)| 62.0 (1.2) | 57.9 (0.8) Slovenia................|57.1 (0.8)|58.1 (0.8)|56.1 (1.0)|21.3 (0.0)|27.1 (3.9)|32.0 (0.1)|82.7 (0.2)|88.0 (2.6)| 94.7 (0.0)|62.2 (0.7)|43.1 (0.9)|63.1 (1.0)|63.6 (0.8) |51.8 (1.0)| 58.5 (0.7)| 59.0 (0.9) | 53.7 (0.8) Spain /8................|55.4 (0.8)|57.1 (1.1)|53.8 (0.8)|20.3 (1.6)|28.6 (0.5)|32.9 (2.0)|78.4 (0.8)|84.7 (1.3)| 91.9 (2.0)|60.1 (0.6)|37.9 (0.8)|60.0 (1.2)|67.7 (0.8) |52.5 (1.2)| 58.4 (0.7)| 55.8 (0.9) | 51.9 (0.8) United States...........|55.3 (1.0)|55.8 (1.1)|54.8 (1.3)|17.3 (3.8)|24.0 (0.6)|29.3 (0.0)|82.7 (1.3)|90.7 (0.1)| 97.3 (0.0)|61.0 (1.0)|39.5 (1.0)|54.3 (1.0)|72.2 (1.0) |49.2 (1.6)| 57.4 (0.9)| 56.0 (1.3) | 52.3 (1.0) Jordan..................|40.4 (1.0)|41.4 (1.2)|39.1 (1.9)|13.3 (0.0)|17.6 (1.2)|21.3 (1.5)|65.3 (3.1)|75.7 (3.3)| 89.3 (5.2)|42.8 (1.0)|32.0 (1.0)|43.5 (1.1)|45.7 (1.0) |38.1 (1.3)| 44.9 (0.9)| 38.5 (1.2) | 37.9 (1.0) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Populations | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | (with exclusions or | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | low participation) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | China /9................|80.2 (1.0)|81.7 (1.0)|78.5 (1.1)|37.0 (2.2)|49.3 (2.7)|57.3 (3.3)|96.0 (1.3)|98.7 (1.3)|100.0 (0.0)|84.9 (0.9)|71.3 (1.5)|80.2 (1.1)|75.4 (1.2) |82.4 (0.9)| 81.6 (1.0)| 83.0 (0.9) | 75.6 (1.2) England.................|60.6 (2.2)|60.8 (3.0)|60.4 (2.2)|18.7 (1.9)|27.4 (3.3)|34.5 (3.7)|89.3 (0.5)|93.3 (1.3)| 97.3 (1.0)|58.5 (2.0)|51.2 (2.5)|70.3 (2.4)|79.5 (1.8) |54.0 (2.8)| 62.0 (2.1)| 59.0 (2.6) | 60.8 (2.0) Italy /10...............|64.0 (0.9)|65.8 (1.1)|62.1 (0.9)|23.0 (1.3)|32.4 (0.9)|36.5 (1.5)|88.0 (0.0)|91.8 (0.5)| 96.0 (0.0)|63.8 (0.8)|62.8 (1.1)|75.3 (1.0)|71.7 (0.8) |52.6 (1.2)| 66.6 (0.8)| 62.1 (1.1) | 63.3 (0.9) Portugal................|48.3 (0.8)|48.9 (1.3)|47.9 (0.9)|17.3 (0.9)|23.9 (1.3)|28.0 (0.5)|74.7 (0.9)|80.6 (1.7)| 89.7 (2.6)|52.1 (0.8)|31.9 (0.7)|49.0 (1.3)|68.6 (1.0) |43.1 (1.1)| 51.5 (0.9)| 47.1 (1.0) | 46.4 (0.7) Brazil, Sao Paulo.......|37.0 (0.8)|37.9 (0.9)|36.2 (0.9)|10.3 (2.1)|16.7 (1.0)|18.7 (0.9)|62.7 (0.7)|70.7 (1.5)| 82.7 (0.7)|40.9 (0.8)|24.1 (0.5)|34.3 (1.5)|49.7 (1.0) |35.6 (1.1)| 38.5 (0.9)| 36.5 (1.1) | 36.0 (0.6) Brazil, Fortaleza.......|32.4 (0.6)|35.2 (0.9)|30.5 (0.6)|10.9 (0.4)|14.7 (0.6)|17.3 (0.3)|56.8 (2.1)|65.3 (0.6)| 80.8 (3.5)|35.8 (0.7)|20.5 (0.5)|28.6 (0.8)|43.8 (0.8) |32.3 (0.9)| 35.3 (0.7)| 30.8 (0.8) | 31.0 (0.5) Mozambique, Maputo, and | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Beira..................|28.3 (0.3)|28.8 (0.5)|27.8 (0.3)|11.5 (1.1)|16.2 (0.6)|18.7 (0.1)|44.6 (1.4)|50.0 (3.2)| 60.0 (2.2)|33.8 (0.4)|20.1 (0.3)|29.2 (0.5)|35.4 (0.6) |20.5 (0.5)| 34.0 (0.4)| 22.9 (0.4) | 28.2 (0.4) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Populations (Canadian) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Quebec-French...........|68.7 (0.7)|69.8 (1.0)|67.5 (0.8)|29.3 (1.4)|39.7 (1.8)|45.3 (2.8)|89.3 (0.0)|93.3 (0.0)| 96.4 (2.7)|72.3 (0.6)|56.4 (1.0)|78.1 (0.8)|81.1 (0.6) |58.4 (1.0)| 72.6 (0.7)| 68.0 (0.8) | 65.3 (0.8) Saskatchewan-French.....|67.5 (1.0)|68.8 (1.5)|66.3 (1.4)|32.0 (1.3)|36.0 (2.9)|46.5 (3.7)|87.8 (3.9)|90.7 (2.5)| 96.0 (1.3)|73.9 (1.0)|53.8 (1.3)|69.2 (1.3)|76.0 (1.2) |61.6 (1.4)| 70.1 (1.2)| 69.3 (1.0) | 62.9 (1.1) British Columbia........|66.2 (0.7)|66.8 (0.8)|65.4 (1.0)|25.3 (0.7)|35.6 (2.1)|41.3 (0.0)|90.7 (4.0)|94.7 (3.6)| 97.3 (1.3)|69.3 (0.7)|54.1 (0.9)|69.6 (0.9)|79.9 (0.7) |60.2 (0.8)| 68.5 (0.7)| 68.0 (0.8) | 61.8 (0.7) Quebec-English..........|65.7 (0.9)|65.7 (1.6)|65.7 (0.8)|23.0 (2.5)|33.8 (3.9)|41.3 (1.3)|90.7 (0.0)|94.7 (2.4)| 98.7 (0.0)|68.7 (0.9)|53.5 (1.1)|70.6 (1.0)|78.1 (1.0) |59.6 (1.1)| 68.3 (0.9)| 66.6 (1.0) | 61.9 (1.0) Alberta.................|64.0 (0.7)|64.5 (0.8)|63.4 (0.8)|23.5 (2.6)|33.3 (0.0)|38.7 (3.5)|88.0 (0.3)|92.0 (1.8)| 97.3 (0.0)|68.6 (0.7)|54.3 (0.9)|67.2 (0.8)|80.0 (0.7) |52.1 (0.9)| 68.3 (0.7)| 62.6 (0.8) | 61.0 (0.7) Manitoba-French.........|63.1 (0.6)|64.5 (1.1)|61.9 (0.8)|26.7 (2.7)|34.7 (2.4)|41.3 (0.0)|85.3 (0.0)|89.3 (0.0)| 94.7 (0.0)|67.1 (0.7)|48.5 (0.7)|66.6 (0.8)|75.0 (0.8) |58.5 (0.7)| 64.6 (0.7)| 66.0 (0.7) | 58.2 (0.6) Saskatchewan-English....|62.0 (0.7)|63.2 (0.9)|60.7 (1.0)|21.3 (1.3)|29.7 (4.5)|37.3 (5.8)|86.7 (3.8)|90.7 (0.0)| 96.0 (0.0)|66.1 (0.6)|49.6 (0.9)|62.9 (1.2)|78.3 (0.7) |54.6 (0.8)| 64.0 (0.7)| 64.4 (0.8) | 57.2 (0.7) New Brunswick-French....|60.6 (0.4)|60.5 (0.6)|60.7 (0.6)|20.3 (1.3)|30.2 (3.1)|36.0 (0.0)|85.1 (1.3)|89.3 (0.0)| 93.3 (0.0)|65.4 (0.5)|46.5 (0.5)|64.5 (0.5)|72.3 (0.5) |54.3 (0.4)| 63.7 (0.4)| 62.6 (0.4) | 55.3 (0.4) Nova Scotia.............|59.7 (0.6)|60.7 (0.9)|58.8 (0.8)|20.0 (0.0)|29.3 (1.2)|35.1 (1.5)|85.3 (0.0)|90.7 (0.0)| 97.3 (0.0)|62.9 (0.6)|47.3 (0.8)|63.7 (0.7)|73.9 (0.7) |53.5 (0.8)| 61.8 (0.6)| 60.2 (0.6) | 57.1 (0.6) Newfoundland............|58.9 (0.6)|57.8 (0.7)|59.9 (0.8)|18.7 (1.3)|29.3 (0.4)|34.7 (0.0)|84.0 (2.1)|88.0 (5.8)| 96.0 (2.7)|61.9 (0.6)|45.1 (0.7)|65.1 (0.9)|72.4 (0.7) |52.7 (0.6)| 61.8 (0.7)| 60.3 (0.7) | 54.3 (0.6) Ontario-English.........|58.3 (0.8)|59.3 (1.0)|57.4 (0.9)|20.0 (1.2)|29.3 (0.0)|34.7 (0.0)|84.0 (2.0)|89.3 (1.3)| 96.0 (1.3)|61.8 (0.8)|46.2 (0.9)|63.4 (1.0)|73.6 (0.8) |49.5 (1.0)| 60.8 (0.8)| 58.5 (0.9) | 55.5 (0.8) Manitoba-English........|58.0 (0.8)|58.0 (0.9)|57.9 (1.0)|20.0 (1.7)|28.0 (2.7)|33.3 (4.2)|82.7 (0.0)|86.7 (0.0)| 96.0 (3.5)|62.5 (0.7)|45.6 (0.9)|58.4 (0.9)|73.6 (0.9) |50.8 (1.0)| 60.5 (0.8)| 58.8 (0.9) | 54.4 (0.7) New Brunswick-English...|57.7 (0.5)|58.3 (0.7)|57.1 (0.7)|20.0 (0.0)|27.5 (1.6)|33.3 (0.0)|82.7 (0.0)|89.3 (2.0)| 96.0 (0.0)|62.4 (0.5)|51.3 (0.6)|62.4 (0.6)|71.0 (0.6) |43.2 (0.6)| 61.4 (0.5)| 55.4 (0.6) | 56.4 (0.5) Ontario-French..........|53.5 (0.6)|53.5 (0.8)|53.5 (0.8)|18.7 (0.2)|25.3 (1.1)|32.0 (0.0)|76.0 (3.0)|82.7 (0.0)| 92.0 (2.3)|58.0 (0.6)|38.8 (0.7)|59.0 (1.0)|69.0 (0.7) |44.7 (0.9)| 56.6 (0.7)| 54.1 (0.8) | 49.6 (0.6) ________________________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|___________|__________|__________|__________|___________|__________|___________|____________|___________ 1/ Conceptual understanding questions analyzed students' abilities in understanding of mathematical facts and concepts. 2/ Procedural knowledge tasks required students to apply knowledge and concepts in solving routine problems using procedures taught in the classroom. 3/ Problem solving questions required the student to apply several skills to a unique situation. These tasks usually involved multiple steps. 4/ Fifteen cantons. 5/ Schools in 14 republics, where instruction is in Russian. 6/ Schools where instruction is in Hebrew. 7/ Nine provinces. 8/ Schools where instruction is in Spanish, in all regions except Cataluna. 9/ Twenty provinces and independent cities. 10/ Emilia-Romagna province only. ---Data not available. NOTE.--Standard errors appear in parentheses. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, International Assessment of Educational Progress, "Learning Mathematics," by Educational Testing Service. (This table was prepared February 1992.)