`"The Einstein Hoax"`

`"The Einstein Hoax" is intended for those who have been suspicious of
the premise that reality is so subtle that it can only be understood in terms of
sophisticated abstract mathematics to which only the elite were privy. The understanding
of reality in concrete terms was presented as being beyond the capability of intelligent
individuals. Instead, reality turns out to be readily understandable in terms of common
sense reasoning once the smoke and mirrors of mathematical obfuscation and the
mathematical and logical errors associated with Special and General Relativity have been
removed. All that is required in reading this text is a good understanding of
undergraduate level physics and a passing familiarity with the meaning of elementary
calculus. The Alice in Wonderland reality of Black Holes, Singularities, Wormholes,
Superstrings, etc. vanishes and, by reverse engineering, the nature, construction, origin
and fate of our Universe becomes rather obvious. (As the cycles and epicycles of
pre-Copernican astronomical theory demonstrate, General Relativity and the Superstring
concept show that any theory can be made to agree with observation if one adds enough
superfluous degrees of freedom).`

`In attempting to understand the phenomena associated with Spexial and General
Relativity one must of necessity rely upon information provided by experts and make a
judgement as to whether the experts are providing valid information. Over a lifetime of
integrating the work of high techology experts into useful product designs, the writer has
recognized that a reliable means of evaluating their expertise exists, to wit:-`

`A:- Over time, the expert will ocassionally discuss some of item of information of
which the listener's expertise overlaps that of the expert. If the expert has the subject
wrong, he is not an espert, he is a charlatan pretending to be an expert.`

`B:- When someone is expert in a field, he will be able to adequately explain the
workings of his field in terms which are understandable to an intelligent layman. There is
only one possible reason why he would be unable to do so, he doesn't actually understand
his field. When one corrects two minor errors which still exist in the mathematics of
Special Relativity, as is done rigorously in "Corrections to Special Relativity"
and derives the properties of the gravitational field in a rigorous manner, as is done in
"Gravity", all sorts of wonderful and completely unexpected results are obtained
in terms which are completely consistent with common sense. These results include the
location of kinetic energy, the nature of mass, the reason for the relativistic effects of
velocity, the source of gravitational energy, the mechanics of the apparent "Big
Bang" origin of the Universe and its subsequent expansion, and even the nature of
matter and the source of the forces between particles. The likelihood of the results which
are provided being wrong are vanishingly small. Unlike the mathematical reasoning
typically used by theoretical physicists, which has the unfortunate characteristic that
the probability of error increases with the number of steps, the probability of error when
common sense methods are applied in a disciplined and self consistent manner decreases as
the number of steps and factors involved increases. It is impossible to complete a jigsaw
puzzle incorrectly.`

`In your reading of the material presented, the author asks you not to take his
word or the word of anyone else for anything. Instead, he asks that you check the material
presented with your own knowledge, intelligence, and common sense. The only background
required is an understanding of College Level Freshman Physics and a familiarity with the
principles of Elementary Calculus. Please do not accept the fiction that the subject
matter can only be understood by highly educated individuals in terms of abstract
mathematics. When an expert cannot make himself understood by an intelligent and motivated
layman, it invariably means that the expert does not understand his subject! The author
hopes that the material presented passes this test. He can only guarantee, however, that
he has done his homework and that the material presented has been developed with extreme
care.`

`Summary of "The Einstein Hoax"`

`Chapter Titles`

`1.- Introduction`

2.- Historical Background

3.- The Nature of the Einstein Hoax

4.- Does the Aether Exist?

5.- The Resurrection of Absolute Velocity by Quantum Experiments

6.- The Nature of Reality

7.- Applying the Lorentz Transformations Properly

8.- Generating the Gravity Transformations

9.- Dr. Einstein's Error and the Introduction of Curved Space

10.- Gravitational Contraction and Collapse

11.- Gravitational Collapse and the Creation of a Universe

12.- The Space Time Continuum

13.- The Nature of Particles

14.- Adding Quantum Effects to Our Understanding

15.- Changing the Paradigms

16.- What Can We Conclude?

`There are 57,000 words and 53 illustrations.`

`Summary:-`

`In the 19th Century, it was considered axiomatic that all of Nature was the result
of the action of various mechanisms, mechanical, electromagnetic, and perhaps others which
were yet to be recognized. Lord Raleigh was reported to have asserted that there was no
phenomena in Nature for which a model could not be built. It was considered the physicists
job to employ an iterative process which consisted of constructing that model, analyzing
its behavior using appropriate mathematical techniques, and verifying the validity of the
model and the mathematics by experimentation. Under that philosophy, 19th century
physicists had concluded that light was a transverse vibration propagating through a rigid
medium named the Aether. However, when attempts were made to measure the effect on the
observed velocity of light resulting from the variation in the velocity of the Earth in
its orbit, the experiments yielded a null result.`

`By 1903, the recognition by Fitzgerald that matter contracts in the direction of
the velocity vector, the recognition by Larmor that clocks ran slower as a result of
velocity, and the derivation by Lorentz of the Lorentz Contraction for Mass (based on
Thomson's derivation of E=MC^2 in 1888), led to the Lorentz Contraction-Aether (Aether
Relativity) Theory. This theory resolved the dilemma. It demonstrated that all attempts to
measure our velocity with respect to the Aether by conventional means would yield a null
result. The reasons for the null result became intuitively understandable once quantum
physicists had demonstrated that the forces between particles were electromagnetic in
nature. At the time, the only apparent weakness of Aether Relativity was that it did not
explain the effects of velocity on electric and magnetic phenomena. When 19th Century
Dimensional Analysis is used to derive Lorentz Transformations for those effects, the
apparent defect in the Aether Theory disappears, and it is found to satisfy the criteria
demanded by 19th Century science.`

`Two years later, in 1905, an obscure patent clerk possessing a Ph.D. in physics,
apparently sensing an opportunity represented by the then apparent inability of the Aether
Relativity Theory to explain electromagnetic phenomena, published the Special Theory of
Relativity. In deriving this theory he applied mathematical techniques to Poincare's
Principle of Relativity. Upon examination, Special Relativity is found to be identical to
the Aether Relativity Theory with the conceptual restraint imposed by a preferred velocity
reference frame (the Aether) removed. Since, under both theories, an observer could not
measure his velocity with respect to that preferred reference frame by techniques known at
the time, the academic community asserted that the concept of the Aether was meaningless.
They then took the unscientific step of demanding that the Aether concept was not to be
used as a basis for further work in the physical sciences even though its usage could
produce no adverse effect. (To his credit, Dr. Einstein warned that it had not been proven
that the Aether didn't exist, it had only been proven that it wasn't needed in physical
theories.) It should be noted that, unlike the Aether Relativity Theory, Special
Relativity Theory did not resolve the alleged electromagnetic limitations of the Aether
Relativity Theory, it arbitrarily defined them as non-existent!`

`While the Aether Relativity Theory was consistent with common sense and allowed
Lord Raleigh's model to be constructed, the resulting interpretations of the Special
Theory of Relativity contradicted that common sense and made it impossible to construct an
equivalent model. To individuals with a strong sense of reality, Special Relativity lead
to unanswerable questions. (e.g.- If light consists of particles traveling ballistically
through empty space rather than vibrations traveling though a medium [the Aether], how
does it manage to maintain a velocity which is independent of the velocity of its source
without relying upon some form of magic?- Chapter 4). Instead of recognizing such
questions as problems inherent in Special Relativity, relativists responded with
assertions that they were indicative of the brilliance of Dr. Einstein's work and the
questioner should not feel bad about them because there were only a few minds in the world
capable of understanding that work. This was probably true, but not because of Dr.
Einstein's brilliance, it was because Special Relativity only worked if one avoided asking
embarrassing questions. Over the years, if any student working towards an advanced degree
in physics persisted in asking the questions asked in Chapter 4, he would have been
dismissed as not having the mental capacity to understand the subject matter. Recently,
however, the situation has changed. High altitude observations of the radiation background
of space have shown that an absolute velocity reference (the Aether) must exist.
Furthermore, experiments in quantum physics have shown how our velocity with respect to
that velocity reference could be measured. The fact that such measurements are possible
demonstrates that Special Relativity's interpretation of reality is deficient. The Aether
Relativity Theory, on the other hand, provides the same mathematical predictions as
Special Relativity in a manner which is consistent with the requirements of a Raleigh type
of model.`

`Since Aether Relativity was provided two years before Special Relativity, one must
ask the question as to why Dr. Einstein's work was considered to be more than a refinement
of existing theory rather than a profound new insight. The answer would seem to lie in the
political goals of the scientific community. Dr. Einstein achieved his results through a
mathematical derivation rather than through the physical insight employed by Fitzgerald.
Mathematics has a property not possessed by insightful reasoning. Mathematics can be
taught by rote and, since almost anyone can learn by rote without actually having to
understand the subject matter, the cadre of physical scientists could be readily expanded.
It appeared that progress could be made by combining mathematics with experiment without
the need for generating a conceptual model of the phenomena under study. It became vital,
therefore to suppress the Aether Relativity concept so that the fiction that the
combination of mathematics and experiment were sufficient to achieve progress could be
established and maintained.`

`Spurred on by his success with Special Relativity, Dr. Einstein went on to derive
General Relativity by combining the Principle of Equivalence (between inertial and
gravitational masses) and the Principle of Relativity. Without the inherent safety net
which would have been provided by the inclusion of a Raleigh type of model, Dr. Einstein's
failed to recognize that the physical significance of the relativity phenomena prohibited
the use of Tensor Calculus for such a purpose and used that technique to derive his new
theory. He struggled for about 18 months before revising his approach. Instead of
eliminating the mathematical error implicit in his use of Tensor Calculus, he added
another degree of freedom by using the incomplete geometry of Riemann and allowing space
to be curved. (This geometry lacks the requirement that parallel lines never meet and as
such is a subset of conventional Euclidian geometry. A typical example is the two
dimensional non-Euclidian geometry of the surface of the three dimensional Earth.) There
was enough truth in his results to allow him to predict the effects of the Sun's field on
the precession of Mercury's orbit, the bending of the path of light, and the slowing of
clocks. The observations which supposedly verified General Relativity were, and still are,
about a million times too crude to reveal its residual errors. As a gravitational theory,
General Relativity is a failure. It cannot account for the force which holds you to your
chair or the energy which gravity will apply to you if you fall. (If one falls out of a
window, he couldn't care less about the precession of Mercury's orbit, he cares about the
results of the force of gravity.) Even though Dr. Einstein was reported to have been
uneasy about the extension of General Relativity to extremely strong fields, that
extension has been made to include gravitational collapse and has led to the concepts of
Black Holes, Singularities, Wormholes, etc. The existence of these conclusions should have
caused a reexamination of the basic theory instead of blind acceptance.`

`"The Einstein Hoax" does not require the possession of advanced degrees
for its understanding. Freshman (or even high school) physics and an understanding of the
nature of elementary calculus (skill is not needed) is all that is required. The text
removes the mystery behind Special Relativity by demonstrating the how and why of the
effects involved and shows that experiments already conducted by quantum physicists have
proven not only that the Aether is real but that our absolute velocity through space is
readily measurable. It is Aether Relativity which represents reality. The text then
continues and develops gravitational transformations equivalent to the Lorentz
Transformations which allow the reader to visualize what the gravitational field is all
about; the source of its energy; a demonstration that the idea of curved space is merely
an artifice introduced by Dr. Einstein's to partially overcome his error in using Tensor
Calculus; and the source of the pressure which causes the gravitational collapse of an
object to cease before it becomes a Black Hole. As an unexpected bonus, these
gravitational transformations show how our Universe was created; lead to the observed
cosmology; show that the expansion of our Universe will continue forever; and demonstrate
that every object which undergoes gravitational collapse eventually becomes another
universe as rich as our own. The nature of space and time is discussed followed by a
description of the nature of matter and the manner in which Planck's Constant insures that
the three quarks which constitute a nucleon are fundamental and contain no smaller
structure. (The zoo of high energy particles created by particle accelerator experiments
are temporary products produced by the kinetic energy of the collision and quickly decay
into normal matter and energy. Other than providing an insight into the nature of the
Aether, the author suspects they have no significance.) The previously written texts,
"Gravity" and "Corrections to Special Relativty", are rigorous
derivations of the material presented in "The Einstein Hoax" are presented as a
backup. As is the case with "The Einstein Hoax", these texts are written for
those having an undergraduate understanding of Physics and Elementary Calculus, but their
rigor does require more patience.`

`The author accepts the possibility that the concepts presented may be wrong,
however he finds it extremely difficult to accept that they are as defective as the
concepts which are presently held. The material presented not only passes the tests of
experiment and mathematical verification, it passes the test of Lord Raleigh that it is in
accordance with a single self-consistent model. The fact that the material presented
passes the Raleigh test provides the author with a great deal of confidence. Unlike a
mathematical solution in which the probability of error increases with the number of
steps, the probability of error in a Raleigh Model decreases with its complexity.
REMEMBER, IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO COMPLETE A JIGSAW PUZZLE INCORRECTLY.`

`The Website contains two additional texts, "Gravity", which provides a
rigorous derivation of the properties of the gravitational field, and "Corrections to
Residual Errors in Special Relativity"`

`III:- Summary of "Gravity"`

`Chapter Titles`

`1:- Introduction`

2:- Laying the Groundwork

3:- Evaluating the Gravitational Conversion Factors

4:- Comparison with the "Real World"

5:- The Complete Gravitational Field

`There are 50,000 words and 22 diagrams.`

`Being dissatisfied with the published treatments of the gravitational phenomena
and recognizing that gravity was a relativistic phenomena, the author began decades ago to
study the subject carefully. It seemed obvious to him that the phenomena described by the
Lorentz Transformations of Special Relativity and the time dilation of General Relativity
described effects in which the measuring instruments by which observations were being made
were probably being altered by the phenomena being investigated. To deal with this
possibility and determine what was actually occurring (as would be observed by
"godlike" instruments which were unchanged), the author elected to use the
techniques of Dimensional Analysis.`

`Investigation of the treatment of gravitation provided by General Relativity
reveals several basic defects:-`

`1:- The time dilation expression it provides is not multiplicatively commutative
and therefore is in conflict with one of its basic postulates, the Principle of
Relativity. As a result, the predictions made by General Relativity must be grossly in
error in strong fields such as exist around neutron stars. This error is undetectable
within the extremely weak field of the Solar System. As currently stated, the time
dilation expression for the gravitational field would cause the laws of physics to change
as a function of elevation.`

`2:- The curved space predicted by General Relativity would allow a perpetual
motion machine of the first kind to be constructed in principle.`

`3:- General Relativity leads to a singularity at its end limit.`

`4:- General Relativity fails to account for the energy of fall and concludes that
the gravitational field is able to 'create' energy.`

`5:- General Relativity leads to conclusions which are in conflict with its other
basic postulate, the Principle of Equivalence.`

`These deficiencies do not result from a failure of the Principles of Relativity
and of Equivalence in combination. They result from a misapplication both of the Principle
of Equivalence and of the Tensor Calculus used in the derivation of General Relativity.
When the misapplication of the Principle of Equivalence is corrected and the use of Tensor
Calculus is avoided, the combination of the Principle of Equivalence and the Principle of
Relativity is found to yield the same results as derived in the approach taken in this
discussion.`

`By combining the Principle of Relativity with Dimensional Analysis, a treatment of
the gravitational field has been developed which is both internally consistent and which
is consistent with the results of all observations and with all currently accepted
'physical laws'. Unlike General Relativity, the concepts presented meet the following
criteria:`

`1:- Consistent with all accepted physical laws. 2:- Consistent with all
observations. 3:- All dilations are multiplicatively commutative in agreement with the
Principle of Relativity. 4:- Source of gravitational energy is revealed, an obvious
failure of General Relativity.. 5:- Energy is conserved in the absolute sense, another
obvious failure of General Relativity. 6:- Gravitational collapse is self limiting. 7:-
Conclusions suggest observed cosmology. 8:- Conclusions are compatible with both the
Principle of Relativity and the Principle of Equivalence.`

`Summary of "Corrections to Special Relativity"`

`Section Titles`

`1:- Introduction.`

2:- Section 2 - Groundwork of Discussion.

3:- A Comparison of the Velocity Difference Between Velocity Reference Frames 'B' and 'C'
as Observed in Reference Frame 'B' and as Observed in Reference Frame 'A'.

4:- Determination of the Lorentz Transformation for Incremental Mass and for Force Between
Reference Frames Having Relative Velocity.

5:- The Balance of Moments Applied to a Right Angle Lever in Velocity Reference Frame 'B'
Moving with Velocity, V, with Respect to Velocity Reference Frame 'A' as Observed in
Reverence Frames 'A' and 'B'.

6:- The Conventional and Revised Lorentz Transformations for Transverse Force as Related
to the Right Angle Lever Thought Experiment.

7:- The Lorentz Transformation for Parallel and Transverse force as Related to a
Compressed Spring Thought Experiment.

`This paper derives the Lorentz Transformations for force parallel to and
transverse to the relative velocity vector between velocity reference frames. In the
process it demonstrates that both the accepted Lorentz Transformation for Force in the
transverse direction and the current interpretation of the Right Angle Lever Thought
Experiment, as described in many texts, are incorrect. A final result is the determination
of the manner in which the kinetic energy associated with a moving object (particle) is
stored. Finally. it is shown that the reason it is considered that Special Relativity is
not valid for accelerated reference frames is that it defines mass in different terms than
those commonly used in mechanics. The difficulty with acceleration in Special Relativity
vanishes when the non-relativistic definition of mass is used, namely that inertial mass
is the incremental impulse required to produce an incremental change in velocity.`

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