Neanderthals, Modern Humans Coexisted, Likely Cohabited
It appears that Neanderthals coexisted with early modern humans in central Europe for
thousands of years -- and very likely mated with them -- according to new radiocarbon
dating by an international team of scientists. They documented the fact that Neanderthals
roamed central Europe as recently as 28,000 years ago, the latest date ever recorded for
Neanderthal fossils worldwide.
The announcement was made jointly today by Washington University in St. Louis and Northern
The team's findings -- published in today's issue of the Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences -- may force other scientists to rethink theories of Neanderthal
extinction, intelligence -- and contributions to the human gene pool.
The research on Neanderthal fossils from the Vindija cave site in Croatia also casts doubt
on the theory that the Iberian Peninsula was the Neanderthals' last stand.
"Most scientists would have expected to find the latest Neanderthal in southwest
Europe rather than in central Europe," said paleontologist Fred H. Smith, a research
team member and chairman of the Anthropology Department at Northern Illinois University.
"The new radiocarbon dates suggest Neanderthals would have coexisted with early
modern humans in central Europe for several millennia."
"The extinction of the Neanderthals by early modern humans, whether by displacement
or population absorption, was a slow and geographically mosaic process," said team
member Erik Trinkaus, an anthropologist at Washington University in St. Louis. "The
differences between the two groups in basic behavior and abilities must have been small
and rather subtle."
Using direct accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating, team member Paul Pettitt
and colleagues at Oxford University in England determined that two pieces of Neanderthal
skulls from the Vindija cave site are between 28,000 and 29,000 years old. These new
Croatian dates refute previous evidence indicating central European Neanderthals had
disappeared as early as 34,000 years ago.
Neanderthals are commonly portrayed as prehistoric humans of limited capabilities who were
rapidly replaced and driven to extinction by superior early modern humans, once the modern
humans appeared in Europe.
Scientists surmised that modern humans from the Near East moved first into central Europe
and then into western Europe, pushing Neanderthals into the Iberian Peninsula, at the
extreme southwest portion of the continent, where the Neanderthals died off about 30,000
Coupled with his earlier work at Vindija, Smith said the new radiocarbon dates call into
question this pattern of Neanderthal migration and extinction. In his earlier work, Smith
also argued that late Neanderthal fossils from the cave site had some modern human
The Croatian dates indicating thousands of years of coexistence between Neanderthals and
early modern humans in central Europe forces a new interpretation of a study in which
scientists compared the DNA of a Neanderthal with the DNA of contemporary humans.
Published two years ago, the study concluded that, while Neanderthals and early modern
humans may have coexisted in Europe, they probably didn't mate.
"The new dates, in my opinion, add some support to the idea that there was probably a
good deal of genetic exchange between Neanderthals and modern humans," Smith said.
"When you look at the anatomy of early modern Europeans, you also find a number of
features that are hard to explain unless you allow the Neanderthals some ancestral status.
And actually, the Neanderthal mitochondrial DNA is not completely out of the modern human
range, just on its extreme periphery."
The finding in Portugal last year of a 24,500-year-old early modern human child with
distinctive Neanderthal characteristics, published by Trinkaus and European colleagues in
June 1999, strongly supports the conclusion that Neanderthals and early modern humans both
could and did share mates when they came into contact.
"Not only do we have the skeleton of a child in Portugal showing characteristics of
common descent, but now we have evidence of the two groups coinciding in central Europe
for several millennia, allowing plenty of time for the populations to mix," said
Trinkaus, a Washington University professor of anthropology in Arts and Sciences.
The new Croatian findings also raise the question of who created the ancient tools
unearthed at the Vindija cave site, located about 34 miles north of the Croatian capital
of Zagreb. Neanderthals are commonly associated with relatively crude stone tools, while
early modern humans made more sophisticated stone and bone tools.
The Vindija site produced both kinds of tools, including a beveled bone probably used as
the tip of a spear. "The big question is: 'Why do we have a combination of
tools?'" Smith said.
"It's possible Neanderthals developed all these tools or got the bone tools through
trade with moderns," he added. Both of these possibilities run counter to the
generally accepted idea that Neanderthals could not produce bone or use more sophisticated
stone and bone tools.
Smith and Trinkaus conceived of the research project, secured permission for dating of
fossils and assembled the research team. Other team members are Ivor Karavanic at the
University of Zagreb and Maja Paunovic of the Croatian Academy of Sciences.
[Contact: Fred H. Smith, Erik Trinkaus, Paul Pettitt, Ivor Karavanic]