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See replies below in blue:

 

-----Original Message-----
From: Flack Flack [mailto:fa2a38@hotmail.com]
Sent: Monday, May 11, 2009 9:37 PM
To: jk@israeliteidentity.com
Subject: RE: the facts

 

 

Again, I see no facts.

In regards to the education debate.

Here was my reply:

"���� South Korea has an awesome "high school" graduation rate of 97% but you fail to mention that ONLY 60% of South Korean children go to high school.You also fail to mention that high school isn't mandated by the state, like it is here in the States.The fact that only 60% of children in South Korea go to High School would be like the United States having a drop out rate of 40% for kids age 13 and older.�� In 2003 The United States had a high school graduation rate of 85%.

 

 

My direct observation from having BEEN *taught* in Korean schools, and having TAUGHT in Korean schools, is that your statement would only be partially correct if you�d said that most Korean students never entered a PUBLIC school.The fact is that education is taken much more seriously in Korea than it is amongst you niggers, so the state doesn�t HAVE to step in to force parents to educate their children. What PISA showed is that the HIGHEST SCORING students NEVER went to a public school in Korea, AND constitute more than 52% of all Korean high school students:

 

http://pisa2000.acer.edu.au/interactive_results.php

 

As for your LIE about Germany... it's just that, a lie.Susan Von Below's report - Bildungssysteme und soziale Ungleichheit: Das Beispiel der neuen Bundesl�nder shows that only 14.5% of German Students are A levels.With that seeing how Calculus isn't even a requirement for all A levels students, your LIE about 65% of German students finishing calc is just that... another lie.

 

You�re mixing metaphors.Hedrick Smith in "Rethinking America", July 15, 1995, points out that 6% of U.S. and 40% of German and 94% of Japanese students study calculus in high school.But that is a LOW figure for Germany, as calculus is PART of the German high school curriculum, which is WHY I FINISHED calculus in high school BEFORE coming back to the US where calculus wasn�t even offered [in a WHITE school in the Washington, DC, area].

As far as the students in the United States are concerned, here are some interesting statistics and insight from the Mathematics Association of America:

The same pressures that are pushing Calculus I into the high school curriculum are doing the same for Calculus II. Traditionally, it was a very elite group of students who took BC Calculus, covering the entire two-semester college syllabus. That group of students also grew by 6�8% per year until the mid-1990s. Over the period 1995�98, the rate of growth of BC calculus accelerated to 10�11% per year, a rate that has held up since then. In 2004, the number of students taking the BC Calculus exam exceeded 50,000. It will likely exceed 60,000 by 2005�06, the year of the next CBMS survey.

In 2002, 23% of the students who took BC Calculus did so before their senior year [7]. These high school students are not necessarily well served by taking classes in linear algebra, several variable calculus, or differential equations at a local college. Picking up additional college credits is far less useful for them than deepening and broadening the mathematics they already think they know. These students need to be challenged, but they also need to be prepared for and enticed into a deep study of further mathematics in the company of their peers.

John Knight, you sir are a lair and a horrible one at that."

 

 

What they call �BC Calculus� is PRECISELY the calculus taken by THE MAJORITY of high school students all the way from Germany to Japan to Korea to China.

 

According to the NCES, between 1982 and 1994, the percent of Americans in public schools taking calculus increased from 3.7 to 8.8% [compared to 12% to 14.4% for private high school students]:

 

http://fathersmanifesto.net/catholic.htm

 

If YOUR unidentified source is correct, and if ONLY 60,000 American high school students took calculus in 2006-06, then LESS than one half of one percent [0.42% to be precise] of America�s 14,405,001 high school students now take calculus, FAR less than the 6% I quoted from Hedrick Smith�s article.

In regards to my poor spelling and education:

eh, the misspelling of pagan I'm going to assume it was a brain fart on my part.I will state though that you show a lack of deductive reasoning skills on your part.I still didn't see you refute my claim that Christianity is founded on Sun worship, a pagan practice.I have a private school education funded by my parents, no tax payer dollars here.

 

 

Congratulations.You might be the most literate nigger around.Which is proof positive that niggers are uneducable.

 

In regards to you living with a pedophile that rapes kids under the age of 14:

The guys name is Robert Emmett Henry, Your DNS results for the Christianparty.net site showed that you had a matching address on the California sex offender list at one point.It's probably your father and it looks like he's in some type of rest home now.1428 S MARENGO AVE # 64

ALHAMBRA, CA 91803, it looks like some rest home to me on Google's street view. Did your dad rape your little sister or something and that's why you have so much anger and hatred in you towards women?I wonder when Robert Emmett Henry dies, is he's going to your fictional heaven or if your fictional God is going to send him to your fictional hell. You know.... for raping little kids. I think he's going to Fictional hell.He's pretty old too so he'll probably die soon, the World will be a better place without his kind here.

 

 

Your �research� and �reasoning� here is even more faulty, even more IDIOTIC, than your claim that you �refuted� my statement that only 6% of American high school students take calculus [read: proved that I�m a �liar�], by citing a source which claims that less than 0.5% do!I trust NONE of your cites, but must admit that the figure of 0.5% is much closer to the reality of our current state of �education� than Hedrick Smith�s figure of 6% and the NCES 1994 figure of 8.8%.

 

Your inability to grasp that simple concept is noted, and made a part of the public record for all to see and witness:

 

http://fathersmanifesto.net/calculus.htm

 

John Knight

 

________________________________

> From: jk@israeliteidentity.com

> To: fa2a38@hotmail.com

> Subject: RE: the facts

> Date: Mon, 11 May 2009 09:56:14 -0700

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> <<< Ok then,

> what "Facts" do you have that "your" God exist? I'll

> even help you out... you have NONE!>>>

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Again,

> it�s NONE of your business. The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob does NOT

> concern you, as you are a mamzer who we are to PROHIBIT from His congregation,

> not to mention a heathen:

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> A mamzer [mongrel] shall not enter into the congregation of the

> LORD; even to his tenth generation shall he not enter into the congregation of

> the LORD, Deuteronomy 23:2

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> �Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for

> what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness?" 2 Corinthians

> 6:14

> 

> 

> 

> "Now we command you, brethren, on the name of our Lord

> Jesus Christ, that ye withdraw yourselves from every brother that walketh

> disorderly, and not after the tradition which he received of us", 2

> Thessalonians 3:6

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Very,

> very clear, right?

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> <<> when I called you out and handed you your ass on the education debate, that you

> ignored when I confronted you with facts and corrected your lies. I'm handing

> you your ass on this one as well.>>>

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> You

> need to post it again, because I�ve never even heard of such a thing.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> <<> many logical fallacies about it that only idiots can concive it to

> be truth. The iorny of a "Christian" calling someone

> a pegan is laughable. Christianity was created on Sun worship, a pegan

> practice.>>>

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Listening

> to a pagan like you, who benefitted from WHITE TAXPAYERS like me funding your �education�,

> and STILL not even being able to SPELL, or form a complete sentence, much less

> critique Scripture, is about like going to my latrino mechanic for a heart

> operation [which he may be able to do better than the jew �doctors� around

> these days, but still you get the point]?

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> <<> Emmery Smith or whatever?>>>

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> I�ve never even heard of such a person. And why on EARTH would

> I live with a �sex offender�? And where on EARTH do you niggers get the idea

> that you prove how �smart� you are by making LIES up out of whole cloth,

> calling it a �truth�, then whining when we bust your sorry .ss?

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> John Knight

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: Flack Flack

> [mailto:fa2a38@hotmail.com]

> 

> Sent: Monday, May 11, 2009 7:52 AM

> 

> To: jk@israeliteidentity.com

> 

> Subject: RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Ok

> then, what "Facts" do you have that "your" God

> exist? I'll even help you out... you have NONE! Just like you didn't

> answer me when I called you out and handed you your ass on the education debate,

> that you ignored when I confronted you with facts and corrected your lies. I'm

> handing you your ass on this one as well. Your book of fairy tails has so

> many logical fallacies about it that only idiots can concive it to

> be truth. The iorny of a "Christian" calling someone

> a pegan is laughable. Christianity was created on Sun worship, a pegan

> practice.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> By the way are you still living with that sex offender Robert Emmery Smith or

> whatever?

> 

> 

> 

> 

> ________________________________

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: jk@israeliteidentity.com

> 

> To: fa2a38@hotmail.com

> 

> Subject: RE: the facts

> 

> Date: Sun, 10 May 2009 17:31:09 -0700

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> <<< Where are the

> "Facts" that there is a God. There aren't any!>>>

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Of course not. You niggers have no god. You are

> godless pagans and always will be no matter how much Christians try to explain

> it to you.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob is the God of ONLY the

> House of ISRAEL and House of Judah [who are NOT jews, as jews CLAIM to be

> godless Edomites].

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> He is also NOT the God of many pure Israelite descendants of

> Jacob which people like Catholics MIGHT be, because HE rejected them millennia

> ago.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> You�re absolutely right. You have no god. Just like

> all the cities and buildings and roads and bridges you see around you, it was

> us honkies who built the stars and the planets and Earth and the continents,

> and we just blamed it on Him.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> http://fathersmanifesto.net/pagans.htm

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> John Knight

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: Flack Flack

> [mailto:fa2a38@hotmail.com]

> 

> Sent: Sunday, May 10, 2009 3:39 PM

> 

> To: jk@israeliteidentity.com

> 

> Subject: RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> ________________________________

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Where are the "Facts" that there is a God. There aren't any!

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: jk@israeliteidentity.com

> 

> To: ji@christianparty.net

> 

> Subject: RE: the facts

> 

> Date: Sun, 10 May 2009 10:06:12 -0700

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> <<< Exactly. Have

> you noticed how Teri completely IGNORES the fact that he and his idol knight

> have repeatedly demanded that women be STONED to DEATH????>>>

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To simply QUOTE the Word of God is not to DEMAND something, you

> pagan *idiot*.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> It�s YOU, not US, who reject the Word of God, and we�ve gained

> NOTHING and lost MUCH by even entertaining your pagan misery, particularly when

> it comes to embracing niggers!!:

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> http://fathersmanifesto.net/executions.htm

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> John Knight

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From:

> israeliteidentity@yahoogroups.com [mailto:israeliteidentity@yahoogroups.com] On

> Behalf Of JPB

> 

> Sent: Monday, May 04, 2009 12:14 AM

> 

> To: israeliteidentity@yahoogroups.com

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Exactly. Have you noticed how

> Teri completely IGNORES the fact that he and his idol knight have repeatedly

> demanded that women be STONED to DEATH????

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> [http://gfx1.hotmail.com/mail/w3/ltr/i_safe.gif]

> 

> 

> 

> 

> -------Original Message-------

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: Viva Veridad

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Date: 4/30/2009 6:30:16 AM

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To: israeliteidentity@yahoogroups.com

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Yes,

> Terry will say that the 13-year old, who knew the penalty for adultery, was

> "asking for it."

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Terry

> is a dangerously stupid man to be let loose on society.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> He

> was in the forces, Joseph, in other people's countries. God only knows

> what terror he inflicted on those he looks down on and denigrates. He

> is the type of soldier that brings shame to their own nation.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> ________________________________

> 

> 

> 

> From: isaiah14

> 

> 

> To: israeliteidentity@yahoogroups.com

> 

> Sent: Thursday, April 30, 2009 8:30:00 AM

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> You are so stupid. This was in a black nation where

> witchcraft abounds. This is what roman catholics do stupid.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> -------Original Message----- --

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: JPB

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Date: 4/30/2009 1:13:41 AM

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To: israeliteidentity@ yahoogroups. com

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> And

> here is exactly where their type of insanity ultimately leads - did you

> read this story? Teri will undoubtedly say this girl was 'begging'

> for it, right, Teri?

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> NOVEMBER

> 1, 2008 4:30PM

> 

> 

> 13 Year Old Girl

> Confirmed Dead

> 

> 

> 

> [Tip!]

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Kicking

> and screaming in terror, the girl was carried into the stadium. 1,000

> onlookers watched as her hands and legs were forcefully bound.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> When

> anguished family members broke from the crowd and ran towards her, the

> militia opened fire. A small boy was killed.

> 

> 13 year old Aisha

> Ibrahim Duhulow was buried up to her neck and a cape was placed over her

> head, leaving only her face exposed. 50 men hurled stones at her face from

> the truckload unloaded earlier that day.

> 

> Her crime was being raped

> by 3 men. When she reported the rape to the militia who control

> Kismayo, Somalia, she was charged with fornication (adultery) and sentenced

> to death by stoning. At 13.

> 

> Her father told Amnesty

> International the act of reporting the crime resulted in her accusation.

> 

> �She officially confirmed her

> guilt� Sheikh Hayakalah, the Sharia court judge, said in

> remarks broadcast on Radio Shabelle.

> 

> According to onlookers, 3

> times nurses were instructed to check whether she was still alive. They

> pulled the teen from the ground, declared she was still alive and put her

> back in the hole for the stoning to continue.

> 

> David Copeman of Amnesty

> International said �This

> was not justice, nor was it an execution. This child suffered a horrendous

> death...�

> 

> None of men who raped her were

> arrested.

> 

> 

> [http://gfx1.hotmail.com/mail/w3/ltr/i_safe.gif]

> 

> 

> Reference

> Links:

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> -------Original Message----- --

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: Viva Veridad

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Date: 4/29/2009 7:13:47 PM

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To: israeliteidentity@ yahoogroups. com

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> That's

> right, JohnKnight's favourite pastime - stoning people - aided and abetted

> by peon Terry.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> ________________________________

> 

> 

> 

> From: JPB

> 

> 

> To: israeliteidentity@ yahoogroups. com

> 

> Sent: Wednesday, April 29, 2009 9:20:53 PM

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> He

> sure would - I can see terry and knight right now, too -

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> [http://gfx1.hotmail.com/mail/w3/ltr/i_safe.gif]

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> -------Original Message----- --

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: Viva Veridad

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Date: 4/29/2009 5:26:57 PM

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To: israeliteidentity@ yahoogroups. com

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> And

> he would enjoy butchering Catholics again!

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> ________________________________

> 

> 

> 

> From: JPB

> 

> 

> To: israeliteidentity@ yahoogroups. com

> 

> Sent: Wednesday, April 29, 2009 8:05:49 PM

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Read

> how your pagan ancestors butchered Catholics in the apostolic age-

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Blandina and Perpetua

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> "Suffer

> me to become food for the wild beasts, through whose instrumentality it

> will be granted me to attain to God. I am the wheat of God, and let me

> be ground by the teeth of the wild beasts, that I may be found the pure

> bread of Christ."

> 

> 

> Ignatius, Epistle to the

> Romans (IV.1)

> 

> 

> 

> The

> martyrdom of Blandina is presented in the Historia Ecclesiastica

> of Eusebius (V.1), who quotes from a letter written by the Christian

> communities in Lyon and Vienne, recounting the persecutions that had

> occurred there in the summer of AD 177. There was a xenophobic

> prejudice against the Christians of these Gallic towns, many of whom

> were immigrants from Asia Minor. Prohibited from appearing in public

> places and increasingly subject to abuse and imprisonment, the

> Christians of Lyon eventually were arrested.

> 

> Interrogated in the

> forum by the provincial governor, those who professed to being

> Christians and did not save themselves by renouncing their faith were

> horribly tortured and condemned to the beasts of the amphitheater,

> "being made all day long a spectacle to the world in place of the

> gladiatorial contest in its many forms" (V.1.40). Blandina, a

> slave girl, was the last to die. Hung from a post, she was exposed to

> wild animals, but they would not attack. Repeatedly tortured ("the

> heathen themselves admitted that never yet had they known a woman

> suffer so much or so long," V.1.56), she eventually was ensnared

> in a net and trampled beneath the feet of a bull. Her body, and those

> of others who had been martyred, was left unburied, guarded by

> soldiers. After six days, the remains were burnt and the ashes cast

> into the Rh�ne.

> 

> The archetype of all

> later acts of Christian martyrs is that Perpetua, a well-born women of

> Carthage, whose passion (passio) is told by Tertullian. Arrested

> and put in prison, where she was baptized and gave birth, she kept a

> diary. "A few days later we were lodged in the prison; and I was

> terrified, as I had never been in such a dark hole. What a difficult

> time it was! With the crowd the heat was stifling; then there was the

> extortion of the soldiers; and to crown all, I was tortured with worry

> for my baby there" (I.2). The night before she was to die in the

> arena, she dreamed that she fought a diabolic Egyptian and defeated him

> before Christ, her heavenly trainer (lanista), walking

> victorious through the Porta Sanavivaria (Gate of Life). Martyrs often

> were idealized as combatants, the spectacle of the arena transposed to

> the struggle with Satan, imagery which Eusebius, himself, uses in

> speaking of Blandina: "A small, weak, despised woman, who had put

> on Christ, the great invincible champion, and in bout after bout had

> defeated her adversary and through conflict had won the crown of

> immortality. "

> 

> Perpetua awoke, knowing

> that she would triumph the next day. "So much for what I did up

> until the eve of the contest," she writes. "About what

> happened at the contest itself, let him write of it who will"

> (III.2). Indeed, the events of that day were witnessed and recorded. As

> an additional humiliation, Perpetua and her maid-servant Felicitas were

> to be dressed as the priestesses of Ceres, which they refused to do.

> Like Blandina, they then were placed in nets to be trampled to death.

> In her passion, Perpetua did not even realize her ordeal until she saw

> that her tunic had been torn and the marks on her body. Later, in the

> center of the arena, she waited with the others for the thrust of the

> sword and "took the trembling hand of the young gladiator and guided

> it to her throat" (VI.4).

> 

> Perpetua died in March

> AD 203 as part of the birthday celebration of Geta, the younger son of

> Septimius Severus. She was twenty-two years old, the same age as Geta

> when he was murdered by his brother.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> ________________________________

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> "Your blood is the key

> to Paradise."

> 

> 

> 

> Tertullian, De Anima

> (LV.4-5)

> 

> 

> When

> another martyr, Attalus, was paraded in the arena of Lyon, preceded by

> a placard declaring him to be a Christian, it was discovered that he

> was a Roman citizen. Instructions were asked of the emperor Marcus

> Aurelius, which, in due course, arrived. They essentially were the same

> as those of Trajan to Pliny the Younger, when he was governor of

> Bithynia in AD 112 (Letters, X.96-97), complaining about the

> perverse obstinacy of the Christians: those who persisted in professing

> their faith were to be punished and those who recanted and worshiped the

> gods, pardoned. Trajan's other admonition, that Christians were not be

> sought out, seems to have been ignored (cf. Tertullian, Apology,

> II, " forbidden to be sought, he was found"). Accordingly,

> those Christians who were Roman citizens were beheaded and the rest

> condemned ad bestias, including Attalus.

> 

> One is struck by the

> hatred of the people, who furiously had demanded Attalus by name.

> Certainly, the contumacious refusal to recant, even under torture,

> infuriated the populace, as well as the magistrates, who, says Origen,

> "are greatly distressed at seeing those who bear outrage and

> torture with patience, but are greatly elated when a Christian gives

> way under it" (Contra Celsus, VIII.44). To appreciate why,

> one must remember the stern admonition of Jesus that "whosoever

> shall deny me before men, him will I also deny before my Father which

> is in heaven" (Matthew, X.33). Marcus Aurelius, whose Meditations

> were written about this time, also was perturbed by such unreasonable

> stubbornness and regarded a readiness to die to come from judgment,

> "not out of sheer opposition like the Christians, but after

> reflection and with dignity, and so as to convince others, without

> histrionic display" (XI.3), a remark that may have been prompted

> by the events in Lyon.

> 

> To honor the pagan gods

> was to expect their protection and avert the misfortunes, whether

> famine, disease, or drought, that might result from their neglect. It

> therefore seemed inexplicable to the inhabitants of Lyon that martyrs

> would die for their faith, especially since only a worshipful gesture

> of honor and conformity to tradition was all that was required of them.

> "'Where is their god? and what did they get for their religion,

> which they preferred to their own lives?'" (V.1.60). Nor was

> death, itself, sufficient. The bodies of the Christians were denied

> burial, so "'that they may have no hope of resurrection- -the

> belief that has led them to bring into this country a new foreign cult

> and treat torture with contempt, going willingly and cheerfully to

> their death. Now let's see if they'll rise again, and if their god can

> help them and save them from our hands'" (V.1.63). Indeed, the

> very purpose of being sent into the arena to be devoured by beasts or

> to be burned alive or even to be left on a cross for scavengers was to

> ensure the complete annihilation of the victim.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> ________________________________

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The

> picture is The Christian Martyrs' Last Prayer (1883) by

> Jean-L�on G�r�me, the figures smeared in pitch and being set afire

> calling to mind the cruelty of Nero, who set Christians alight in his

> gardens to serve as human torches. The wrapping, itself, was known as tunica

> molesta (Juvenal, VIII.235; Martial, X.25.5; Seneca, Epistles,

> XIV.5).

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> ________________________________

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> References: Eusebius: The History of

> the Church (1965) translated by G. A. Williamson; The Acts of

> the Christian Martyrs (1972) by Herbert Musurillo; Pagans and

> Christians (1986) by Robin Lane Fox; Martyrdom and Persecution

> in the Early Church (1967) by W. H. C. Frend; Pliny: Pliny the

> Younger: Letters and Panegyricus (1969) translated by Betty Radice

> (Loeb Classical Library); The Ante-Nicene Fathers: Translations of

> the Writings of the Fathers Down to A.D. 325 (1885-1896) translated

> and edited by the Rev. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson; The

> Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Antoninus (1944) translated

> by A. S. L. Farquharson; A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene

> Fathers of the Christian Church, Series II (1890-1896) edited by by

> Philip Schaff and Henry Wace; The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian

> Church (1997) edited by E. A. Livingstone.

> 

> 

> 

> Return

> to Top of Page

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> -------Original Message----- --

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: isaiah14

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Date: 4/29/2009 4:45:11 PM

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To: israeliteidentity@ yahoogroups. com

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Jesus Christ, and You can't do that by being a roman

> catholic.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> -------Original Message----- --

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: JPB

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Date: 4/29/2009 6:38:29 PM

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To: israeliteidentity@ yahoogroups. com

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Besides

> the pagan antichrist Talmudist John Knight, whom do you worship, Teri?

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> -------Original Message----- --

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: Viva Veridad

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Date: 4/29/2009 3:35:33 PM

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To: israeliteidentity@ yahoogroups. com

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Just

> your opinion, Terry.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> it has

> no value.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Proof,

> please.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> ________________________________

> 

> 

> 

> From: isaiah14

> 

> 

> To: israeliteidentity@ yahoogroups. com

> 

> Sent: Wednesday, April 29, 2009 5:50:13 PM

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> You have never proven anything except that you are

> in the biggest religious cult in the world today, and that you don't

> have eternal life.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> -------Original Message----- --

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: JPB

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Date: 4/29/2009 4:36:12 PM

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To: israeliteidentity@ yahoogroups. com

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts [1

> Attachment]

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Here

> is a very nice and instructive power point presentation which I think

> most will enjoy.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> -------Original Message----- --

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: Viva Veridad

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Date: 4/29/2009 12:50:55 PM

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To: israeliteidentity@ yahoogroups. com

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> That may be

> your opinion, erroneous as ever, but we're not interested in your

> diseased mind's opinion.

> 

> If you make a statement, you must back

> it up with proof.

> 

> Saying "I have already

> proven..." means nothing unless you show us the proof.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> ________________________________

> 

> 

> 

> From: isaiah14

> 

> 

> To: israeliteidentity@ yahoogroups. com

> 

> Sent: Wednesday, April 29, 2009 3:37:21 PM

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Prove it. I have already proven that the

> roman catholic church is debauchery.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> -------Original Message----- --

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: JPB

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Date: 4/29/2009 1:41:37 PM

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To: israeliteidentity@ yahoogroups. com

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> We

> have already proved that Terry is dead wrong on a number of silly

> beliefs he posted during these exchanges, and now it seems we shall

> have to prove him dead wrong again in respect to his comments re

> the Talmud and Judaism. I'll get working on that one soon.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> -------Original Message----- --

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: Viva Veridad

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Date: 4/29/2009 7:39:07 AM

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To: israeliteidentity@ yahoogroups. com

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Yes,

> indeed you do, Terry.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> ________________________________

> 

> 

> 

> From:

> isaiah14

> 

> To: israeliteidentity@ yahoogroups. com

> 

> Sent: Wednesday, April 29, 2009 8:54:49 AM

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> You continue to support the Talmud and

> Judaism.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> -------Original Message----- --

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: JPB

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Date: 4/28/2009 10:59:27 PM

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To: israeliteidentity@ yahoogroups. com

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Well,

> at least now our puppet pal isn't trying to claim Mary

> is based upon Ishtar or Isis, etc. That's a step in the

> right direction. The problem with some of these proddies is

> that they all repeat the same old hoary misconceptions about

> Catholicism that they have been carefully spoon-fed since infancy.

> When they are forced to examine the true facts, their belief

> system crumbles and all that is left is mindless hate. And

> that about sums up CI - AND Talmudic Judaism.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> [http://gfx1.hotmail.com/mail/w3/ltr/i_safe.gif]

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> -------Original Message----- --

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: Viva Veridad

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Date: 4/26/2009 6:39:04 AM

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To: israeliteidentity@ yahoogroups. com

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Joseph, it's a waste of time trying to reason

> with Terry.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> He has no reasoning powers. He merely

> parrots the same tired old phrases, which is all that he

> understands. He has no comprehension of anything sensible.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Terry has a childish grasp on that which

> comforts him. He can't agree with the truth that we offer

> him, because then he would have to face the devastating fact that

> he has committed spiritual suicide by leaving the Catholic

> Church. He is in a desperate situation and must continually

> close his eyes to the truth, much like the bird with its head in

> the sands. He is on shaky ground and it will collapse and

> swallow him up.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> ________________________________

> 

> 

> 

> From:

> isaiah14

> 

> To: israeliteidentity@ yahoogroups. com

> 

> Sent: Sunday, April 26, 2009 7:53:07 AM

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> You worship the same goddesses. You have

> made Mary a goddess.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> -------Original Message----- --

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: JPB

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Date: 4/26/2009 12:03:00 AM

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To: israeliteidentity@ yahoogroups. com

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Let's

> get back to Babylon. You keep saying, quite ignorantly,

> that the Catholic Church is pagan - even though it is

> monotheistic and founded by Christ - anyway, all that aside for

> the moment - you keep INSISTING that the Church is the Whore of

> Babylon and that the Church and the Babylonian Religion are one

> and the same. So, take your time and read through the

> following - select and choose anything you like from it - and

> demonstrate to us where you find similarities between what WE

> post here and the ancient Babylonian religion. Go ahead.

> Knock yourself out-

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> THE RELIGION OF

> 

> 

> 

> BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> BY

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> THEOPHILUS G. PINCHES, LL.D.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Lecturer in Assyrian at University College, London,

> 

> 

> 

> Author of "The Old Testament in the Light of the

> 

> 

> 

> Records of Assyria and Babylonia"; "The Bronze

> 

> 

> 

> Ornaments of the Palace Gates of Balewat" etc. etc.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> PREPARER'S NOTE

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The original text contains a

> number of characters that are not

> 

> 

> available even in 8-bit

> Windows text, such as H with a breve below

> 

> 

> it in Hammurabi, S with a

> breve, S and T with a dot below them, U

> 

> 

> with macron, and superscript

> M in Ta�m�tum. These have been left

> 

> 

> in the e-text as the base

> letter.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The 8-bit version of this

> text includes Windows font characters

> 

> 

> like S with a caron above it

> (pronounced /sh/) as in �ama�, etc.

> 

> 

> These may be lost in 7-bit

> versions of the text, or when viewed

> 

> 

> with different fonts.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Greek text has been

> transliterated within brackets "{}" using an

> 

> 

> Oxford English Dictionary

> alphabet table. Diacritical marks have

> 

> 

> been lost.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> THE RELIGION OF THE

> 

> 

> 

> BABYLONIANS AND ASSYRIANS

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> CHAPTER I

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> FOREWORD

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Position, and Period.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The religion of the Babylonians and

> Assyrians was the polytheistic

> 

> 

> faith professed by the peoples

> inhabiting the Tigris and Euphrates

> 

> 

> valleys from what may be regarded as

> the dawn of history until the

> 

> 

> Christian era began, or, at least,

> until the inhabitants were brought

> 

> 

> under the influence of Christianity.

> The chronological period covered

> 

> 

> may be roughly estimated at about

> 5000 years. The belief of the

> 

> 

> people, at the end of that time,

> being Babylonian heathenism leavened

> 

> 

> with Judaism, the country was

> probably ripe for the reception of the

> 

> 

> new faith. Christianity, however, by

> no means replaced the earlier

> 

> 

> polytheism, as is evidenced by the

> fact, that the worship of Nebo and

> 

> 

> the gods associated with him

> continued until the fourth century of the

> 

> 

> Christian era.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> By whom followed.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> It was the faith of two distinct

> peoples--the Sumero-Akkadians, and

> 

> 

> the Assyro-Babylonians. In what

> country it had its beginnings is

> 

> 

> unknown--it comes before us, even at

> the earliest period, as a faith

> 

> 

> already well-developed, and from

> that fact, as well as from the names

> 

> 

> of the numerous deities, it is clear

> that it began with the former

> 

> 

> race--the Sumero-Akkadians- -who

> spoke a non-Semitic language largely

> 

> 

> affected by phonetic decay, and in

> which the grammatical forms had in

> 

> 

> certain cases become confused to

> such an extent that those who study

> 

> 

> it ask themselves whether the people

> who spoke it were able to

> 

> 

> understand each other without

> recourse to devices such as the "tones"

> 

> 

> to which the Chinese resort. With

> few exceptions, the names of the

> 

> 

> gods which the inscriptions reveal

> to us are all derived from this

> 

> 

> non-Semitic language, which

> furnishes us with satisfactory etymologies

> 

> 

> for such names as Merodach, Nergal,

> Sin, and the divinities mentioned

> 

> 

> in Berosus and Damascius, as well as

> those of hundreds of deities

> 

> 

> revealed to us by the tablets and

> slabs of Babylonia and Assyria.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The

> documents.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Outside the inscriptions of

> Babylonia and Assyria, there is but little

> 

> 

> bearing upon the religion of those

> countries, the most important

> 

> 

> fragment being the extracts from

> Berosus and Damascius referred to

> 

> 

> above. Among the Babylonian and

> Assyrian remains, however, we have an

> 

> 

> extensive and valuable mass of

> material, dating from the fourth or

> 

> 

> fifth millennium before Christ until

> the disappearance of the

> 

> 

> Babylonian system of writing about

> the beginning of the Christian era.

> 

> 

> The earlier inscriptions are mostly

> of the nature of records, and give

> 

> 

> information about the deities and

> the religion of the people in the

> 

> 

> course of descriptions of the

> building and rebuilding of temples, the

> 

> 

> making of offerings, the performance

> of ceremonies, etc. Purely

> 

> 

> religious inscriptions are found

> near the end of the third millennium

> 

> 

> before Christ, and occur in

> considerable numbers, either in the

> 

> 

> original Sumerian text, or in

> translations, or both, until about the

> 

> 

> third century before Christ. Among

> the more recent inscriptions- -those

> 

> 

> from the library of the Assyrian

> king A��ur-bani-�pli and the later

> 

> 

> Babylonian temple archives,--there

> are many lists of deities, with

> 

> 

> numerous identifications with each

> other and with the heavenly bodies,

> 

> 

> and explanations of their natures.

> It is needless to say that all this

> 

> 

> material is of enormous value for

> the study of the religion of the

> 

> 

> Babylonians and Assyrians, and

> enables us to reconstruct at first hand

> 

> 

> their mythological system, and note

> the changes which took place in

> 

> 

> the course of their long national

> existence. Many interesting and

> 

> 

> entertaining legends illustrate and

> supplement the information given

> 

> 

> by the bilingual lists of gods, the

> bilingual incantations and hymns,

> 

> 

> and the references contained in the

> historical and other documents. A

> 

> 

> trilingual list of gods enables us

> also to recognise, in some cases,

> 

> 

> the dialectic forms of their names.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The importance of the subject.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Of equal antiquity with the religion

> of Egypt, that of Babylonia and

> 

> 

> Assyria possesses some marked

> differences as to its development.

> 

> 

> Beginning among the non-Semitic

> Sumero-Akkadian population, it

> 

> 

> maintained for a long time its

> uninterrupted development, affected

> 

> 

> mainly by influences from within,

> namely, the homogeneous local cults

> 

> 

> which acted and reacted upon each

> other. The religious systems of

> 

> 

> other nations did not greatly affect

> the development of the early

> 

> 

> non-Semitic religious system of

> Babylonia. A time at last came,

> 

> 

> however, when the influence of the

> Semitic inhabitants of Babylonia

> 

> 

> and Assyria was not to be gainsaid,

> and from that moment, the

> 

> 

> development of their religion took

> another turn. In all probably this

> 

> 

> augmentation of Semitic religious

> influence was due to the increased

> 

> 

> numbers of the Semitic population,

> and at the same period the Sumero-

> 

> 

> Akkadian language began to give way

> to the Semitic idiom which they

> 

> 

> spoke. When at last the Semitic

> Babylonian language came to be used

> 

> 

> for official documents, we find

> that, although the non-Semitic divine

> 

> 

> names are in the main preserved, a certain

> number of them have been

> 

> 

> displaced by the Semitic equivalent

> names, such as �ama� for the

> 

> 

> sun-god, with Kittu and M�aru

> ("justice and righteousness" ) his

> 

> 

> attendants; Nab� ("the

> teacher" = Nebo) with his consort Ta�m�tu ("the

> 

> 

> hearer"); Addu, Adad, or Dadu,

> and Rammanu, Ramimu, or Ragimu = Hadad

> 

> 

> or Rimmon ("the

> thunderer"); B�l and B�ltu (Beltis = "the lord"

> and

> 

> 

> "the lady" /par

> excellence/) , with some others of inferior rank. In

> 

> 

> place of the chief divinity of each

> state at the head of each separate

> 

> 

> pantheon, the tendency was to make

> Merodach, the god of the capital

> 

> 

> city Babylon, the head of the

> pantheon, and he seems to have been

> 

> 

> universally accepted in Babylonia,

> like A��ur in Assyria, about 2000

> 

> 

> B.C. or earlier.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The uniting of two pantheons.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> We thus find two pantheons, the

> Sumero-Akkadian with its many gods,

> 

> 

> and the Semitic Babylonian with its

> comparatively few, united, and

> 

> 

> forming one apparently homogeneous

> whole. But the creed had taken a

> 

> 

> fresh tendency. It was no longer a

> series of small, and to a certain

> 

> 

> extent antagonistic, pantheons

> composed of the chief god, his consort,

> 

> 

> attendants, children, and servants,

> but a pantheon of considerable

> 

> 

> extent, containing all the elements

> of the primitive but smaller

> 

> 

> pantheons, with a number of great

> gods who had raised Merodach to be

> 

> 

> their king.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> In Assyria.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Whilst accepting the religion of

> Babylonia, Assyria nevertheless kept

> 

> 

> herself distinct from her southern

> neighbour by a very simple device,

> 

> 

> by placing at the head of the

> pantheon the god A��ur, who became for

> 

> 

> her the chief of the gods, and at

> the same time the emblem of her

> 

> 

> distinct national aspirations- -for

> Assyria had no intention whatever

> 

> 

> of casting in her lot with her

> southern neighbour. Nevertheless,

> 

> 

> Assyria possessed, along with the

> language of Babylonia, all the

> 

> 

> literature of that country--indeed,

> it is from the libraries of her

> 

> 

> kings that we obtain the best copies

> of the Babylonian religious

> 

> 

> texts, treasured and preserved by

> her with all the veneration of which

> 

> 

> her religious mind was capable,--and

> the religious fervour of the

> 

> 

> Oriental in most cases leaves that

> of the European, or at least of the

> 

> 

> ordinary Briton, far behind.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The later period in Assyria.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Assyria went to her downfall at the

> end of the seventh century before

> 

> 

> Christ worshipping her national god

> A��ur, whose cult did not cease

> 

> 

> with the destruction of her national

> independence. In fact, the city

> 

> 

> of A��ur, the centre of that

> worship, continued to exist for a

> 

> 

> considerable period; but for the

> history of the religion of Assyria,

> 

> 

> as preserved there, we wait for the

> result of the excavations being

> 

> 

> carried on by the Germans, should

> they be fortunate enough to obtain

> 

> 

> texts belonging to the period

> following the fall of Nineveh.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> In Babylonia.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Babylonia, on the other hand,

> continued the even tenor of her way.

> 

> 

> More successful at the end of her

> independent political career than

> 

> 

> her northern rival had been, she

> retained her faith, and remained the

> 

> 

> unswerving worshipper of Merodach,

> the great god of Babylon, to whom

> 

> 

> her priests attributed yet greater

> powers, and with whom all the other

> 

> 

> gods were to all appearance

> identified. This tendency to monotheism,

> 

> 

> however, never reached the

> culminating point--never became absolute--

> 

> 

> except, naturally, in the minds of

> those who, dissociating themselves,

> 

> 

> for philosophical reasons, from the

> superstitious teaching of the

> 

> 

> priests of Babylonia, decided for

> themselves that there was but one

> 

> 

> God, and worshipped Him. That

> orthodox Jews at that period may have

> 

> 

> found, in consequence of this

> monotheistic tendency, converts, is not

> 

> 

> by any means improbable-- indeed,

> the names met with during the later

> 

> 

> period imply that converts to

> Judaism were made.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The picture presented by the study.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Thus we see, from the various

> inscriptions, both Babylonian and

> 

> 

> Assyrian--the former of an extremely

> early period--the growth and

> 

> 

> development, with at least one

> branching off, of one of the most

> 

> 

> important religious systems of the

> ancient world. It is not so

> 

> 

> important for modern religion as the

> development of the beliefs of the

> 

> 

> Hebrews, but as the creed of the

> people from which the Hebrew nation

> 

> 

> sprang, and from which, therefore,

> it had its beginnings, both

> 

> 

> corporeal and spiritual, it is such

> as no student of modern religious

> 

> 

> systems can afford to neglect. Its

> legends, and therefore its

> 

> 

> teachings, as will be seen in these

> pages, ultimately permeated the

> 

> 

> Semitic West, and may in some cases

> even had penetrated Europe, not

> 

> 

> only through heathen Greece, but

> also through the early Christians,

> 

> 

> who, being so many centuries nearer

> the time of the

> 

> 

> Assyro-Babylonians, and also nearer

> the territory which they anciently

> 

> 

> occupied, than we are, were far

> better acquainted than the people of

> 

> 

> the present day with the legends and

> ideas which they possessed.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> CHAPTER II

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> THE RELIGION OF THE BABYLONIANS AND ASSYRIANS

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The Sumero-Akkadians and the Semites.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> For the history of the development

> of the religion of the Babylonians

> 

> 

> and Assyrians much naturally depends

> upon the composition of the

> 

> 

> population of early Babylonia. There

> is hardly any doubt that the

> 

> 

> Sumero-Akkadians were non-Semites of

> a fairly pure race, but the

> 

> 

> country of their origin is still

> unknown, though a certain

> 

> 

> relationship with the Mongolian and

> Turkish nationalities, probably

> 

> 

> reaching back many

> centuries--perhaps thousands of years--before the

> 

> 

> earliest accepted date, may be

> regarded as equally likely. Equally

> 

> 

> uncertain is the date of the entry

> of the Semites, whose language

> 

> 

> ultimately displaced the non-Semitic

> Sumero-Akkadian idioms, and

> 

> 

> whose kings finally ruled over the

> land. During the third millennium

> 

> 

> before Christ Semites, bearing

> Semitic names, and called Amorites,

> 

> 

> appear, and probably formed the last

> considerable stratum of tribes of

> 

> 

> that race which entered the land.

> The name Martu, the Sumero-Akkadian

> 

> 

> equivalent of Amurru,

> "Amorite", is of frequent occurrence also before

> 

> 

> this period. The eastern

> Mediterranean coast district, including

> 

> 

> Palestine and the neighbouring

> tracts, was known by the Babylonians

> 

> 

> and Assyrians as the land of the

> Amorites, a term which stood for the

> 

> 

> West in general even when these

> regions no longer bore that name. The

> 

> 

> Babylonians maintained their claim

> to sovereignty over that part as

> 

> 

> long as they possessed the power to

> do so, and naturally exercised

> 

> 

> considerable influence there. The

> existence in Palestine, Syria, and

> 

> 

> the neighbouring states, of creeds

> containing the names of many

> 

> 

> Babylonian divinities is therefore

> not to be wondered at, and the

> 

> 

> presence of West Semitic divinities

> in the religion of the Babylonians

> 

> 

> need not cause us any surprise.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The Babylonian script and its evidence.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> In consequence of the determinative

> prefix for a god or a goddess

> 

> 

> being, in the oldest form, a picture

> of an eight-rayed star, it has

> 

> 

> been assumed that Assyro-Babylonian

> mythology is, either wholly or

> 

> 

> partly, astral in origin. This,

> however, is by no means certain, the

> 

> 

> character for "star" in

> the inscriptions being a combination of three

> 

> 

> such pictures, and not a single

> sign. The probability therefore is,

> 

> 

> that the use of the single star to

> indicate the name of a divinity

> 

> 

> arises merely from the fact that the

> character in question stands for

> 

> 

> /ana/, "heaven." Deities

> were evidently thus distinguished by the

> 

> 

> Babylonians because they regarded

> them as inhabitants of the realms

> 

> 

> above--indeed, the heavens being the

> place where the stars are seen, a

> 

> 

> picture of a star was the only way

> of indicating heavenly things. That

> 

> 

> the gods of the Babylonians were in

> many cases identified with the

> 

> 

> stars and planets is certain, but

> these identifications seem to have

> 

> 

> taken place at a comparatively late

> date. An exception has naturally

> 

> 

> to be made in the case of the sun

> and moon, but the god Merodach, if

> 

> 

> he be, as seems certain, a deified

> Babylonian king, must have been

> 

> 

> identified with the stars which bear

> his name after his worshippers

> 

> 

> began to pay him divine honours as

> the supreme deity, and naturally

> 

> 

> what is true for him may also be so

> for the other gods whom they

> 

> 

> worshipped. The identification of

> some of the deities with stars or

> 

> 

> planets is, moreover, impossible,

> and if �a, the god of the deep, and

> 

> 

> Anu, the god of the heavens, have

> their representatives among the

> 

> 

> heavenly bodies, this is probably

> the result of later development. [*]

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> [*] If there be any historical

> foundation for the statement that

> 

> 

> Merodach arranged

> the sun, the moon, the planets, and the stars,

> 

> 

> assigning to them

> their proper places and duties--a tradition

> 

> 

> which would make

> him the founder of the science of astronomy

> 

> 

> during his life

> upon earth--this, too, would tend to the

> 

> 

> probability that

> the origin of the gods of the Babylonians was not

> 

> 

> astral, as has

> been suggested, but that their identification with

> 

> 

> the heavenly

> bodies was introduced during the period of his reign.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Ancestor and hero-worship. The deification of kings.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Though there is no proof that

> ancestor-worship in general prevailed at

> 

> 

> any time in Babylonia, it would seem

> that the worship of heroes and

> 

> 

> prominent men was common, at least

> in early times. The tenth chapter

> 

> 

> of Genesis tells us of the story of

> Nimrod, who cannot be any other

> 

> 

> than the Merodach of the

> Assyro-Babylonian inscriptions; and other

> 

> 

> examples, occurring in

> semi-mythological times, are /En-we-dur-an- ki/,

> 

> 

> the Greek Edoreschos, and

> /Gilgame�/, the Greek Gilgamos, though

> 

> 

> Aelian's story of the latter does

> not fit in with the account as given

> 

> 

> by the inscriptions. In later times,

> the divine prefix is found before

> 

> 

> the names of many a Babylonian

> ruler--Sargon of Agad�,[*] Dungi of Ur

> 

> 

> (about 2500 B.C.), Rim-Sin or

> Eri-Aku (Arioch of Ellasar, about 2100

> 

> 

> B.C.), and others. It was doubtless

> a kind of flattery to deify and

> 

> 

> pay these rulers divine honours

> during their lifetime, and on account

> 

> 

> of this, it is very probable that

> their godhood was utterly forgotten,

> 

> 

> in the case of those who were

> strictly historical, after their death.

> 

> 

> The deification of the kings of

> Babylonia and Assyria is probably due

> 

> 

> to the fact, that they were regarded

> as the representatives of God

> 

> 

> upon earth, and being his chief

> priests as well as his offspring (the

> 

> 

> personal names show that it was a

> common thing to regard children as

> 

> 

> the gifts of the gods whom their

> father worshipped), the divine

> 

> 

> fatherhood thus attributed to them

> naturally could, in the case of

> 

> 

> those of royal rank, give them a

> real claim to divine birth and

> 

> 

> honours. An exception is the

> deification of the Babylonian Noah,

> 

> 

> Ut-napi�tim, who, as the legend of

> the Flood relates, was raised and

> 

> 

> made one of the gods by Aa or Ea,

> for his faithfulness after the great

> 

> 

> catastrophe, when he and his wife

> were translated to the "remote place

> 

> 

> at the mouth of the rivers."

> The hero Gilgame�, on the other hand, was

> 

> 

> half divine by birth, though it is

> not exactly known through whom his

> 

> 

> divinity came.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> [*] According to Nabonidus's date

> 3800 B.C., though many

> 

> 

> Assyriologists

> regard this as being a millennium too early.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The earliest form of the Babylonian religion.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The state of development to which

> the religious system of the

> 

> 

> Babylonians had attained at the

> earliest period to which the

> 

> 

> inscriptions refer naturally

> precludes the possibility of a

> 

> 

> trustworthy history of its origin

> and early growth. There is no doubt,

> 

> 

> however, that it may be regarded as

> having reached the stage at which

> 

> 

> we find it in consequence of there

> being a number of states in ancient

> 

> 

> Babylonia (which was at that time

> like the Heptarchy in England) each

> 

> 

> possessing its own divinity--who, in

> its district, was regarded as

> 

> 

> supreme--with a number of lesser gods

> forming his court. It was the

> 

> 

> adding together of all these small

> pantheons which ultimately made

> 

> 

> that of Babylonia as a whole so

> exceedingly extensive. Thus the chief

> 

> 

> divinity of Babylon, as has already

> been stated, as Merodach; at

> 

> 

> Sippar and Larsa the sun-god �ama�

> was worshipped; at Ur the moon-god

> 

> 

> Sin or Nannar; at Erech and D�r the

> god of the heavens, Anu; at Muru,

> 

> 

> Ennigi, and Kakru, the god of the

> atmosphere, Hadad or Rimmon; at

> 

> 

> �ridu, the god of the deep, Aa or

> �a; at Niffur[*] the god Bel; at

> 

> 

> Cuthah the god of war, Nergal; at

> Dailem the god Ura�; at Ki� the god

> 

> 

> of battle, Zagaga; Lugal-Amarda, the

> king of Marad, as the city so

> 

> 

> called; at Opis Zakar, one of the

> gods of dreams; at Agad�, Nineveh,

> 

> 

> and Arbela, I�tar, goddess of love

> and of war; Nina at the city Nina

> 

> 

> in Babylonia, etc. When the chief

> deities were masculine, they were

> 

> 

> naturally all identified with each

> other, just as the Greeks called

> 

> 

> the Babylonian Merodach by the name

> of Zeus; and as Zer-pan�tum, the

> 

> 

> consort of Merodach, was identified

> with Juno, so the consorts, divine

> 

> 

> attendants, and children of each

> chief divinity, as far as they

> 

> 

> possessed them, could also be

> regarded as the same, though possibly

> 

> 

> distinct in their different

> attributes.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> [*] Noufar at present, according to

> the latest explorers. Layard

> 

> 

> (1856) has

> Niffer, Loftus (1857) Niffar. The native spelling is

> 

> 

> Noufer, due to

> the French system of phonetics.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> How the religion of the Babylonians developed.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The fact that the rise of Merodach

> to the position of king of the gods

> 

> 

> was due to the attainment, by the

> city of Babylon, of the position of

> 

> 

> capital of all Babylonia, leads one

> to suspect that the kingly rank of

> 

> 

> his father �a, at an earlier period,

> was due to a somewhat similar

> 

> 

> cause, and if so, the still earlier

> kingship of Anu, the god of the

> 

> 

> heavens, may be in like manner

> explained. This leads to the question

> 

> 

> whether the first state to attain to

> supremacy was D�r, Anu's seat,

> 

> 

> and whether D�r was succeeded by

> �ridu, of which city �a was the

> 

> 

> patron--concerning the importance of

> Babylon, Merodach's city, later

> 

> 

> on, there is no doubt whatever. The

> rise of Anu and �a to divine

> 

> 

> overlordship, however, may not have

> been due to the political

> 

> 

> supremacy of the cities where they

> were worshipped-- it may have come

> 

> 

> about simply on account of renown

> gained through religious enthusiasm

> 

> 

> due to wonders said to have been

> performed where they were worshipped,

> 

> 

> or to the reported discovery of new

> records concerning their temples,

> 

> 

> or to the influence of some renowned

> high-priest, like En-we-dur-an- ki

> 

> 

> of Sippar, whose devotion

> undoubtedly brought great renown to the city

> 

> 

> of his dominion.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Was

> Animism its original form?

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> But the question naturally arises,

> can we go back beyond the

> 

> 

> indications of the inscriptions? The

> Babylonians attributed life, in

> 

> 

> certain not very numerous cases, to

> such things as trees and plants,

> 

> 

> and naturally to the winds, and the

> heavenly bodies. Whether they

> 

> 

> regarded stones, rocks, mountains,

> storms, and rain in the same way,

> 

> 

> however, is doubtful, but it may be

> taken for granted, that the sea,

> 

> 

> with all its rivers and streams, was

> regarded as animated with the

> 

> 

> spirit of �a and his children,

> whilst the great cities and

> 

> 

> temple-towers were pervaded with the

> spirit of the god whose abode

> 

> 

> they were. Innumerable good and evil

> spirits were believed in, such as

> 

> 

> the spirit of the mountain, the sea,

> the plain, and the grave. These

> 

> 

> spirits were of various kinds, and

> bore names which do not always

> 

> 

> reveal their real character--such as

> the /edimmu/, /utukku/, /��du/,

> 

> 

> /a�akku/ (spirit of fevers),

> /namtaru/ (spirit of fate), /�l�/

> 

> 

> (regarded as the spirit of the south

> wind), /gallu/, /rabisu/,

> 

> 

> /labartu/, /labasu/, /ahhazu/ (the seizer),

> /lilu/ and /lilithu/ (male

> 

> 

> and female spirits of the mist),

> with their attendants.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> All this points to animism as the

> pervading idea of the worship of the

> 

> 

> peoples of the Babylonian states in

> the prehistoric period--the

> 

> 

> attribution of life to every

> appearance of nature. The question is,

> 

> 

> however, Is the evidence of the

> inscriptions sufficient to make this

> 

> 

> absolutely certain? It is hard to

> believe that such intelligent

> 

> 

> people, as the primitive Babylonians

> naturally were, believed that

> 

> 

> such things as stones, rocks,

> mountains, storms, and rain were, in

> 

> 

> themselves, and apart from the

> divinity which they regarded as

> 

> 

> presiding over them, living things.

> A stone might be a /b�t �li/ or

> 

> 

> bethel--a "house of god,"

> and almost invested with the status of a

> 

> 

> living thing, but that does not

> prove that the Babylonians thought of

> 

> 

> every stone as being endowed with

> life, even in prehistoric times.

> 

> 

> Whilst, therefore, there are traces

> of a belief similar to that which

> 

> 

> an animistic creed might be regarded

> as possessing, it must be

> 

> 

> admitted that these seemingly

> animistic doctrines may have originated

> 

> 

> in another way, and be due to later

> developments. The power of the

> 

> 

> gods to create living things

> naturally makes possible the belief that

> 

> 

> they had also power to endow with a

> soul, and therefore with life and

> 

> 

> intelligence, any seemingly

> inanimate object. Such was probably the

> 

> 

> nature of Babylonian animism, if it

> may be so called. The legend of

> 

> 

> Tiawthu (Tiawath) may with great

> probability be regarded as the

> 

> 

> remains of a primitive animism which

> was the creed of the original and

> 

> 

> comparatively uncivilised

> Babylonians, who saw in the sea the producer

> 

> 

> and creator of all the monstrous

> shapes which are found therein; but

> 

> 

> any development of this idea in

> other directions was probably cut

> 

> 

> short by the priests, who must have

> realised, under the influence of

> 

> 

> the doctrine of the divine rise to

> perfection, that animism in general

> 

> 

> was altogether incompatible with the

> creed which they professed.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Image-worship and Sacred Stones.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Whether image-worship was original

> among the Babylonians and Assyrians

> 

> 

> is uncertain, and improbable; the

> tendency among the people in early

> 

> 

> times being to venerate sacred

> stones and other inanimate objects. As

> 

> 

> has been already pointed out, the

> {diopetres} of the Greeks was

> 

> 

> probably a meteorite, and stones

> marking the position of the Semitic

> 

> 

> bethels were probably, in their

> origin, the same. The boulders which

> 

> 

> were sometimes used for

> boundary-stones may have been the

> 

> 

> representations of these meteorites

> in later times, and it is

> 

> 

> noteworthy that the Sumerian group

> for "iron," /an-bar/, implies that

> 

> 

> the early Babylonians only knew of

> that metal from meteoric ironstone.

> 

> 

> The name of the god Nirig or

> �nu-r�tu (Ninip) is generally written

> 

> 

> with the same group, implying some

> kind of connection between the two

> 

> 

> --the god and the iron. In a

> well-known hymn to that deity certain

> 

> 

> stones are mentioned, one of them

> being described as the "poison-

> 

> 

> tooth"[*] coming forth on the

> mountain, recalling the sacred rocks at

> 

> 

> Jerusalem and Mecca. Boundary-stones

> in Babylonia were not sacred

> 

> 

> objects except in so far as they

> were sculptured with the signs of the

> 

> 

> gods.[�] With regard to the

> Babylonian bethels, very little can be

> 

> 

> said, their true nature being

> uncertain, and their number, to all

> 

> 

> appearance, small. Gifts were made

> to them, and from this fact it

> 

> 

> would seem that they were

> temples--true "houses of god," in fact--

> 

> 

> probably containing an image of the

> deity, rather than a stone similar

> 

> 

> to those referred to in the Old

> Testament.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> [*] So called, probably, not because

> it sent forth poison, but on

> 

> 

> account of its

> likeness to a serpent's fang.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> [�] Notwithstanding medical opinion,

> their phallic origin is doubtful.

> 

> 

> One is sculptured

> in the form of an Eastern castellated fortress.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Idols.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> With the Babylonians, the gods were

> represented by means of stone

> 

> 

> images at a very early date, and it

> is possible that wood was also

> 

> 

> used. The tendency of the human mind

> being to attribute to the Deity a

> 

> 

> human form, the Babylonians were no

> exception to the rule. Human

> 

> 

> thoughts and feelings would

> naturally accompany the human form with

> 

> 

> which the minds of men endowed them.

> Whether the gross human passions

> 

> 

> attributed to the gods of Babylonia

> in Herodotus be of early date or

> 

> 

> not is uncertain--a late period,

> when the religion began to

> 

> 

> degenerate, would seem to be the

> more probable.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The adoration of sacred objects.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> It is probable that objects

> belonging to or dedicated to deities were

> 

> 

> not originally worshipped-- they

> were held as divine in consequence of

> 

> 

> their being possessed or used by a

> deity, like the bow of Merodach,

> 

> 

> placed in the heavens as a

> constellation, etc. The cities where the

> 

> 

> gods dwelt on earth, their temples,

> their couches, the chariot of the

> 

> 

> sun in his temple-cities, and

> everything existing in connection with

> 

> 

> their worship, were in all

> probability regarded as divine simply in so

> 

> 

> far as they belonged to a god.

> Sacrifices offered to them, and

> 

> 

> invocations made to them, were in

> all likelihood regarded as having

> 

> 

> been made to the deity himself, the

> possessions of the divinity being,

> 

> 

> in the minds of the Babylonians,

> pervaded with his spirit. In the case

> 

> 

> of rivers, these were divine as

> being the children and offspring of

> 

> 

> Enki (Aa or �a), the god of the

> ocean.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Holy places.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> In a country which was originally

> divided into many small states, each

> 

> 

> having its own deities, and, to a

> certain extent, its own religious

> 

> 

> system, holy places were naturally

> numerous. As the spot where they

> 

> 

> placed Paradise, Babylonia was

> itself a holy place, but in all

> 

> 

> probability this idea is late, and

> only came into existence after the

> 

> 

> legends of the creation and the rise

> of Merodach to the kingship of

> 

> 

> heaven had become elaborated into

> one homogeneous whole.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> An interesting list.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> One of the most interesting

> documents referring to the holy places of

> 

> 

> Babylonia is a tiny tablet found at

> Nineveh, and preserved in the

> 

> 

> British Museum. This text begins

> with the word Tiawthu "the sea," and

> 

> 

> goes on to enumerate, in turn,

> Tilmun (identified with the island of

> 

> 

> Bahrein in the Persian Gulf);

> Engurra (the Abyss, the abode of Enki or

> 

> 

> �a), with numerous temples and

> shrines, including "the holy house,"

> 

> 

> "the temple of the seer of

> heaven and earth," "the abode of Zer-

> 

> 

> pan�tum," consort of Merodach,

> "the throne of the holy place," "the

> 

> 

> temple of the region of Hades,"

> "the supreme temple of life," "the

> 

> 

> temple of the ear of the

> corn-deity," with many others, the whole list

> 

> 

> containing what may be regarded as

> the chief sanctuaries of the land,

> 

> 

> to the number of thirty-one.

> Numerous other similar and more extensive

> 

> 

> lists, enumerating every shrine and

> temple in the country, also exist,

> 

> 

> though in a very imperfect state,

> and in addition to these, many holy

> 

> 

> places are referred to in the

> bilingual, historical, and other

> 

> 

> inscriptions. All the great cities

> of Babylonia, moreover, were sacred

> 

> 

> places, the chief in renown and

> importance in later days being the

> 

> 

> great city of Babylon, where

> �-sagila, "the temple of the high head,"

> 

> 

> in which was apparently the shrine

> called "the temple of the

> 

> 

> foundation of heaven and

> earth," held the first place. This building

> 

> 

> is called by Nebuchadnezzar

> "the temple-tower of Babylon," and may

> 

> 

> better be regarded as the site of

> the Biblical "Tower of Babel" than

> 

> 

> the traditional foundation, �-zida,

> "the everlasting temple," in

> 

> 

> Borsippa (the Birs

> Nimroud)--notwithst anding that Borsippa was called

> 

> 

> the "second Babylon," and

> its temple-tower "the supreme house of

> 

> 

> life."

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The Tower of Babel.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Though quite close to Babylon, there

> is no doubt that Borsippa was a

> 

> 

> most important religious centre, and

> this leads to the possibility,

> 

> 

> that its great temple may have

> disputed with "the house of the high

> 

> 

> head," �-sagila in Babylon, the

> honour of being the site of the

> 

> 

> confusion of tongues and the

> dispersion of mankind. There is no doubt,

> 

> 

> however, that �-sagila has the prior

> claim, it being the temple of the

> 

> 

> supreme god of the later Babylonian

> pantheon, the counterpart of the

> 

> 

> God of the Hebrews who commanded the

> changing of the speech of the

> 

> 

> people assembled there. Supposing

> the confusion of tongues to have

> 

> 

> been a Babylonian legend as well as

> a Hebrew one (as is possible) it

> 

> 

> would be by command of Merodach

> rather than that of Nebo that such a

> 

> 

> thing would have taken place.

> �-sagila, which is now the ruin known as

> 

> 

> the mount of Amran ibn Ali, is the

> celebrated temple of Belus which

> 

> 

> Alexander and Philip attempted to

> restore.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> In addition to the legend of the

> confusion of tongues, it is probable

> 

> 

> that there were many similar

> traditions attached to the great temples

> 

> 

> of Babylonia, and as time goes on,

> and the excavations bring more

> 

> 

> material, a large number of them

> will probably be recovered. Already

> 

> 

> we have an interesting and poetical

> record of the entry of Bel and

> 

> 

> Beltis into the great temple at

> Niffer, probably copied from some

> 

> 

> ancient source, and Gudea, a king of

> Laga� (Telloh), who reigned about

> 

> 

> 2700 B.C., gives an account of the

> dream which he saw, in which he was

> 

> 

> instructed by the gods to build or

> rebuild the temple of Nin-Girsu in

> 

> 

> his capital city.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> �-sagila according to Herodotus.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> As the chief fane in the land after

> Babylon became the capital, and

> 

> 

> the type of many similar erections,

> �-sagila, the temple of Belus,

> 

> 

> merits just a short notice.

> According to Herodotus, it was a massive

> 

> 

> tower within an enclosure measuring

> 400 yards each way, and provided

> 

> 

> with gates of brass, or rather

> bronze. The tower within consisted of a

> 

> 

> kind of step-pyramid, the stages

> being seven in number (omitting the

> 

> 

> lowest, which was the platform

> forming the foundation of the

> 

> 

> structure). A winding ascent gave

> access to the top, where was a

> 

> 

> chapel or shrine, containing no

> statue, but regarded by the

> 

> 

> Babylonians as the abode of the god.

> Lower down was another shrine, in

> 

> 

> which was placed a great statue of

> Zeus (Bel-Merodach) sitting, with a

> 

> 

> large table before it. Both statue

> and table are said to have been of

> 

> 

> gold, as were also the throne and

> the steps. Outside the sanctuary (on

> 

> 

> the ramp, apparently) were two

> altars, one small and made of gold,

> 

> 

> whereon only unweaned lambs were

> sacrificed, and the other larger, for

> 

> 

> full-grown victims.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> A Babylonian description.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> In 1876 the well-known

> Assyriologist, Mr. George Smith, was fortunate

> 

> 

> enough to discover a Babylonian

> description of this temple, of which

> 

> 

> he published a /pr�cis/. According

> to this document, there were two

> 

> 

> courts of considerable extent, the

> smaller within the larger--neither

> 

> 

> of them was square, but oblong. Six

> gates admitted to the temple-area

> 

> 

> surrounding the platform upon which

> the tower was built. The platform

> 

> 

> is stated to have been square and

> walled, with four gates facing the

> 

> 

> cardinal points. Within this wall

> was a building connected with the

> 

> 

> great /zikkurat/ or tower--the

> principal edifice--round which were

> 

> 

> chapels or temples to the principal

> gods, on all four sides, and

> 

> 

> facing the cardinal points--that to

> Nebo and Ta�m�t being on the east,

> 

> 

> to Aa or �a and Nusku on the north,

> Anu and Bel on the south, and the

> 

> 

> series of buildings on the west,

> consisting of a double house--a small

> 

> 

> court between two wings, was

> evidently the shrine of Merodach (Belos).

> 

> 

> In these western chambers stood the

> couch of the god, and the golden

> 

> 

> throne mentioned by Herodotus,

> besides other furniture of great value.

> 

> 

> The couch was given as being 9

> cubits long by 4 broad, about as many

> 

> 

> feet in each case, or rather more.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The centre of these buildings was

> the great /zikkurat/, or temple-

> 

> 

> tower, square on its plan, and with

> the sides facing the cardinal

> 

> 

> points. The lowest stage was 15

> /gar/ square by 5 1/2 high (Smith, 300

> 

> 

> feet by 110), and the wall, in

> accordance with the usual Babylonian

> 

> 

> custom, seems to have been

> ornamented with recessed groovings. The

> 

> 

> second stage was 13 /gar/ square by

> 3 in height (Smith, 260 by 60

> 

> 

> feet). He conjectured, from the

> expression used, that it had sloping

> 

> 

> sides. Stages three to five were

> each one /gar/ (Smith, 20 feet) high,

> 

> 

> and respectively 10 /gar/ (Smith,

> 200 feet), 8 1/2 /gar/ (170 feet),

> 

> 

> and 7 /gar/ (140 feet) square. The

> dimensions of the sixth stage are

> 

> 

> omitted, probably by accident, but

> Smith conjectures that they were in

> 

> 

> proportion to those which precede.

> His description omits also the

> 

> 

> dimensions of the seventh stage, but

> he gives those of the sanctuary

> 

> 

> of Belus, which was built upon it.

> This was 4 /gar/ long, 3 1/2 /gar/

> 

> 

> broad, and 2 1/2 /gar/ high (Smith,

> 80 x 70 x 50 feet). He points out,

> 

> 

> that the total height was,

> therefore, 15 /gar/, the same as the

> 

> 

> dimensions of the base, i.e., the

> lowest platform, which would make

> 

> 

> the total height of this

> world-renowned building rather more than 300

> 

> 

> feet above the plains.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Other temple-towers.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Towers of a similar nature were to

> be found in all the great cities of

> 

> 

> Babylonia, and it is probable that

> in most cases slight differences of

> 

> 

> form were to be found. That at

> Niffer, for instance, seems to have had

> 

> 

> a causeway on each side, making four

> approaches in the form of a

> 

> 

> cross. But it was not every city

> which had a tower of seven stages in

> 

> 

> addition to the platform on which it

> was erected, and some of the

> 

> 

> smaller ones at least seem to have

> had sloping or rounded sides to the

> 

> 

> basement-portion, as is indicated by

> an Assyrian bas-relief. Naturally

> 

> 

> small temples, with hardly more than

> the rooms on the ground floor,

> 

> 

> were to be found, but these

> temple-towers were a speciality of the

> 

> 

> country.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Their origin.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> There is some probability that, as

> indicated in the tenth chapter of

> 

> 

> Genesis, the desire in building

> these towers was to get nearer the

> 

> 

> Deity, or to the divine inhabitants

> of the heavens in general--it

> 

> 

> would be easier there to gain

> attention than on the surface of the

> 

> 

> earth. Then there was the belief,

> that the god to whom the place was

> 

> 

> dedicated would come down to such a

> sanctuary, which thus became, as

> 

> 

> it were, the stepping-stone between

> heaven and earth. Sacrifices were

> 

> 

> also offered at these temple-towers

> (whether on the highest point or

> 

> 

> not is not quite certain), in

> imitation of the Chald�an Noah,

> 

> 

> Ut-napi�tim, who, on coming out of

> the ark, made an offering /ina

> 

> 

> zikkurat �ad�/, "on the peak of

> the mountain," in which passage, it is

> 

> 

> to be noted, the word /zikkurat/

> occurs with what is probably a more

> 

> 

> original meaning.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> CHAPTER III

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> THE BABYLONIAN STORY OF THE CREATION

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> This is the final development of the

> Babylonian creed. It has already

> 

> 

> been pointed out that the religion

> of the Babylonians in all

> 

> 

> probability had two stages before

> arriving at that in which the god

> 

> 

> Merodach occupied the position of

> chief of the pantheon, the two

> 

> 

> preceding heads having been,

> seemingly, Anu, the god of the heavens,

> 

> 

> and �a or Aa, also called Enki, the

> god of the abyss and of deep

> 

> 

> wisdom. In order to show this, and

> at the same time to give an idea of

> 

> 

> their theory of the beginning of

> things, a short paraphrase of the

> 

> 

> contents of the seven tablets will

> be found in the following pages.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> An Embodiment of doctrine.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> As far as our knowledge goes, the

> doctrines incorporated in this

> 

> 

> legend would seem to show the final

> official development of the

> 

> 

> beliefs held by the Babylonians,

> due, in all probability, to the

> 

> 

> priests of Babylon after that city

> became the capital of the federated

> 

> 

> states. Modifications of their creed

> probably took place, but nothing

> 

> 

> seriously affecting it, until after

> the abandonment of Babylon in the

> 

> 

> time of Seleucus Nicator, 300 B.C.

> or thereabouts, when the deity at

> 

> 

> the head of the pantheon seems not

> to have been Merodach, but Anu-B�l.

> 

> 

> This legend is therefore the most

> important document bearing upon the

> 

> 

> beliefs of the Babylonians from the

> end of the third millennium B.C.

> 

> 

> until that time, and the

> philosophical ideas which it contains seem to

> 

> 

> have been held, in a more or less

> modified form, among the remnants

> 

> 

> who still retained the old

> Babylonian faith, until the sixth century

> 

> 

> of the present era, as the record by

> Damascius implies. Properly

> 

> 

> speaking, it is not a record of the

> creation, but the story of the

> 

> 

> fight between Bel and the Dragon, to

> which the account of the creation

> 

> 

> is prefixed by way of introduction.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Water the first creator.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The legend begins by stating that,

> when the heavens were unnamed and

> 

> 

> the earth bore no name, the prim�val

> ocean was the producer of all

> 

> 

> things, and Mummu Tiawath (the sea)

> she who brought forth everything

> 

> 

> existing. Their waters (that is, of

> the prim�val ocean and of the sea)

> 

> 

> were all united in one, and neither

> plains nor marshes were to be

> 

> 

> seen; the gods likewise did not

> exist, even in name, and the fates

> 

> 

> were undetermined- -nothing had been

> decided as to the future of

> 

> 

> things. Then arose the great gods.

> Lahmu and Lahame came first,

> 

> 

> followed, after a long period, by

> An�ar and Ki�ar, generally

> 

> 

> identified with the "host of

> heaven" and the "host of earth," these

> 

> 

> being the meanings of the component

> parts of their names. After a

> 

> 

> further long period of days, there

> came forth their son Anu, the god

> 

> 

> of the heavens.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The gods.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Here the narrative is defective, and

> is continued by Damascius in his

> 

> 

> /Doubts and Solutions of the First

> Principles/, in which he states

> 

> 

> that, after Anos (Anu), come Illinos

> (Ellila or Bel, "the lord" /par

> 

> 

> excellence/) and Aos (Aa, Ae, or

> �a), the god of Eridu. Of Aos and

> 

> 

> Dauk� (the Babylonian Aa and

> Damkina) is born, he says, a son called

> 

> 

> Belos (Bel-Merodach) , who, they

> (apparently the Babylonians) say, is

> 

> 

> the fabricator of the world--the

> creator.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The

> designs against them.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> At this point Damascius ends his

> extract, and the Babylonian tablet

> 

> 

> also becomes extremely defective.

> The next deity to come into

> 

> 

> existence, however, would seem to

> have been Nudimmud, who was

> 

> 

> apparently the deity Aa or �a (the

> god of the sea and of rivers) as

> 

> 

> the god of creation. Among the

> children of Tauth� (Tiawath) enumerated

> 

> 

> by Damascius is one named Moumis,

> who was evidently referred to in the

> 

> 

> document at that philosopher' s

> disposal. If this be correct, his name,

> 

> 

> under the form of Mummu, probably

> existed in one of the defective

> 

> 

> lines of the first portion of this

> legend--in any case, his name

> 

> 

> occurs later on, with those of

> Tiawath and Apsu (the Deep), his

> 

> 

> parents, and the three seem to be

> compared, to their disadvantage,

> 

> 

> with the progeny of Lahmu and

> Lahame, the gods on high. As the ways of

> 

> 

> these last were not those of

> Tiawath's brood, and Apsu complained that

> 

> 

> he had no peace by day nor rest by

> night on account of their

> 

> 

> proceedings, the three

> representatives of the chaotic deep, Tiawath,

> 

> 

> Apsu, and Mummu, discussed how they

> might get rid the beings who

> 

> 

> wished to rise to higher things.

> Mummu was apparently the prime mover

> 

> 

> in the plot, and the face of Apsu

> grew bright at the thought of the

> 

> 

> evil plan which they had devised

> against "the gods their sons." The

> 

> 

> inscription being very mutilated

> here, its full drift cannot be

> 

> 

> gathered, but from the complete

> portions which come later it would

> 

> 

> seem that Mummu's plan was not a

> remarkably cunning one, being simply

> 

> 

> to make war upon and destroy the

> gods of heaven.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Tiawath's preparations.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The preparations made for this were

> elaborate. Restlessly, day and

> 

> 

> night, the powers of evil raged and

> toiled, and assembled for the

> 

> 

> fight. 'Mother Hubur," as

> Tiawath is named in this passage, called her

> 

> 

> creative powers into action, and

> gave her followers irresistible

> 

> 

> weapons. She brought into being also

> various monsters--giant serpents,

> 

> 

> sharp of tooth, bearing stings, and

> with poison filling their bodies

> 

> 

> like blood; terrible dragons endowed

> with brilliance, and of enormous

> 

> 

> stature, reared on high, raging

> dogs, scorpion-men, fish-men, and many

> 

> 

> other terrible beings, were created

> and equipped, the whole being

> 

> 

> placed under the command of a deity

> named Kingu, whom she calls her

> 

> 

> "only husband," and to

> whom she delivers the tablets of fate, which

> 

> 

> conferred upon him the godhead of

> Anu (the heavens), and enabled their

> 

> 

> possessor to determine the gates

> among the gods her sons.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Kingu replaces Absu.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The change in the narrative which

> comes in here suggests that this is

> 

> 

> the point at which two legends

> current in Babylonia were united.

> 

> 

> Henceforward we hear nothing more of

> Apsu, the begetter of all things,

> 

> 

> Tiawath's spouse, nor of Mummu,

> their son. In all probability there is

> 

> 

> good reason for this, and

> inscriptions will doubtless ultimately be

> 

> 

> found which will explain it, but

> until then it is only natural to

> 

> 

> suppose that two different legends

> have been pieced together to form a

> 

> 

> harmonious whole.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Tiawath's

> aim.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> As will be gathered from the above,

> the story centres in the wish of

> 

> 

> the goddess of the powers of evil

> and her kindred to retain creation--

> 

> 

> the forming of all living things--in

> her own hands. As Tiawath means

> 

> 

> "the sea," and Apsu

> "the deep," it is probable that this is a kind of

> 

> 

> allegory personifying the productive

> power seen in the teeming life of

> 

> 

> the ocean, and typifying the strange

> and wonderful forms found

> 

> 

> therein, which were symbolical, to

> the Babylonian mind, of chaos and

> 

> 

> confusion, as well as of evil.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The gods hear of the conspiracy.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Aa, or �a, having learned of the

> plot of Tiawath and her followers

> 

> 

> against the gods of heaven,

> naturally became filled with anger, and

> 

> 

> went and told the whole to An�ar,

> his father, who in his turn gave way

> 

> 

> to his wrath, and uttered cries of

> the deepest grief. After

> 

> 

> considering what they would do,

> An�ar applied to his son Anu, "the

> 

> 

> mighty and brave," saying that,

> if he would only speak to her, the

> 

> 

> great dragon's anger would be

> assuaged, and her rage disappear. In

> 

> 

> obedience to this behest, Anu went

> to try his power with the monster,

> 

> 

> but on beholding her snarling face,

> feared to approach her, and turned

> 

> 

> back. Nudimmud was next called upon

> to become the representative of

> 

> 

> the gods against their foe, but his

> success was as that of Anu, and it

> 

> 

> became needful to seek another champion.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> And choose Merodach as their champion.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The choice fell upon Merodach, the

> Belus (Bel-Merodach) of Damascius's

> 

> 

> paraphrase, and at once met with an

> enthusiastic reception. The god

> 

> 

> asked simply that an

> "unchangeable command" might be given to him--

> 

> 

> that whatever he ordained should

> without fail come to pass, in order

> 

> 

> that he might destroy the common

> enemy. Invitations were sent to the

> 

> 

> gods asking them to a festival,

> where, having met together, they ate

> 

> 

> and drank, and "decided the

> fate" for Merodach their avenger,

> 

> 

> apparently meaning that he was

> decreed their defender in the conflict

> 

> 

> with Tiawath, and that the power of

> creating and annihilating by the

> 

> 

> word of his mouth was his. Honours

> were then conferred upon him;

> 

> 

> princely chambers were erected for

> him, wherein he sat as judge "in

> 

> 

> the presence of his fathers,"

> and the rule over the whole universe was

> 

> 

> given to him. The testing of his

> newly acquired power followed. A

> 

> 

> garment was placed in their midst:

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> "He spake with his

> mouth, and the garment was destroyed,

> 

> 

> He spake to it again, and the

> garment was reproduced."

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Merodach proclaimed king.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> On this proof of the reality of the

> powers conferred on him, all the

> 

> 

> gods shouted "Merodach is

> king!" and handed to him sceptre, throne,

> 

> 

> and insignia of royalty. An

> irresistible weapon, which should shatter

> 

> 

> all his enemies, was then given to

> him, and he armed himself also with

> 

> 

> spear or dart, bow, and quiver;

> lightning flashed before him, and

> 

> 

> flaming fire filled his body. Anu,

> the god of the heavens, had given

> 

> 

> him a great net, and this he set at

> the four cardinal points, in order

> 

> 

> that nothing of the dragon, when he

> had defeated her, should escape.

> 

> 

> Seven winds he then created to

> accompany him, and the great weapon

> 

> 

> called /Abubu/, "the

> Flood," completed his equipment. All being ready,

> 

> 

> he mounted his dreadful,

> irresistible chariot, to which four steeds

> 

> 

> were yoked--steeds unsparing,

> rushing forward, rapid in flight, their

> 

> 

> teeth full of venom, foam-covered,

> experienced in galloping, schooled

> 

> 

> in overthrowing. Being now ready for

> the fray, Merodach fared forth to

> 

> 

> meet Tiawath, accompanied by the

> fervent good wishes of "the gods his

> 

> 

> fathers."

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The fight with Tiawath.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Advancing, he regarded Tiawath's

> retreat, but the sight of the enemy

> 

> 

> was so menacing that even the great

> Merodach (if we understand the

> 

> 

> text rightly) began to falter. This,

> however, was not for long, and

> 

> 

> the king of the gods stood before

> Tiawath, who, on her side, remained

> 

> 

> firm and undaunted. In a somewhat

> long speech, in which he reproaches

> 

> 

> Tiawath for her rebellion, he

> challenges her to battle, and the two

> 

> 

> meet in fiercest fight. To all

> appearance the type of all evil did not

> 

> 

> make use of honest weapons, but

> sought to overcome the king of the

> 

> 

> gods with incantations and charms.

> These, however, had not the

> 

> 

> slightest effect, for she found

> herself at once enclosed in Merodach's

> 

> 

> net, and on opening her mouth to

> resist and free herself, the evil

> 

> 

> wind, which Merodach had sent on

> before him, entered, so that she

> 

> 

> could not close her lips, and thus

> inflated, her heart was

> 

> 

> overpowered, and she became a prey

> to her conqueror. Having cut her

> 

> 

> asunder and taken out her heart,

> thus destroying her life, he threw

> 

> 

> her body down and stood thereon. Her

> followers then attempted to

> 

> 

> escape, but found themselves

> surrounded and unable to get forth. Like

> 

> 

> their mistress, they were thrown into

> the net, and sat in bonds, being

> 

> 

> afterwards shut up in prison. As for

> Kingu, he was raised up, bound,

> 

> 

> and delivered to be with Ugga, the

> god of death. The tablets of fate,

> 

> 

> which Tiawath had delivered to

> Kingu, were taken from him by Merodach,

> 

> 

> who pressed his seal upon them, and

> placed them in his breast. The

> 

> 

> deity An�ar, who had been, as it

> would seem, deprived of his rightful

> 

> 

> power by Tiawath, received that

> power again on the death of the common

> 

> 

> foe, and Nudimmud "saw his

> desire upon his enemy."

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Tiawath's fate.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The dismemberment of Tiawath then

> followed, and her veins having been

> 

> 

> cut through, the north wind was

> caused by the deity to carry her blood

> 

> 

> away into secret places, a statement

> which probably typifies the

> 

> 

> opening of obstructions which

> prevent the rivers flowing from the

> 

> 

> north from running into the southern

> seas, helped thereto by the north

> 

> 

> wind. Finally her body was divided,

> like "a /ma�d�/-fish," into two

> 

> 

> parts, one of which was made into a

> covering for the heavens--the

> 

> 

> "waters above the

> firmament" of Genesis i. 7.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Merodach orders the world anew.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Then came the ordering of the

> universe anew. Having made a covering

> 

> 

> for the heavens with half the body

> of the defeated Dragon of Chaos,

> 

> 

> Merodach set the Abyss, the abode of

> Nudimmud, in front, and made a

> 

> 

> corresponding edifice above--the

> heavens--where he founded stations

> 

> 

> for the gods Anu, Bel, and Ae.

> Stations for the great gods in the

> 

> 

> likeness of constellations, together

> with what is regarded as the

> 

> 

> Zodiac, were his next work. He then

> designated the year, setting three

> 

> 

> constellations for each month, and

> made a station for Nibiru--

> 

> 

> Merodach's own star--as the overseer

> of all the lights in the

> 

> 

> firmament. He then caused the new

> moon, Nannaru, to shine, and made

> 

> 

> him the ruler of the night,

> indicating his phases, one of which was on

> 

> 

> the seventh day, and the other, a

> /�abattu/, or day of rest, in the

> 

> 

> middle of the month. Directions with

> regard to the moon's movements

> 

> 

> seem to follow, but the record is

> mutilated, and their real nature

> 

> 

> consequently doubtful. With regard

> to other works which were performed

> 

> 

> we have no information, as a gap

> prevents their being ascertained.

> 

> 

> Something, however, seems to have

> been done with Merodach's net--

> 

> 

> probably it was placed in the

> heavens as a constellation, as was his

> 

> 

> bow, to which several names were

> given. Later on, the winds were bound

> 

> 

> and assigned to their places, but

> the account of the arrangement of

> 

> 

> other things is mutilated and

> obscure, though it can be recognised

> 

> 

> that the details in this place were

> of considerable interest.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The creation of man.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To all appearance the gods, after he

> had ordered the universe and the

> 

> 

> things then existing, urged Merodach

> to further works of wonder.

> 

> 

> Taking up their suggestion, he

> considered what he should do, and then

> 

> 

> communicated to his father Ae his

> plan for the creation of man with

> 

> 

> his own blood, in order that the

> service and worship of the gods might

> 

> 

> be established. This portion is also

> unfortunately very imperfect, and

> 

> 

> the details of the carrying out of

> the plan are entirely wanting.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Berosus' narrative fills the gap.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> It is noteworthy that this portion

> of the narrative has been preserved

> 

> 

> by Abydenus, George the Syncellus,

> and Eusebius, in their quotations

> 

> 

> from Berosus. According to this

> Chald�an writer, there was a woman

> 

> 

> named Omoroca, or, in Chald�an,

> Thalatth (apparently a mistake for

> 

> 

> Thauatth, i.e. Tiawath), whose name

> was equivalent to the Greek

> 

> 

> Thalassa, the sea. It was she who

> had in her charge all the strange

> 

> 

> creatures then existing. At this

> period, Belus (Bel-Merodach) came,

> 

> 

> and cut the woman asunder, forming

> out of one half the earth, and of

> 

> 

> the other the heavens, at the same

> time destroying all the creatures

> 

> 

> which were within her--all this

> being an allegory, for the whole

> 

> 

> universe consists of moisture, and

> creatures are constantly generated

> 

> 

> therein. The deity then cut off his

> own head, and the other gods mixed

> 

> 

> the blood, as it gushed out, with

> the earth, and from this men were

> 

> 

> formed. Hence it is that men are

> rational, and partake of divine

> 

> 

> knowledge.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> A second creation.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> This Belsus, "who is called

> Zeus," divided the darkness, separated the

> 

> 

> heavens from the earth, and reduced

> the universe to order. The animals

> 

> 

> which had been created, however, not

> being able to bear the light,

> 

> 

> died. Belus then, seeing the void

> thus made, ordered one of the gods

> 

> 

> to take off his head, and mix the

> blood with the soil, forming other

> 

> 

> men and animals which should be able

> to bear the light. He also formed

> 

> 

> the stars, the sun, the moon, and

> the five planets. It would thus seem

> 

> 

> that there were two creations, the

> first having been a failure because

> 

> 

> Belus had not foreseen that it was

> needful to produce beings which

> 

> 

> should be able to bear the light.

> Whether this repetition was really

> 

> 

> in the Babylonian legend, or whether

> Berosus (or those who quote him)

> 

> 

> has merely inserted and united two

> varying accounts, will only be

> 

> 

> known when the cuneiform text is

> completed.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The concluding tablet.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The tablet of the fifty-one names

> completes the record of the tablets

> 

> 

> found at Nineveh and Babylon. In

> this Merodach receives the titles of

> 

> 

> all the other gods, thus identifying

> him with them, and leading to

> 

> 

> that tendency to monotheism of which

> something will be said later on.

> 

> 

> In this text, which is written, like

> the rest of the legend, in

> 

> 

> poetical form, Merodach is

> repeatedly called /Tutu/, a mystic word

> 

> 

> meaning "creator," and

> "begetter," from the reduplicate root /tu/ or

> 

> 

> /utu/--which was to all appearances

> his name when it was desired to

> 

> 

> refer to him especially in that

> character. Noteworthy in this portion

> 

> 

> is the reference to Merodach's

> creation of mankind:--

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Line 25. "Tuto: Aga-azaga (the

> glorious crown)--may he make the crowns

> 

> 

> 

> glorious.

> 

> 

> 26. The

> lord of the glorious incantation bringing the dead to

> 

> 

> 

> life;

> 

> 

> 27. He who

> had mercy on the gods who had been overpowered;

> 

> 

> 28. Made

> heavy the yoke which he had laid on the gods who were

> 

> 

> 

> his enemies,

> 

> 

> 29. (And)

> to redeem(?) them, created mankind.

> 

> 

> 30. 'The

> merciful one,' 'he with whom is salvation,'

> 

> 

> 31. May his

> word be established, and not forgotten,

> 

> 

> 32. In the

> mouth of the black-headed ones[*] whom his hands have

> 

> 

> 

> made."

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> [*] I.e. mankind.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Man

> the redeemer.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The phrase "to redeem

> them" is, in the original, /ana padi-�unu/, the

> 

> 

> verb being from /pad�/, "to

> spare," "set free," and if this rendering

> 

> 

> be correct, as seems probable, the

> Babylonian reasons for the creation

> 

> 

> of mankind would be, that they might

> carry on the service and worship

> 

> 

> of the gods, and by their

> righteousness redeem those enemies of the

> 

> 

> gods who were undergoing punishment

> for their hostility. Whether by

> 

> 

> this Tiawath, Apsu, Mummu, Kingu,

> and the monsters whom she had

> 

> 

> created were included, or only the

> gods of heaven who had joined her,

> 

> 

> the record does not say. Naturally,

> this doctrine depends entirely

> 

> 

> upon the correctness of the

> translation of the words quoted. Jensen,

> 

> 

> who first proposed this rendering,

> makes no attempt to explain it, and

> 

> 

> simply asks: "Does 'them' in

> 'to redeem(?) them' refer to the gods

> 

> 

> named in line 28 or to mankind and

> then to a future--how meant?--

> 

> 

> redemption? Eschatology? Zimmern's

> 'in their place' unprovable.

> 

> 

> Delitzsch refrains from an

> explanation. "

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The

> bilingual account of the creation. Aruru aids Merodach.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Whilst dealing with this part of the

> religious beliefs of the

> 

> 

> Babylonians, a few words are needed

> concerning the creation-story

> 

> 

> which is prefixed to an incantation

> used in a purification ceremony.

> 

> 

> The original text is Sumerian

> (dialectic), and is provided with a

> 

> 

> Semitic translation. In this

> inscription, after stating that nothing

> 

> 

> (in the beginning) existed, and even

> the great cities and temples of

> 

> 

> Babylonia were as yet unbuilt, the

> condition of the world is briefly

> 

> 

> indicated by the statement that

> "All the lands were sea." The renowned

> 

> 

> cities of Babylonia seem to have

> been regarded as being as much

> 

> 

> creations of Merodach as the world and

> its inhabitants- -indeed, it is

> 

> 

> apparently for the glorification of

> those cities by attributing their

> 

> 

> origin to Merodach, that the

> bilingual account of the creation was

> 

> 

> composed.. "When within the sea

> there was a stream"--that is, when the

> 

> 

> veins of Tiawath had been cut

> through--�ridu (probably = Paradise) and

> 

> 

> the temple �-sagila within the Abyss

> were constructed, and after that

> 

> 

> Babylon and the earthly temple of

> �-sagila within it. Then he made the

> 

> 

> gods and the Annunnaki (the gods of

> the earth), proclaimed a glorious

> 

> 

> city as the seat of the joy of their

> hearts, and afterwards made a

> 

> 

> pleasant place in which the gods

> might dwell. The creation of mankind

> 

> 

> followed, in which Merodach was

> aided by the goddess Aruru, who made

> 

> 

> mankind's seed. Finally, plants, trees,

> and the animals, were

> 

> 

> produced, after which Merodach

> constructed bricks, beams, houses, and

> 

> 

> cities, including Niffer and Erech

> with their renowned temples.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> We see here a change in the teaching

> with regard to Merodach--the gods

> 

> 

> are no longer spoken of as "his

> fathers," but he is the creator of the

> 

> 

> gods, as well as of mankind.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The order of the gods in the principal lists.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> It is unfortunate that no lists of

> gods have been found in a

> 

> 

> sufficiently complete state to allow

> of the scheme after which they

> 

> 

> were drawn up to be determined

> without uncertainty. It may,

> 

> 

> nevertheless, be regarded as

> probable that these lists, at least in

> 

> 

> some cases, are arranged in

> conformity (to a certain extent) with the

> 

> 

> appearance of the deities in the

> so-called creation-story. Some of

> 

> 

> them begin with Anu, and give him

> various names, among them being

> 

> 

> An�ar and Ki�ar, Lahmu and Lahame,

> etc. More specially interesting,

> 

> 

> however, is a well-known trilingual

> list of gods, which contains the

> 

> 

> names of the various deities in the

> following order:--

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> EXTRACTS FROM THE TRILINGUAL LIST

> 

> 

> 

> /Obverse/

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Sumer.

> Dialect Sumer.

> Standard

> Common

> Explanation

> 

> 

> 

> (Semit. or Sumer.)

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 1.

> Dimmer

> Dingir

> �lu

> God.

> 

> 

> 2.

> U-ki

> En-ki

> �-a

> �a or Aa.

> 

> 

> 3.

> Ga�an(?)-ki

> Nin-ki

> Dawkina

> Dauk�, the consort of �a.

> 

> 

> 4.

> Mu-ul-lil

> En-lil-la

> B�l

> The God Bel.

> 

> 

> 5.

> E-lum

> A-lim

> B�l

> 

> 

> 6.

> Ga�an(?)-lil

> Nin-lil-la

> dam-bi

> sal Bel's

> consort.

> 

> 

> 7.

> U-lu-a

> Ni-rig

> �nu-r�tu

> The god of Niffer.

> 

> 

> 8.

> U-lib-a

> Ni-rig

> �nu-r�tu

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 9-12 have �nu-r�tu's consort,

> sister, and attendant.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 13.

> U-�ab-sib

> En-�ag-duga

> Nusku

> Nusku

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 14-19 have two other names of Nusku,

> followed by three names of his

> 

> 

> consort. A number

> of names of minor divinities then follow. At

> 

> 

> line 43 five

> names of �a are given, followed by four of

> 

> 

> Merodach:--

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 48.

> U-bi-lu-lu

> En-bi-lu-lu

> Marduk

> Merodach

> 

> 

> 49. U-Tin-dir

> ki En-Tin-dir

> ki

> Marduk

> Merodach as "lord of Babylon."

> 

> 

> 50. U-dimmer-an-

> kia En-dinger-an- kia

> Marduk

> Merodach as "lord god of heaven and earth."

> 

> 

> 51.

> U-ab-�ar-u

> En-ab-�ar-u

> Marduk

> Merodach, apparently as "lord of

> the 36,000 steers."

> 

> 

> 52.

> U-bar-gi-si

> Nin-bar-gi-si

> Zer-pan�tum

> Merodach's consort.

> 

> 

> 53.

> Ga�an-abzu

> Nin-abzu

> dam-bi

> sal

> "the Lady of the Abyss," his consort.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The remainder of the obverse is

> mutilated, but gave the names of Nebo

> 

> 

> in Sumerian, and apparently also of

> Ta�m�tum, his consort. The

> 

> 

> beginning of the reverse also is

> mutilated, but seems to have given

> 

> 

> the names of the sun-god, �ama�, and

> his consort, followed by those of

> 

> 

> K�ttu and M�arum, "justice and

> righteousness, " his attendants. Other

> 

> 

> interesting names are:

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> /Reverse/

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 8.

> U-libir-si

> En-ubar-si

> Dumu-zi

> Tammuz

> 

> 

> 9.

> Sir-tumu

> Sir-du

> ama Dumuzi-gi the mother of

> Tammuz

> 

> 

> 12.

> Ga�an-anna

> Innanna

> I�tar

> I�tar (Venus) as "lady of heaven."

> 

> 

> 20.

> Nin-si-anna

> Innanna mul

> I�tar the star (the planet Venus).

> 

> 

> 21.

> Nin

> Nin-tag-taga

> Nanaa

> a goddess identified with I�tar.

> 

> 

> 23.

> U-�ah

> Nina-�ah

> Pap-sukal

> the gods' messenger.

> 

> 

> 24.

> U-banda

> Lugal-banda Lugal-banda

> 

> 

> 26.

> U-Mersi

> Nin-Girsu

> Nin-Girsu

> the chief god of Laga�.

> 

> 

> 27.

> Ma-sib-sib

> Ga-tum-duga

> Bau

> Bau, a goddess identified with Gula.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Four non-Semitic names of Gula

> follow, of which that in line 31 is the

> 

> 

> most interesting: --

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 31.

> Ga�an-ti-dibba

> Nin-tin-guua

> Gula

> "the lady saving from death."

> 

> 

> 33.

> Ga�an-ki-gal

> Ere�-ki-gala

> Allatu

> Persephone.

> 

> 

> 36.

> U-mu-zi-da

> Nin-gi�-zi-da

> Nin-gi�-zida

> "the lord of the everlasting tree."

> 

> 

> 37.

> U-urugal

> Ne-eri-gal

> Nerigal

> Nergal.

> 

> 

> 42.

> Mulu-hursag

> Galu-hursag

> Amurru

> the Amorite god.

> 

> 

> 43.

> Ga�an-gu-edina

> Nin-gu-edina

> (apparently the consort of Amurru).

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> In all probability this list is one

> of comparatively late date, though

> 

> 

> its chronological position with

> regard to the others is wholly

> 

> 

> uncertain--it may not be later, and

> may even be earlier, than those

> 

> 

> beginning with Anu, the god of the

> heavens. The important thing about

> 

> 

> it is, that it begins with /�lu/,

> god, in general, which is written,

> 

> 

> in the standard dialect (that of the

> second column) with the same

> 

> 

> character as that used for the name

> of Anu. After this comes Aa or �a,

> 

> 

> the god of the earth, and his

> consort, followed by En-lilla, the older

> 

> 

> Bel--Illinos in Damascius. The name

> of �a is repeated again in line 43

> 

> 

> and following, where he is

> apparently re-introduced as the father of

> 

> 

> Merodach, whose names immediately

> follow. This peculiarity is also

> 

> 

> found in other lists of gods and is

> undoubtedly a reflection of the

> 

> 

> history of the Babylonian religion.

> As this list replaces Anu by

> 

> 

> /�lu/, it indicates the rule of Enki

> or �a, followed by that of

> 

> 

> Merodach, who, as has been shown,

> became the chief divinity of the

> 

> 

> Babylonian pantheon in consequence

> of Babylon having become the

> 

> 

> capital of the country.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> CHAPTER IV

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> THE PRINCIPAL GODS OF THE BABYLONIANS AND ASSYRIANS

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Anu.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The name of this divinity is derived

> from the Sumero-Akkadian /ana/,

> 

> 

> "heaven," of which he was

> the principal deity. He is called the father

> 

> 

> of the great gods, though, in the

> creation-story, he seems to be

> 

> 

> described as the son of An�ar and

> Ki�ar. In early names he is

> 

> 

> described as the father, creator,

> and god, probably meaning the

> 

> 

> supreme being. His consort was

> Anatu, and the pair are regarded in the

> 

> 

> lists as the same as the Lahmu and

> Lahame of the creation-story, who,

> 

> 

> with other deities, are also

> described as gods of the heavens. Anu was

> 

> 

> worshipped at Erech, along with

> I�tar.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Ea.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Is given as if it were the /Semitic/

> equivalent of /Enki/, "the lord

> 

> 

> of the earth," but it would

> seem to be really a Sumerian word, later

> 

> 

> written /Ae/, and certain

> inscriptions suggest that the true reading

> 

> 

> was /Aa/. His titles are "king

> of the Abyss, creator of everything,

> 

> 

> lord of all," the first being

> seemingly due to the fact that Aa is a

> 

> 

> word which may, in its reduplicate

> form, mean "waters," or if read

> 

> 

> /�a/, "house of water." He

> also, like Anu, is called "father of the

> 

> 

> gods." As this god was likewise

> "lord of deep wisdom," it was to him

> 

> 

> that his son Merodach went for

> advice whenever he was in doubt. On

> 

> 

> account of his knowledge, he was the

> god of artisans in general--

> 

> 

> potters, blacksmiths, sailors,

> builders, stone-cutters, gardeners,

> 

> 

> seers, barbers, farmers, etc. This

> is the Aos (a form which confirms

> 

> 

> the reading Aa) of Damascius, and

> the Oannes of the extracts from

> 

> 

> Berosus, who states that he was

> "a creature endowed with reason, with

> 

> 

> a body like that of a fish, and

> under the fish's head another head,

> 

> 

> with feet below, like those of a

> man, with a fish's tail." This

> 

> 

> description applies fairly well to

> certain bas-reliefs from Nimroud in

> 

> 

> the British Museum. The creature

> described by Berosus lived in the

> 

> 

> Persian Gulf, landing during the day

> to teach the inhabitants the

> 

> 

> building of houses and temples, the

> cultivation of useful plants, the

> 

> 

> gathering of fruits, and also

> geometry, law, and letters. From him,

> 

> 

> too, came the account of the

> beginning of things referred to in

> 

> 

> chapter III. which, in the original

> Greek, is preceded by a

> 

> 

> description of the composite

> monsters said to have existed before

> 

> 

> Merodach assumed the rule of the

> universe.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The name of his consort, Damkina or

> Dawkina, probably means "the

> 

> 

> eternal spouse," and her other

> names, /Ga�an-ki/ (Sumerian dialectic)

> 

> 

> and /Nin-ki/ (non-dialectic) ,

> "Lady of the earth," sufficiently

> 

> 

> indicates her province. She is often

> mentioned in the incantations

> 

> 

> with �a.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The forsaking of the worship of �a

> as chief god for that of Merodach

> 

> 

> seems to have caused considerable

> heartburning in Babylonia, if we may

> 

> 

> judge from the story of the Flood,

> for it was on account of his

> 

> 

> faithfulness that Utnipi�tim, the

> Babylonian Noah, attained to

> 

> 

> salvation from the Flood and

> immortality afterwards. All through this

> 

> 

> adventure it was the god �a who

> favoured him, and afterwards gave him

> 

> 

> immortality like that of the gods.

> There is an interesting Sumerian

> 

> 

> text in which the ship of �a seems

> to be described, the woods of which

> 

> 

> its various parts were formed being

> named, and in it, apparently, were

> 

> 

> Enki (�a), Damgal-nunna (Damkina),

> his consort, Asari-lu-duga

> 

> 

> (Merodach), In-ab (or Ine�), the

> pilot of �ridu (�a's city), and

> 

> 

> Nin-igi-nagar- sir, "the great

> architect of heaven":--

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> "May the ship before

> thee bring fertility,

> 

> 

> May the ship after thee bring

> joy,

> 

> 

> In thy heart may it make joy

> of heart . . . ."

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> �a was the god of fertility, hence

> this ending to the poetical

> 

> 

> description of the ship of �a.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Bel.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The deity who is mentioned next in

> order in the list given above is

> 

> 

> the "older Bel," so called

> to distinguish him from Bel-Merodach. His

> 

> 

> principal names were /Mullil/

> (dialectic) or /En-lilla/[* ] (standard

> 

> 

> speech), the /Illinos/ of Damascius.

> His name is generally translated

> 

> 

> "lord of mist," so-called

> as god of the underworld, his consort being

> 

> 

> /Ga�an-lil/ or /Nan-lilla/,

> "the lady of the mist," in Semitic

> 

> 

> Babylonian /B�ltu/, "the

> Lady," par excellence. Bel, whose name means

> 

> 

> "the lord," was so called

> because he was regarded as chief of the

> 

> 

> gods. As there was considerable

> confusion in consequence of the title

> 

> 

> Bel having been given to Merodach,

> Tiglath-pileser I. (about 1200

> 

> 

> B.C.) refers to him as the

> "older Bel" in describing the temple which

> 

> 

> he built for him at A��ur. Numerous

> names of men compounded with his

> 

> 

> occur until the latest times,

> implying that, though the favourite god

> 

> 

> was Merodach, the worship of Bel was

> not forgotten, even at Babylon--

> 

> 

> that he should have been adored at

> his own city, Niffur, and at Dur-

> 

> 

> Kuri-galzu, where Kuri-galzu I.

> built a temple for "Bel, the lord of

> 

> 

> the lands," was naturally to be

> expected. Being, like �a, a god of the

> 

> 

> earth, he is regarded as having

> formed a trinity with Anu, the god of

> 

> 

> heaven, and �a, the god of the deep,

> and prayer to these three was as

> 

> 

> good as invoking all the gods of the

> universe. Classification of the

> 

> 

> gods according to the domain of

> their power would naturally take place

> 

> 

> in a religious system in which they

> were all identified with each

> 

> 

> other, and this classification

> indicates, as Jastrow says, a deep

> 

> 

> knowledge of the powers of nature,

> and a more than average

> 

> 

> intelligence among the Babylonians-

> -indeed, he holds it as a proof

> 

> 

> that, at the period of the older

> empire, there were schools and

> 

> 

> students who had devoted themselves

> to religious speculation upon this

> 

> 

> point. He also conjectures that the

> third commandment of the Law of

> 

> 

> Moses was directed against this

> doctrine held by the Babylonians.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> [*] Ordinarily pronounced /Illila/, as

> certain glosses and Damascius's

> 

> 

> /Illinos/ (for

> /Illilos/) show.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Beltis.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> This goddess was properly only the

> spouse of the older Bel, but as

> 

> 

> /B�ltu/, her Babylonian name, simply

> meant "lady" in general (just as

> 

> 

> /B�l/ or /b�lu/ meant

> "lord"), it became a title which could be given

> 

> 

> to any goddess, and was in fact

> borne by Zer-pan�tum, I�tar, Nanaa,

> 

> 

> and others. It was therefore often

> needful to add the name of the city

> 

> 

> over which the special /B�ltu/

> presided, in order to make clear which

> 

> 

> of them was meant. Besides being the

> title of the spouse of the older

> 

> 

> Bel, having her earthly seat with

> him in Niffur and other less

> 

> 

> important shrines, the Assyrians

> sometimes name B�ltu the spouse of

> 

> 

> A��ur, their national god,

> suggesting an identification, in the minds

> 

> 

> of the priests, with that deity.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> �nu-r�tu or Nirig.[*]

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Whether /�nu-r�tu/ be a translation

> of /Nirig/ or not, is uncertain,

> 

> 

> but not improbable, the meaning

> being "primeval lord," or something

> 

> 

> similar, and "lord" that

> of the first element, /ni/, in the Sumerian

> 

> 

> form. In support of this reading and

> rendering may be quoted the fact,

> 

> 

> that one of the descriptions of this

> divinity is /a�sarid �lani

> 

> 

> �h�-�u/, "the eldest of the

> gods his brothers." It is noteworthy that

> 

> 

> this deity was a special favourite

> among the Assyrians, many of whose

> 

> 

> kings, to say nothing of private

> persons, bore his name as a component

> 

> 

> part of theirs. In the bilingual

> poem entitled /Ana-kime gimma/

> 

> 

> ("Formed like Anu"), he is

> described as being the son of Bel (hence

> 

> 

> his appearance after Bel in the list

> printed above), and in the

> 

> 

> likeness of Anu, for which reason,

> perhaps, his divinity is called

> 

> 

> "Anuship." Beginning with

> words praising him, it seems to refer to his

> 

> 

> attitude towards the gods of hostile

> lands, against whom, apparently,

> 

> 

> he rode in a chariot of the sacred

> lapis-lazuli. Anu having endowed

> 

> 

> him with terrible glory, the gods of

> the earth feared to attack him,

> 

> 

> and his onrush was as that of a

> storm-flood. By the command of Bel,

> 

> 

> his course was directed towards

> �-kur, the temple of Bel at Niffur.

> 

> 

> Here he was met by Nusku, the

> supreme messenger of Bel, who, with

> 

> 

> words of respect and of praise, asks

> him not to disturb the god Bel,

> 

> 

> his father, in his seat, nor make

> the gods of the earth tremble in

> 

> 

> Up�ukennaku (the heavenly

> festival-hall of the gods), and offers him a

> 

> 

> gift.[�] It will thus be seen that

> �nu-r�tu was a rival to the older

> 

> 

> Bel, whose temple was the great tower

> in stages called �-kura, in

> 

> 

> which, in all probability,

> �-�u-me-du, the shrine of �nu-r�tu, was

> 

> 

> likewise situated. The inscriptions

> call him "god of war," though,

> 

> 

> unlike Nergal, he was not at the

> same time god of disease and

> 

> 

> pestilence. To all appearance he was

> the god of the various kinds of

> 

> 

> stones, of which another legend

> states that he "determined their

> 

> 

> fate." He was "the hero,

> whose net overthrows the enemy, who summons

> 

> 

> his army to plunder the hostile

> land, the royal son who caused his

> 

> 

> father to bow down to him from

> afar." "The son who sat not with the

> 

> 

> nurse, and eschewed(?) the strength

> of milk," "the offspring who did

> 

> 

> not know his father." "He

> rode over the mountains and scattered

> 

> 

> seed--unanimously the plants

> proclaimed his name to their dominion,

> 

> 

> among them like a great wild bull he

> raises his horns."

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> [*] /�nu-r�tu/ is the reading which

> I have adopted as the Semitic

> 

> 

> Babylonian

> equivalent of the name of this divinity, in consequence

> 

> 

> of the Aramaic

> transcription given by certain contract-tablets

> 

> 

> discovered by the

> American expedition to Niffer, and published by

> 

> 

> Prof. Clay of

> Philadelphia.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> [�] The result of this request is

> not known, in consequence of the

> 

> 

> defective state

> of the tablets.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Many other interesting descriptions

> of the deity Nirig (generally read

> 

> 

> Nin-ip) occur, and show, with those

> quoted here, that his story was

> 

> 

> one of more than ordinary interest.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Nusku.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> This deity was especially invoked by

> the Assyrian kings, but was in no

> 

> 

> wise exclusively Assyrian, as is

> shown by the fact that his name

> 

> 

> occurs in many Babylonian

> inscriptions. He was the great messenger of

> 

> 

> the gods, and is variously given as

> "the offspring of the abyss, the

> 

> 

> creation of �a," and "the

> likeness of his father, the first-born of

> 

> 

> Bel." As Gibil, the fire-god,

> has likewise the same diverse parentage,

> 

> 

> it is regarded as likely that these

> two gods were identical. Nusku was

> 

> 

> the god whose command is supreme,

> the counsellor of the great gods,

> 

> 

> the protector of the Igigi (the gods

> of the heavens), the great and

> 

> 

> powerful one, the glorious day, the

> burning one, the founder of

> 

> 

> cities, the renewer of sanctuaries,

> the provider of feasts for all the

> 

> 

> Igigi, without whom no feast took

> place in �-kura. Like Nebo, he bore

> 

> 

> the glorious spectre, and it was

> said of him that he attacked mightily

> 

> 

> in battle. Without him the sun-god,

> the judge, could not give

> 

> 

> judgment.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> All this points to the probability,

> that Nusku may not have been the

> 

> 

> fire-god, but the brother of the

> fire-god, i.e. either flame, or the

> 

> 

> light of fire. The sun-god, without

> light, could not see, and

> 

> 

> therefore could not give judgment:

> no feast could be prepared without

> 

> 

> fire and its flame. As the evidence

> of the presence of the shining

> 

> 

> orbs in the heavens--the light of

> their fires--he was the messenger of

> 

> 

> the gods, and was honoured

> accordingly. From this idea, too, he became

> 

> 

> their messenger in general,

> especially of Bel-Merodach, the younger

> 

> 

> Bel, whose requests he carried to

> the god �a in the Deep. In one

> 

> 

> inscription he is identified with

> Nirig or �nu-r�tu, who is described

> 

> 

> above.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Merodach.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Concerning this god, and how he

> arose to the position of king of all

> 

> 

> the gods of heaven, has been fully

> shown in chapter III. Though there

> 

> 

> is but little in his attributes to

> indicate any connection with �ama�,

> 

> 

> there is hardly any doubt that he was originally

> a sun-god, as is

> 

> 

> shown by the etymology of his name. The form, as

> it has been handed

> 

> 

> down to us, is somewhat shortened, the original

> pronunciation having

> 

> 

> been /Amar-uduk/, "the young steer of

> day," a name which suggests that

> 

> 

> he was the morning sun. Of the four names given

> at the end of chapter

> 

> 

> III., two--"lord of Babylon," and

> "lord god of heaven and earth,"--may

> 

> 

> be regarded as expressing his more well-known

> attributes. /En-ab-�ar-

> 

> 

> u/, however, is a provisional, though not

> impossible, reading and

> 

> 

> rendering, and if correct, the "36,000 wild

> bulls" would be a

> 

> 

> metaphorical way of speaking of "the 36,000

> heroes," probably meaning

> 

> 

> the gods of heaven in all their grades. The

> signification of /En-

> 

> 

> bilulu/ is unknown. Like most of the other gods

> of the Babylonian

> 

> 

> pantheon, however, Merodach had many other

> names, among which may be

> 

> 

> mentioned /Asari/, which has been compared with

> the Egyptian Osiris,

> 

> 

> /Asari-lu-duga/ , "/Asari/ who is

> good," compared with Osiris Unnefer;

> 

> 

> /Namtila/, "life", /Tutu/,

> "begetter (of the gods), renewer (of the

> 

> 

> gods)," /�ar-azaga/, "the glorious

> incantation, " /Mu-azaga/, "the

> 

> 

> glorious charm," and many others. The last

> two refer to his being the

> 

> 

> god who, by his kindness, obtained from his

> father �a, dwelling in the

> 

> 

> abyss, those charms and incantations which

> benefited mankind, and

> 

> 

> restored the sick to health. In this connection,

> a frequent title

> 

> 

> given to him is "the merciful one,"

> but most merciful was he in that

> 

> 

> he spared the lives of the gods who, having

> sided with Taiwath, were

> 

> 

> his enemies, as is related in the tablet of the

> fifty-one names. In

> 

> 

> connection with the fight he bore also the

> names, "annihilator of the

> 

> 

> enemy," "rooter out of all evil,"

> "troubler of the evil ones," "life

> 

> 

> of the whole of the gods." From these names

> it is clear that Merodach,

> 

> 

> in defeating Tiawath, annihilated, at the same

> time, the spirit of

> 

> 

> evil, Satan, the accuser, of which she was,

> probably, the Babylonian

> 

> 

> type. But unlike the Saviour in the Christian

> creed, he saved not only

> 

> 

> man, at that time uncreated, but the gods of

> heaven also. As "king of

> 

> 

> the heavens," he was identified with the

> largest of the planets,

> 

> 

> Jupiter, as well as with other heavenly bodies.

> Traversing the sky in

> 

> 

> great zigzags, Jupiter seemed to the Babylonians

> to superintend the

> 

> 

> stars, and this was regarded as emblematic of

> Merodach shepherding

> 

> 

> them--"pasturing the gods like sheep,"

> as the tablet has it.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> A long list of gods gives as it were the court

> of Merodach, held in

> 

> 

> what was apparently a heavenly /�-sagila/, and

> among the spiritual

> 

> 

> beings mentioned are /Min�-�kul-b�li/ and

> /Min�-i�t�-b�li/ , "what my

> 

> 

> lord has eaten," and "what has my lord

> drunk," /Nadin-m�-gati/ , "he

> 

> 

> who gives water for the hands," also the

> two door-keepers, and the

> 

> 

> four dogs of Merodach, wherein people are

> inclined to see the four

> 

> 

> satellites of Jupiter, which, it is thought,

> were probably visible to

> 

> 

> certain of the more sharp-sighted stargazers of

> ancient Babylonia.

> 

> 

> These dogs were called /Ukkumu/, /Akkulu/,

> /Ik�suda/, and /Iltebu/,

> 

> 

> "Seizer," "Eater,"

> "Grasper," and "Holder." Images of these

> beings

> 

> 

> were probably kept in the temple of �-sagila at

> Babylon.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Zer-pan�tum.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> This was the name of the consort of Merodach,

> and is generally read

> 

> 

> Sarp(b)anitum- -a transcription which is against

> the native orthography

> 

> 

> and etymology, namely,

> "seed-creatress" (Zer-ban�tum) . The meaning

> 

> 

> attributed to this word is partly confirmed by

> another name which

> 

> 

> Lehmann has pointed out that she possessed,

> namely, /Erua/ or /Aru'a/,

> 

> 

> who, in an inscription of Antiochus Soter

> (280-260 B.C.) is called

> 

> 

> "the queen who produces birth," but

> more especially by the

> 

> 

> circumstance, that she must be identical with

> Aruru, who created the

> 

> 

> seed of mankind along with Merodach. Why she was

> called "the lady of

> 

> 

> the abyss," and elsewhere "the voice

> of the abyss" (/Me-abzu/) is not

> 

> 

> known. Zer-pan�tum was no mere reflection of

> Merodach, but one of the

> 

> 

> most important goddesses in the Babylonian

> pantheon. The tendency of

> 

> 

> scholars has been to identify her with the moon,

> Merodach being a

> 

> 

> solar deity and the meaning

> "silvery"--/ Sarpanitum/ , from /sarpu/, one

> 

> 

> of the words for "silver," was

> regarded as supporting this idea. She

> 

> 

> was identified with the Elamite goddess named

> Elagu, and with the

> 

> 

> Lahamum of the island of Bahrein, the Babylonian

> Tilmun.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Nebo and Ta�m�tum.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> As "the teacher" and "the

> hearer" these were among the most popular of

> 

> 

> the deities of Babylonia and Assyria. Nebo (in

> Semitic Babylonian

> 

> 

> Nab�) was worshipped at the temple-tower known

> as �-zida, "the ever-

> 

> 

> lasting house," at Borsippa, now the Birs

> Nimroud, traditionally

> 

> 

> regarded as the site of the Tower of Babel,

> though that title, as has

> 

> 

> already been shown, would best suit the similar

> structure known as

> 

> 

> �-sagila, "the house of the high

> head," in Babylon itself. In

> 

> 

> composition with men's names, this deity occurs

> more than any other,

> 

> 

> even including Merodach himself--a clear

> indication of the estimation

> 

> 

> in which the Babylonians and Assyrians held the

> possession of

> 

> 

> knowledge. The character with which his name is

> written means, with

> 

> 

> the pronunciation of /ak/, "to make,"

> "to create," "to receive," "to

> 

> 

> proclaim," and with the pronunciation of

> /me/, "to be wise," "wisdom,"

> 

> 

> "open of ear," "broad of ear,"

> and "to make, of a house," the last

> 

> 

> probably referring to the design rather than to

> the actual building.

> 

> 

> Under the name of /Dim-�ara/ he was "the

> creator of the writing of the

> 

> 

> scribes," as /Ni-zu/, "the god who

> knows" (/zu/, "to know"), as

> 

> 

> /Mermer/, "the speeder(?) of the command of

> the gods"--on the Sumerian

> 

> 

> side indicating some connection with Addu or

> Rimmon, the thunderer,

> 

> 

> and on the Semitic side with �nu-r�tu, who was

> one of the gods'

> 

> 

> messengers. A small fragment in the British

> Museum gave his attributes

> 

> 

> as god of the various cities of Babylonia, but

> unfortunately their

> 

> 

> names are lost or incomplete. From what remains,

> however, we see that

> 

> 

> Nebo was god of ditching(?), commerce(?), granaries(?)

> , fasting(?),

> 

> 

> and food; it was he who overthrew the land of

> the enemy, and who

> 

> 

> protected planting; and, lastly, he was god of

> Borsippa.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The worship of Nebo was not always as popular as

> it became in the

> 

> 

> later days of the Babylonian empire and after

> its fall, and Jastrow is

> 

> 

> of opinion that Hammurabi intentionally ignored

> this deity, giving the

> 

> 

> preference to Merodach, though he did not

> suppress the worship. Why

> 

> 

> this should have taken place is not by any means

> certain, for Nebo was

> 

> 

> a deity adored far and wide, as may be gathered

> from the fact that

> 

> 

> there was a mountain bearing his name in Moab,

> upon which Moses--also

> 

> 

> an "announcer," adds Jastrow--died.

> Besides the mountain, there was a

> 

> 

> city in Moab so named, and another in Jud�a.

> That it was the

> 

> 

> Babylonian Nebo originally is implied by the

> form--the Hebrew

> 

> 

> corresponding word is /nabi/.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> How old the worship of Ta�m�tum, his consort,

> is, is doubtful, but her

> 

> 

> name first occurs in a date of the reign of

> Hammurabi. Details

> 

> 

> concerning her attributes are rare, and Jastrow

> regards this goddess

> 

> 

> as the result of Babylonian religious

> speculations. It is noteworthy

> 

> 

> that her worship appears more especially in

> later times, but it may be

> 

> 

> doubted whether it is a product of those late

> times, especially when

> 

> 

> we bear in mind the remarkable seal-impression

> on an early tablet of

> 

> 

> 3500-4500 B.C., belonging to Lord Amherst of

> Hackney, in which we see

> 

> 

> a male figure with wide-open mouth seizing a

> stag by his horns, and a

> 

> 

> female figure with no mouth at all, but with

> very prominent ears,

> 

> 

> holding a bull in a similar manner. Here we have

> the "teacher" and the

> 

> 

> "hearer" personified in a very

> remarkable manner, and it may well be

> 

> 

> that this primitive picture shows the idea then

> prevailing with regard

> 

> 

> to these two deities. It is to be noted that the

> name of Ta�m�tum has

> 

> 

> a Sumerian equivalent, namely, /Kurnun/, and

> that the ideograph by

> 

> 

> which it is represented is one whose general

> meaning seems to be "to

> 

> 

> bind," perhaps with the additional

> signification of "to accomplish,"

> 

> 

> in which case "she who hears" would

> also be "she who obeys."

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> �ama� and his consort.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> At all times the worship of the sun in Babylonia

> and Assyria was

> 

> 

> exceedingly popular, as, indeed, was to be

> expected from his

> 

> 

> importance as the greatest of the heavenly

> bodies and the brightest,

> 

> 

> without whose help men could not live, and it is

> an exceedingly

> 

> 

> noteworthy fact that this deity did not become,

> like Ra in Egypt, the

> 

> 

> head of the pantheon. This place was reserved

> for Merodach, also a

> 

> 

> sun-god, but possessing attributes of a far

> wider scope. �ama� is

> 

> 

> mentioned as early as the reign of �-anna-tum,

> whose date is set at

> 

> 

> about 4200 B.C., and at this period his Semitic

> name does not,

> 

> 

> naturally, occur, the character used being

> /Utu/, or, in its longer

> 

> 

> form, /Utuki/.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> It is worthy of note that, in consequence of the

> Babylonian idea of

> 

> 

> evolution in the creation of the world, less

> perfect beings brought

> 

> 

> forth those which were more perfect, and the sun

> was therefore the

> 

> 

> offspring of Nannara or Sin, the moon. In

> accordance with the same

> 

> 

> idea, the day, with the Semites, began with the

> evening, the time when

> 

> 

> the moon became visible, and thus becomes the

> offspring of the night.

> 

> 

> In the inscriptions �ama� is described as

> "the light of things above

> 

> 

> and things below, the illuminator of the

> regions," "the supreme judge

> 

> 

> of heaven and earth," "the lord of

> living creatures, the gracious one

> 

> 

> of the lands." Dawning in the foundation of

> the sky, he opened the

> 

> 

> locks and threw wide the gates of the high

> heavens, and raised his

> 

> 

> head, covering heaven and earth with his

> splendour. He was the

> 

> 

> constantly righteous in heaven, the truth within

> the ears of the

> 

> 

> lands, the god knowing justice and injustice,

> righteousness he

> 

> 

> supported upon his shoulders, unrighteousness he

> burst asunder like a

> 

> 

> leather bond, etc. It will thus be seen, that

> the sun-god was the

> 

> 

> great god of judgment and justice--indeed, he is

> constantly alluded to

> 

> 

> as "the judge," the reason in all

> probability being, that as the sun

> 

> 

> shines upon the earth all day long, and his

> light penetrates

> 

> 

> everywhere, he was regarded as the god who knew

> and investigated

> 

> 

> everything, and was therefore best in a position

> to judge aright, and

> 

> 

> deliver a just decision. It is for this reason

> that his image appears

> 

> 

> at the head of the stele inscribed with

> Hammurabi's laws, and legal

> 

> 

> ceremonies were performed within the precincts

> of his temples. The

> 

> 

> chief seats of his worship were the great

> temples called �-babbara,

> 

> 

> "the house of great light," in the

> cities of Larsa and Sippar.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The consort of �ama� was Aa, whose chief seat

> was at Sippar, side by

> 

> 

> side with �ama�. Though only a weak reflex of

> the sun-god, her worship

> 

> 

> was exceedingly ancient, being mentioned in an

> inscription of

> 

> 

> Man-i�tusu, who is regarded as having reigned

> before Sargon of Agad�.

> 

> 

> From the fact that, in one of the lists, she has

> names formed by

> 

> 

> reduplicating the name of the sun-god, /Utu/,

> she would seem once to

> 

> 

> have been identical with him, in which case it

> may be supposed that

> 

> 

> she personified the setting sun--"the

> double sun" from the magnified

> 

> 

> disc which he presents at sunset, when,

> according to a hymn to the

> 

> 

> setting sun sung at the temple at Borsippa, Aa,

> in the Sumerian line

> 

> 

> Kur-nirda, was accustomed to go to receive him.

> According to the list

> 

> 

> referred to above, Aa, with the name of Burida

> in Sumerian, was more

> 

> 

> especially the consort of �a-zu, "him who

> knows the heart," one of the

> 

> 

> names of Merodach, who was probably the morning

> sun, and therefore the

> 

> 

> exact counterpart of the sun at evening.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Besides �ama� and Utu, the latter his ordinary

> Sumerian name, the sun-

> 

> 

> god had several other non-Semitic names,

> including /Gi�nu/,[*] "the

> 

> 

> light," /Ma-banda-anna/ , "the bark of

> heaven," /U-�/, "the rising

> 

> 

> sun," /Mitra/, apparently the Persian

> Mithra; /Ume-�ima�/ and Nahunda,

> 

> 

> Elamite names, and Sahi, the Kassite name of the

> sun. He also

> 

> 

> sometimes bears the names of his attendants

> Kittu and M�aru, "Truth"

> 

> 

> and "Righteousness, " who guided him

> upon his path as judge of the

> 

> 

> earth.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> [*] It is the group expressing this word which

> is used for �ama� in

> 

> 

> the name of �ama�-�um-uk�n

> (Saosduchinos) , the brother of A��ur-

> 

> 

> bani-�pli (Assurbanipal) .

> The Greek equivalent implies the

> 

> 

> pronunciation /�awa�/, as

> well as /�ama�/.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Tammuz and I�tar.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The date of the rise of the myth of Tammuz is

> uncertain, but as the

> 

> 

> name of this god is found on tablets of the time

> of Lugal-anda and

> 

> 

> Uru-ka-gina (about 3500 B.C.), it can hardly be

> of later date than

> 

> 

> 4000 B.C., and may be much earlier. As he is

> repeatedly called "the

> 

> 

> shepherd," and had a domain where he pastured

> his flock, Professor

> 

> 

> Sayce sees in Tammuz "Daonus or Daos, the

> shepherd of Pantibibla,"

> 

> 

> who, according to Berosus, ruled in Babylonia

> for 10 /sari/, or 36,000

> 

> 

> years, and was the sixth king of the mythical

> period. According to the

> 

> 

> classic story, the mother of Tammuz had

> unnatural intercourse with her

> 

> 

> own father, being urged thereto by Aphrodite

> whom she had offended,

> 

> 

> and who had decided thus to avenge herself.

> Being pursued by her

> 

> 

> father, who wished to kill her for this crime,

> she prayed to the gods,

> 

> 

> and was turned into a tree, from whose trunk

> Adonis was afterwards

> 

> 

> born. Aphrodite was so charmed with the infant

> that, placing him in a

> 

> 

> chest, she gave him into the care of Persephone,

> who, however, when

> 

> 

> she discovered what a treasure she had in her

> keeping, refused to part

> 

> 

> with him again. Zeus was appealed to, and

> decided that for four months

> 

> 

> in the year Adonis should be left to himself,

> four should be spent

> 

> 

> with Aphrodite, and four with Persephone, and

> six with Aphrodite on

> 

> 

> earth. He was afterwards slain, whilst hunting,

> by a wild boar.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Nothing has come down to us as yet concerning

> this legend except the

> 

> 

> incident of his dwelling in Hades, whither

> I�tar, the Babylonian

> 

> 

> Venus, went in search of him. It is not by any

> means unlikely,

> 

> 

> however, that the whole story existed in

> Babylonia, and thence spread

> 

> 

> to Ph�nicia, and afterwards to Greece. In

> Ph�nicia it was adapted to

> 

> 

> the physical conditions of the country, and the

> place of Tammuz's

> 

> 

> encounter with the boar was said to be the

> mountains of Lebanon,

> 

> 

> whilst the river named after him, Adonis (now

> the Nahr Ibrahim), which

> 

> 

> ran red with the earth washed down by the autumn

> rains, was said to be

> 

> 

> so coloured in consequence of being mingled with

> his blood. The

> 

> 

> descent of Tammuz to the underworld, typified by

> the flowing down of

> 

> 

> the earth-laden waters of the rivers to the sea,

> was not only

> 

> 

> celebrated by the Ph�nicians, but also by the

> Babylonians, who had at

> 

> 

> least two series of lamentations which were used

> on this occasion, and

> 

> 

> were probably the originals of those chanted by

> the Hebrew women in

> 

> 

> the time of Ezekiel (about 597 B.C.). Whilst on

> earth, he was the one

> 

> 

> who nourished the ewe and her lamb, the goat and

> her kid, and also

> 

> 

> caused them to be slain--probably in sacrifice.

> "He has gone, he has

> 

> 

> gone to the bosom of the earth," the

> mourners cried, "he will make

> 

> 

> plenty to overflow for the land of the dead, for

> its lamentations for

> 

> 

> the day of his fall, in the unpropitious month

> of his year." There was

> 

> 

> also lamentation for the cessation of the growth

> of vegetation, and

> 

> 

> one of these hymns, after addressing him as the

> shepherd and husband

> 

> 

> of I�tar, "lord of the underworld,"

> and "lord of the shepherd's seat,"

> 

> 

> goes on to liken him to a germ which has not absorbed

> water in the

> 

> 

> furrow, whose bud has not blossomed in the

> meadow; to the sapling

> 

> 

> which has not been planted by the watercourse,

> and to the sapling

> 

> 

> whose root has been removed. In the

> "Lamentations" in the Manchester

> 

> 

> Museum, I�tar, or one of her devotees, seems to

> call for Tammuz,

> 

> 

> saying, "Return, my husband," as she

> makes her way to the region of

> 

> 

> gloom in quest of him. Ere�-�-gala, "the

> lady of the great house"

> 

> 

> (Persephone) , is also referred to, and the text

> seems to imply that

> 

> 

> I�tar entered her domain in spite of her. In

> this text other names are

> 

> 

> given to him, namely, /Tumu-giba/, "son of

> the flute," /Ama-elaggi/ ,

> 

> 

> and /�i-umunnagi/ , "life of the

> people."

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The reference to sheep and goats in the British

> Museum fragment

> 

> 

> recalls the fact that in an incantation for

> purification the person

> 

> 

> using it is told to get the milk of a yellow

> goat which has been

> 

> 

> brought forth in the sheep-fold of Tammuz,

> recalling the flocks of the

> 

> 

> Greek sun-god Helios. These were the clouds

> illuminated by the sun,

> 

> 

> which were likened to sheep--indeed, one of the

> early Sumerian

> 

> 

> expressions for "fleece" was

> "sheep of the sky." The name of Tammuz in

> 

> 

> Sumerian is Dumu-zi, or in its rare fullest

> form, Dumu-zida, meaning

> 

> 

> "true" or "faithful son."

> There is probably some legend attached to

> 

> 

> this which is at present unknown.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> In all probability I�tar, the spouse of Tammuz,

> is best known from her

> 

> 

> descent into Hades in quest of him when with

> Persephone (Ere�-ki-gal)

> 

> 

> in the underworld. In this she had to pass

> through seven gates, and an

> 

> 

> article of clothing was taken from her at each,

> until she arrived in

> 

> 

> the underworld quite naked, typifying the

> teaching, that man can take

> 

> 

> nothing away with him when he departs this life.

> During her absence,

> 

> 

> things naturally began to go wrong upon the earth,

> and the gods were

> 

> 

> obliged to intervene, and demand her release,

> which was ultimately

> 

> 

> granted, and at each gate, as she returned, the

> adornments which she

> 

> 

> had left were given back to her. It is uncertain

> whether the husband

> 

> 

> whom she sought to release was set free, but the

> end of the

> 

> 

> inscription seems to imply that I�tar was

> successful in her mission.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> In this story she typifies the faithful wife,

> but other legends show

> 

> 

> another side of her character, as in that of

> Gilgame�, ruler of her

> 

> 

> city Erech, to whom she makes love. Gilgame�,

> however, knowing the

> 

> 

> character of the divine queen of his city too

> well, reproaches her

> 

> 

> with her treatment of her husband and her other

> lovers--Tammuz, to

> 

> 

> whom, from year to year, she caused bitter

> weeping; the bright

> 

> 

> coloured Allala bird, whom she smote and broke

> his wings; the lion

> 

> 

> perfect in strength, in whom she cut wounds

> "by sevens"; the horse

> 

> 

> glorious in war, to whom she caused hardship and

> distress, and to his

> 

> 

> mother Silili bitter weeping; the shepherd who

> provided for her things

> 

> 

> which she liked, whom she smote and changed to a

> jackal; I�ullanu, her

> 

> 

> father's gardener, whom she tried, apparently,

> to poison, but failing,

> 

> 

> she smote him, and changed him to a statue(?).

> On being thus reminded

> 

> 

> of her misdeeds, I�tar was naturally angry, and,

> ascending to heaven,

> 

> 

> complained to her father Anu and her mother

> Anatu, the result being,

> 

> 

> that a divine bull was sent against Gilgame� and

> Enki-du, his friend

> 

> 

> and helper. The bull, however, was killed, and a

> portion of the animal

> 

> 

> having been cut off, Enki-du threw it at the

> goddess, saying at the

> 

> 

> same time that, if he could only get hold of

> her, he would treat her

> 

> 

> similarly. Apparently I�tar recognised that

> there was nothing further

> 

> 

> to be done in the matter, so, gathering the

> hand-maidens, pleasure-

> 

> 

> women and whores, in their presence she wept

> over the portion of the

> 

> 

> divine bull which had been thrown at her.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The worship of I�tar, she being the goddess of

> love and war, was

> 

> 

> considerably more popular than that of her

> spouse, Tammuz, who, as

> 

> 

> among the western Semitic nations, was adored

> rather by the women than

> 

> 

> the men. Her worship was in all probability of

> equal antiquity, and

> 

> 

> branched out, so to say, in several directions,

> as may be judged by

> 

> 

> her many names, each of which had a tendency to

> become a distinct

> 

> 

> personality. Thus the syllabaries give the

> character which represents

> 

> 

> her name as having also been pronounced

> /Innanna/, /Ennen/, and /Nin/,

> 

> 

> whilst a not uncommon name in other inscriptions

> is /Ama-Innanna/ ,

> 

> 

> "mother I�tar." The principal seat of

> her worship in Babylonia was at

> 

> 

> Erech, and in Assyria at Nineveh--also at

> Arbela, and many other

> 

> 

> places. She was also honoured (at Erech and

> elsewhere) under the

> 

> 

> Elamite names of Ti�pak and �u�inak, "the

> Susian goddess."

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Nina.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From the name /Nin/, which I�tar bore, there is

> hardly any doubt that

> 

> 

> she acquired the identification with Nina, which

> is provable as early

> 

> 

> as the time of the Laga�ite kings, Lugal-anda

> and Uru-ka-gina. As

> 

> 

> identified with Aruru, the goddess who helped

> Merodach to create

> 

> 

> mankind, I�tar was also regarded as the mother

> of all, and in the

> 

> 

> Babylonian story of the Flood, she is made to

> say that she had

> 

> 

> begotten man, but like "the sons of the

> fishes," he filled the sea.

> 

> 

> Nina, then, as another form of I�tar, was a

> goddess of creation,

> 

> 

> typified in the teeming life of the ocean, and

> her name is written

> 

> 

> with a character standing for a house or

> receptacle, with the sign for

> 

> 

> "fish" within. Her earliest seat was

> the city of Nina in southern

> 

> 

> Babylonia, from which place, in all probability,

> colonists went

> 

> 

> northwards, and founded another shrine at

> Nineveh in Assyria, which

> 

> 

> afterwards became the great centre of her worship,

> and on this account

> 

> 

> the city was called after her Ninaa or Ninua. As

> their tutelary

> 

> 

> goddess, the fishermen in the neighbourhood of

> the Babylonian Nina and

> 

> 

> Laga� were accustomed to make to her, as well as

> to Innanna or I�tar,

> 

> 

> large offerings of fish.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> As the masculine deities had feminine forms, so

> it is not by any means

> 

> 

> improbable that the goddesses had masculine

> forms, and if that be the

> 

> 

> case, we may suppose that it was a masculine

> counterpart of Nina who

> 

> 

> founded Nineveh, which, as is well known, is

> attributed to Ninos, the

> 

> 

> same name as Nina with the Greek masculine

> termination.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Nin-Gursu.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> This deity is principally of importance in

> connection with the ancient

> 

> 

> Babylonian state of Laga�, the home of an old

> and important line of

> 

> 

> kings and viceroys, among the latter being the

> celebrated Gudea, whose

> 

> 

> statues and inscribed cylinders now adorn the

> Babylonian galleries of

> 

> 

> the Louvre at Paris. His name means "Lord

> of Girsu," which was

> 

> 

> probably one of the suburbs, and the oldest

> part, of Laga�. This deity

> 

> 

> was son of En-lila or B�l, and was identified

> with Nirig or �nu-r�tu.

> 

> 

> To all appearance he was a sun-deity. The

> dialectic form of his name

> 

> 

> was /U-Mersi/, of which a variant, /En-Mersi/,

> occurs in an

> 

> 

> incantation published in the fourth volume of

> the /Cuneiform

> 

> 

> Inscriptions of Western Asia/, pl. 27, where,

> for the Sumerian "Take a

> 

> 

> white kid of En-Mersi," the Semitic

> translation is "of Tammuz,"

> 

> 

> showing that he was identified with the latter

> god. In the second

> 

> 

> volume of the same work Nin-Girsu is given as

> the pronunciation of the

> 

> 

> name of the god of agriculturalists, confirming

> this identification,

> 

> 

> Tammuz being also god of agriculture.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Bau.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> This goddess at all times played a prominent

> part in ancient

> 

> 

> Babylonian religion, especially with the rulers

> before the dynasty of

> 

> 

> Hammurabi. She was the "mother" of

> Laga�, and her temple was at

> 

> 

> Uru-azaga, a district of Laga�, the chief city

> of Nin-Girsu, whose

> 

> 

> spouse she was. Like Nin-Girsu, she planted (not

> only grain and

> 

> 

> vegetation, but also the seed of men). In her

> character of the goddess

> 

> 

> who gave life to men, and healed their bodies in

> sickness, she was

> 

> 

> identified with Gula, one of those titles is

> "the lady saving from

> 

> 

> death". Ga-tum-duga, whose name probably

> means "making and producing

> 

> 

> good," was also exceedingly popular in

> ancient times, and though

> 

> 

> identified with Bau, is regarded by Jastrow has

> having been originally

> 

> 

> distinct from her.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Ere�-ki-gal

> or Allatu.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> As the prototype of Persephone, this goddess is

> one of much importance

> 

> 

> for comparative mythology, and there is a legend

> concerning her of

> 

> 

> considerable interest. The text is one of those

> found at Tel-el-

> 

> 

> Armana, in Egypt, and states that the gods once

> made a feast, and sent

> 

> 

> to Ere�-ki-gal, saying that, though they could

> go down to her, she

> 

> 

> could not ascend to them, and asking her to send

> a messenger to fetch

> 

> 

> away the food destined for her. This she did, and

> all the gods stood

> 

> 

> up to receive her messenger, except one, who

> seems to have withheld

> 

> 

> this token of respect. The messenger, when he

> returned, apparently

> 

> 

> related to Ere�-ki-gal what had happened, and

> angered thereat, she

> 

> 

> sent him back to the presence of the gods,

> asking for the delinquent

> 

> 

> to be delivered to her, that she might kill him.

> The gods then

> 

> 

> discussed the question of death with the

> messenger, and told him to

> 

> 

> take to his mistress the god who had not stood

> up in his presence.

> 

> 

> When the gods were brought together, that the

> culprit might be

> 

> 

> recognised, one of them remained in the

> background, and on the

> 

> 

> messenger asking who it was who did not stand

> up, it was found to be

> 

> 

> Nerigal. This god was duly sent, but was not at

> all inclined to be

> 

> 

> submissive, for instead of killing him, as she

> had threatened, Ere�-

> 

> 

> ki-gal found herself seized by the hair and

> dragged from her throne,

> 

> 

> whilst the death-dealing god made ready to cut

> off her head. "Do not

> 

> 

> kill me, my brother, let me speak to thee,"

> she cried, and on his

> 

> 

> loosing his hold upon her hair, she continued,

> "thou shalt be my

> 

> 

> husband, and I will be thy wife--I will cause

> you to take dominion in

> 

> 

> the wide earth. I will place the tablet of

> wisdom in thine hand--thou

> 

> 

> shalt be lord, I will be lady." Nerigal

> thereupon took her, kissed

> 

> 

> her, and wiped away her tears, saying,

> "Whatever thou hast asked me

> 

> 

> for months past now receives assent."

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Ere�-ki-gal did not treat her rival in the

> affections of Tammuz so

> 

> 

> gently when I�tar descended to Hades in search

> of the "husband of her

> 

> 

> youth." According to the story, not only

> was I�tar deprived of her

> 

> 

> garments and ornaments, but by the orders of

> Ere�-ki-gal, Namtar smote

> 

> 

> her with disease in all her members. It was not until

> the gods

> 

> 

> intervened that I�tar was set free. The meaning

> of her name is "lady

> 

> 

> of the great region," a description which

> is supposed to apply to

> 

> 

> Hades, and of which a variant, Ere�-ki-gal,

> "lady of the great house,"

> 

> 

> occurs in the Hymns to Tammuz in the Manchester

> Museum.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Nergal.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> This name is supposed to mean "lord of the

> great habitation," which

> 

> 

> would be a parallel to that of his spouse

> Ere�-ki-gal. He was the

> 

> 

> ruler of Hades, and at the same time god of war

> and of disease and

> 

> 

> pestilence. As warrior, he naturally fought on

> the side of those who

> 

> 

> worshipped him, as in the phrase which describes

> him as "the warrior,

> 

> 

> the fierce storm-flood overthrowing the land of

> the enemy." As pointed

> 

> 

> out by Jastrow, he differs from Nirig, who was

> also a god of war, in

> 

> 

> that he symbolises, as god of disease and death,

> the misery and

> 

> 

> destruction which accompany the strife of

> nations. It is in

> 

> 

> consequence of this side of his character that

> he appears also as god

> 

> 

> of fire, the destroying element, and Jensen says

> that Nerigal was god

> 

> 

> of the midday or of the summer sun, and

> therefore of all the

> 

> 

> misfortunes caused by an excess of his heat.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The chief centre of his worship was Cuthah

> (/Kut�/, Sumerian /Gudua/)

> 

> 

> near Babylon, now represented by the mounds of

> Tel Ibrahim. The

> 

> 

> identity with the Greek Aries and the Roman Mars

> is proved by the fact

> 

> 

> that his planet was /Mu�tabarr�-m�tanu/ ,

> "the death-spreader, " which

> 

> 

> is probably the name of Mars in Semitic

> Babylonian.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Amurru.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Although this is not by any means a frequent

> name among the deities

> 

> 

> worshipped in Babylonia, it is worthy of notice

> on account of its

> 

> 

> bearing upon the date of the compilation of the

> tablet which has been

> 

> 

> taken as a basis of this list of gods. He was

> known as "Lord of the

> 

> 

> mountains," and his worship became very

> popular during the period of

> 

> 

> the dynasty to which Hammurabi belonged--say

> from 2200 to 1937 B.C.,

> 

> 

> when Amurru was much combined with the names of

> men, and is found both

> 

> 

> on tablets and cylinder-seals. The ideographic

> manner of writing it is

> 

> 

> /Mar-tu/, a word that is used for /Amurru/, the

> land of the Amorites,

> 

> 

> which stood for the West in general. Amorites

> had entered Babylonia in

> 

> 

> considerable numbers during this period, so that

> there is but little

> 

> 

> doubt that his popularity was largely due to

> their influence, and the

> 

> 

> tablet containing these names was probably drawn

> up, or at least had

> 

> 

> the Semitic equivalents added, towards the

> beginning of that period.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Sin or Nannara.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The cult of the moon-god was one of the most

> popular in Babylonia, the

> 

> 

> chief seat of his worship being at Uru (now

> Muqayyar) the Biblical Ur

> 

> 

> of the Chaldees. The origin of the name Sin is

> unknown, but it is

> 

> 

> thought that it may be a corruption of Zu-ena,

> "knowledge-lord, " as

> 

> 

> the compound ideograph expressing his name may

> be read and translated.

> 

> 

> Besides this compound ideograph, the name of the

> god Sin was also

> 

> 

> expressed by the character for "30,"

> provided with the prefix of

> 

> 

> divinity, an ideograph which is due to the

> thirty days of the month,

> 

> 

> and is thought to be of late date. With regard

> to Nannar, Jastrow

> 

> 

> explains it as being for Narnar, and renders it

> "light-producer. " In a

> 

> 

> long hymn to this god he is described in many

> lines as "the lord,

> 

> 

> prince of the gods, who in heaven alone is

> supreme," and as "father

> 

> 

> Nannar." Among his other descriptive titles

> are "great Anu" (Sum. /ana

> 

> 

> gale/, Semitic Bab. /Anu rab�/)--another

> instance of the

> 

> 

> identification of two deities. He was also

> "lord of Ur," "lord of the

> 

> 

> temple Gi�nu-gala," "lord of the

> shining crown," etc. He is also said

> 

> 

> to be "the mighty steer whose horns are

> strong, whose limbs are

> 

> 

> perfect, who is bearded with a beard of

> lapis-stone, [*] who is filled

> 

> 

> with beauty and fullness (of splendour)."

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> [*] Probably of the colour of lapis only, not

> made of the stone

> 

> 

> itself.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Besides Babylonia and Assyria, he was also

> worshipped in other parts

> 

> 

> of the Semitic east, especially at Harran, to

> which city Abraham

> 

> 

> migrated, scholars say, in consequence of the

> patron-deity being the

> 

> 

> same as at Ur of the Chaldees, where he had

> passed the earlier years

> 

> 

> of his life. The Mountain of Sinai and the

> Desert of Sin, both bear

> 

> 

> his name.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> According to king Dungi (about 2700 B.C.), the

> spouse of Sin or

> 

> 

> Nannara was Nin-Uruwa, "the lady of

> Ur." Sargon of Assyria (722-705

> 

> 

> B.C.) calls her Nin-gala.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Addu or Rammanu.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The numerous names which Hadad bears in the

> inscriptions, both non-

> 

> 

> Semitic and Semitic, testify to the popularity

> which this god enjoyed

> 

> 

> at all times in Babylonia. Among his non-Semitic

> names may be

> 

> 

> mentioned Mer, Mermer, Muru, all, it may be

> imagined, imitative. Addu

> 

> 

> is explained as being his name in the Amorite

> language, and a variant

> 

> 

> form, apparently, which has lost its first

> syllable, namely, Dadu,

> 

> 

> also appears--the Assyrians seem always to have

> used the

> 

> 

> terminationless form of Addu, namely, Adad. In all

> probability Addu,

> 

> 

> Adad, and Dadu are derived from the West Semitic

> Hadad, but the other

> 

> 

> name, Rammanu, is native Babylonian, and cognate

> with Rimmon, which is

> 

> 

> thus shown by the Babylonian form to mean

> "the thunderer," or

> 

> 

> something similar. He was the god of winds,

> storms, and rain, feared

> 

> 

> on account of the former, and worshipped, and

> his favour sought, on

> 

> 

> account of the last. In his name Birqu, he

> appears as the god of

> 

> 

> lightning, and Jastrow is of opinion, that he is

> sometimes associated

> 

> 

> on that account with �ama�, both of them being

> (although in different

> 

> 

> degrees) gods of light, and this is confirmed by

> the fact that, in

> 

> 

> common with the sun-god, he was called "god

> of justice." In the

> 

> 

> Assyrian inscriptions he appears as a god of

> war, and the kings

> 

> 

> constantly compare the destruction which their

> armies had wrought with

> 

> 

> that of "Adad the inundator." For them

> he was "the mighty one,

> 

> 

> inundating the regions of the enemy, lands and

> houses," and was prayed

> 

> 

> to strike the land of the person who showed

> hostility to the Assyrian

> 

> 

> king, with evil-working lightning, to throw

> want, famine, drought, and

> 

> 

> corpses therein, to order that he should not

> live one day longer, and

> 

> 

> to destroy his name and his seed in the land.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The original seat of his worship was Muru in

> South Babylonia, to which

> 

> 

> the patesi of Girsu in the time of Ibi-Sin sent

> grain as an offering.

> 

> 

> Its site is unknown. Other places (or are they

> other names of the

> 

> 

> same?) where he was worshipped were Ennigi and

> Kakru. The consort of

> 

> 

> Addu was �ala, whose worship was likewise very

> popular, and to whom

> 

> 

> there were temples, not only in Babylonia and

> Assyria, but also in

> 

> 

> Elam, seemingly always in connection with Addu.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> A��ur.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> In all the deities treated of above, we see the

> chief gods of the

> 

> 

> Babylonian and Assyrian pantheon, which were

> worshipped by both

> 

> 

> peoples extensively, none of them being

> specifically Assyrian, though

> 

> 

> worshipped by the Assyrians. There was one

> deity, however, whose name

> 

> 

> will not be found in the Babylonian lists of

> gods, namely, A��ur, the

> 

> 

> national god of Assyria, who was worshipped in

> the city of A��ur, the

> 

> 

> old capital of the country.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From this circumstance, it may be regarded as

> certain, that A��ur was

> 

> 

> the local god of the city whose name he bore,

> and that he attained to

> 

> 

> the position of chief god of the Assyrian

> pantheon in the same way as

> 

> 

> Merodach became king of the gods in

> Babylonia--namely, because A��ur

> 

> 

> was the capital of the country. His acceptance

> as chief divinity,

> 

> 

> however, was much more general than that of

> Merodach, as temples to

> 

> 

> him were to be found all over the Assyrian

> kingdom--a circumstance

> 

> 

> which was probably due to Assyria being more

> closely united in itself

> 

> 

> than Babylonia, causing his name to arouse

> patriotic feelings wherever

> 

> 

> it might be referred to. This was probably

> partly due to the fact,

> 

> 

> that the king in Assyria was more the

> representative of the god than

> 

> 

> in Babylonia, and that the god followed him on

> warlike expeditions,

> 

> 

> and when engaged in religious ceremonies--

> indeed, it is not by any

> 

> 

> means improbable that he was thought to follow

> him wherever he went.

> 

> 

> On the sculptures he is seen accompanying him in

> the form of a circle

> 

> 

> provided with wings, in which is shown sometimes

> a full-length figure

> 

> 

> of the god in human form, sometimes the upper

> part only, facing

> 

> 

> towards and drawing his bow against the foe. In

> consequence of its

> 

> 

> general appearance, the image of the god has

> been likened to the sun

> 

> 

> in eclipse, the far-stretching wings being

> thought to resemble the

> 

> 

> long streamers visible at the moment of

> totality, and it must be

> 

> 

> admitted as probable that this may have given

> the idea of the symbol

> 

> 

> shown on the sculptures. As a sun-god, and at

> the same time not the

> 

> 

> god �ama�, he resembled the Babylonian Merodach,

> and was possibly

> 

> 

> identified with him, especially as, in at least

> one text, B�ltu

> 

> 

> (B�ltis) is described as his consort, which

> would possibly identify

> 

> 

> A��ur's spouse with Zer-pan�tum. The original

> form of his name would

> 

> 

> seem to have been Au�ar, "water-field,

> " probably from the tract where

> 

> 

> the city of A��ur was built. His identification

> with Merodach, if that

> 

> 

> was ever accepted, may have been due to the

> likeness of the word to

> 

> 

> Asari, one of that deity's names. The

> pronunciation A��ur, however,

> 

> 

> seems to have led to a comparison with the An�ar

> of the first tablet

> 

> 

> of the Creation-story, though it may seem

> strange that the Assyrians

> 

> 

> should have thought that their patron-god was a

> deity symbolising the

> 

> 

> "host of heaven." Nevertheless, the

> Greek transcription of An�ar,

> 

> 

> namely, /Assoros/, given by Damascius, certainly

> strengthens the

> 

> 

> indications of the ideograph in this matter.

> Delitzsch regards the

> 

> 

> word A��ur, or A�ur, as he reads it, as meaning

> "holy," and quotes a

> 

> 

> list of the gods of the city of Nineveh, where

> the word A��ur occurs

> 

> 

> three times, suggesting the exclamation

> "holy, holy, holy," or "the

> 

> 

> holy, holy, holy one." In all probability,

> however, the repetition of

> 

> 

> the name three times simply means that there

> were three temples

> 

> 

> dedicated to A��ur in the cities in question.[*]

> Jastrow agrees with

> 

> 

> Delitzsch in regarding A�ur as another form of

> A�ir (found in early

> 

> 

> Cappadocian names), but he translates it rather

> as "overseer" or

> 

> 

> "guardian" of the land and the

> people--the terminationless form of

> 

> 

> /a�iru/, which has this meaning, and is applied

> to Merodach.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> [*] Or there may have been three shrines to

> A��ur in each temple

> 

> 

> referred to.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> As the use of the characters /An-�ar/ for the

> god A��ur only appears

> 

> 

> at a late date (Jastrow says the eighth century

> B.C.), this would seem

> 

> 

> to have been the work of the scribes, who wished

> to read into the name

> 

> 

> the earlier signification of An�ar, "the

> host of heaven," an

> 

> 

> explanation fully in accord with Jastrow's

> reasonings with regard to

> 

> 

> the nature of the deity. As he represented no

> personification or power

> 

> 

> of nature, he says, but the general protecting

> spirit of the land, the

> 

> 

> king, the army, and the people, the capital of

> the country could be

> 

> 

> transferred from A��ur to Calah, from there back

> to A��ur, and finally

> 

> 

> to Nineveh, without affecting the position of

> the protecting god of

> 

> 

> the land in any way. He needed no temple--though

> such things were

> 

> 

> erected to him--he had no need to fear that he

> should suffer in esteem

> 

> 

> by the preference for some other god. As the

> embodiment of the spirit

> 

> 

> of the Assyrian people the personal side of his

> being remained to a

> 

> 

> certain extent in the background. If he was the

> "host of heaven," all

> 

> 

> the deities might be regarded as having their

> being in him.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Such was the chief deity of the Assyrians--a

> national god, grafted on

> 

> 

> to, but always distinct from, the rest of the

> pantheon, which, as has

> 

> 

> been shown, was of Babylonian origin, and always

> maintained the

> 

> 

> characteristics and stamp of its origin.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The spouse of A��ur does not appear in the

> historical texts, and her

> 

> 

> mention elsewhere under the title of B�ltu,

> "the lady," does not allow

> 

> 

> of any identification being made. In one

> inscription, however,

> 

> 

> A��uritu is called the goddess, and A��ur the

> god, of the star Sib-zi-

> 

> 

> anna, identified by Jensen with Regulus, which

> was apparently the star

> 

> 

> of Merodach in Babylonia. This, however, brings

> us no nearer, for

> 

> 

> A��uritu would simply mean "the Assurite

> (goddess)."

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The minor divinities.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Among the hundreds of names which the lists

> furnish, a few are worthy

> 

> 

> of mention, either because of more than ordinary

> interest, or in

> 

> 

> consequence of their furnishing the name of some

> deity, chief in its

> 

> 

> locality, but identified elsewhere with one of

> the greater gods.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Aa.--This may be regarded either as the god �a

> (though the name is

> 

> 

> written differently) , or as the sun-god

> assuming the name of his

> 

> 

> consort; or (what is, perhaps, more probable) as

> a way of writing A'u

> 

> 

> or Ya'u (the Hebrew Jah), without the ending of

> the nominative. This

> 

> 

> last is also found under the form /Aa'u/,

> /ya'u/, /yau/, and /ya/.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Abil-addu.-- This deity seems to have attained a

> certain popularity in

> 

> 

> later times, especially among immigrants from

> the West. As "the son of

> 

> 

> Hadad," he was the equivalent of the Syrian

> Ben-Hadad. A tablet in New

> 

> 

> York shows that his name was weakened in form to

> /Ablada/.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Aku, the moon-god among the heavenly bodies. It

> is this name which is

> 

> 

> regarded as occurring in the name of the

> Babylonian king Eri-Aku,

> 

> 

> "servant of the moon-god," the

> biblical Arioch (Gen. xiv.).

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Amma-an-ki, �a or Aa as lord of heaven and

> earth.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Amna.--A name only found in a syllabary, and

> assigned to the sun-god,

> 

> 

> from which it would seem that it is a form of

> the Egyptian Ammon.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Anunitum, the goddess of one of the two Sippars,

> called Sippar of

> 

> 

> Anunitum, who was worshipped in the temple

> �-ulma� within the city of

> 

> 

> Agad� (Akkad). Sayce identifies, on this

> account, these two places as

> 

> 

> being the same. In a list of stars, Anunitum is

> coupled with

> 

> 

> �inunutum, which are explained as (the stars of)

> the Tigris and

> 

> 

> Euphrates. These were probably names of Venus as

> the morning and

> 

> 

> evening (or evening and morning) star.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Apsu.--The deep dissociated from the evil

> connection with Tiawath, and

> 

> 

> regarded as "the house of deep

> wisdom," i.e. the home of the god �a or

> 

> 

> Aa.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Aruru.--One of the deities of Sippar and Aruru

> (in the time of the

> 

> 

> dynasty of Hammurabi called Ya'ruru), of which

> she was the chief

> 

> 

> goddess. Aruru was one of the names of the

> "lady of the gods," and

> 

> 

> aided Merodach to make the seed of mankind.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> B�l.--As this name means "lord," it

> could be applied, like the

> 

> 

> Ph�nician Baal, to the chief god of any city, as

> B�l of Niffur, B�l of

> 

> 

> Hursag-kalama, B�l of Aratta, B�l of Babylon,

> etc. This often

> 

> 

> indicates also the star which represented the

> chief god of a place.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> B�ltu.--In the same way B�ltu, meaning

> "lady," meant also the chief

> 

> 

> goddess of any place, as "Aruru, lady of

> the gods of Sippar of Aruru,"

> 

> 

> "Nin-mah, lady of the gods of �-mah,"

> a celebrated temple within

> 

> 

> Babylon, recently excavated by the Germans,

> "Nin-hur-saga, lady of the

> 

> 

> gods of K�," etc.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Bunene.--A god associated with �ama� and I�tar

> at Sippar and

> 

> 

> elsewhere. He "gave" and

> "renewed" to his worshippers.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Dagan.--This deity, whose worship extends back

> to an exceedingly early

> 

> 

> date, is generally identified with the Ph�nician

> Dagon. Hammurabi

> 

> 

> seems to speak of the Euphrates as being

> "the boundary of Dagan," whom

> 

> 

> he calls his creator. In later inscriptions the

> form Daguna, which

> 

> 

> approaches nearer to the West Semitic form, is

> found in a few personal

> 

> 

> names. The Ph�nician statues of this deity

> showed him with the lower

> 

> 

> part of his body in the form of a fish (see 1

> Sam. v. 4). Whether the

> 

> 

> deities clothed in a fish's skin in the Nimroud

> gallery be Dagon or

> 

> 

> not is uncertain--they may be intended for �a or

> Aa, the Oannes of

> 

> 

> Berosus, who was represented in this way.

> Probably the two deities

> 

> 

> were regarded as identical.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Damu.--a goddess regarded as equivalent to Gula

> by the Babylonians and

> 

> 

> Assyrians. She was goddess of healing, and made

> one's dreams happy.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Dumu-zi-abzu, "Tammuz of the

> Abyss."--This was one of the six sons of

> 

> 

> �a or Aa, according to the lists. His worship is

> exceedingly ancient,

> 

> 

> and goes back to the time of E-anna-tum of Laga�

> (about 4000 B.C.).

> 

> 

> What connection, if any, he may have with Tammuz,

> the spouse of I�tar,

> 

> 

> is unknown. Jastrow apparently regards him as a

> distinct deity, and

> 

> 

> translates his name "the child of the life

> of the water-deep."

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Elali.--A deity identified with the Hebrew

> Helal, the new moon. Only

> 

> 

> found in names of the time of the Hammurabi

> dynasty, in one of which

> 

> 

> he appears as "a creator."

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> En-nugi is described as "lord of streams

> and canals," and "lord of the

> 

> 

> earth, lord of no-return." This last

> description, which gives the

> 

> 

> meaning of his name, suggests that he was one of

> the gods of the realm

> 

> 

> of Ere�-ki-gal, though he may have borne that

> name simply as god of

> 

> 

> streams, which always flow down, never the

> reverse.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Gibil.--One of the names of the god of fire,

> sometimes transcribed

> 

> 

> Girru by Assyriologists, the meaning apparently

> being "the fire-

> 

> 

> bearer" or "light-bearer. " Girru

> is another name of this deity, and

> 

> 

> translates an ideographic group, rendered by

> Delitzsch "great" or

> 

> 

> "highest decider," suggesting the

> custom of trial by ordeal. He was

> 

> 

> identified with Nirig, in Semitic �nu-r�tu.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Gu�qi-banda or Kuski-banda, one of the names of

> �a, probably as god of

> 

> 

> gold-workers.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> I�um, "the glorious sacrificer,"

> seemingly a name of the fire-god as a

> 

> 

> means whereby burnt offerings were made.

> N�r-I�um, "light of I�um," is

> 

> 

> found as a man's name.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> K�awanu, the planet Saturn.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Lagamal.--A god identified with the Elamite

> Lagamar, whose name is

> 

> 

> regarded as existing in Chedorlaomer (cf. Gen.

> xiv. 2). He was the

> 

> 

> chief god of Mair, "the ship-city."

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Lugal-Amarada or Lugal-Marad. --This name means

> "king of Marad," a city

> 

> 

> as yet unidentified. The king of this place

> seems to have been

> 

> 

> Nerigal, of whom, therefore, Lugal-Marad is

> another name.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Lugal-banda. --This name means "the

> powerful king," or something

> 

> 

> similar, and the god bearing it is supposed to

> be the same as Nerigal.

> 

> 

> His consort, however, was named Nin-sun (or

> Nin-gul).

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Lugal-Du-azaga, "the king of the glorious

> seat."--The founder of

> 

> 

> �ridu, "the good city within the

> Abyss," probably the paradise (or a

> 

> 

> paradise) of the world to come. As it was the

> aim of every good

> 

> 

> Babylonian to dwell hereafter with the god whom

> he had worshipped upon

> 

> 

> earth, it may be conjectured that this was the

> paradise in the domain

> 

> 

> of �a or Aa.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Mama, Mami.--Names of "the lady of the

> gods," and creatress of the

> 

> 

> seed of mankind, Aruru. Probably so called as

> the "mother" of all

> 

> 

> things. Another name of this goddess is Ama,

> "mother."

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Mammitum, Mamitum, goddess of fate.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Mur, one of the names of Addu or Rammanu (Hadad

> or Rimmon).

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Nan� or Nanaa was the consort of Nebo at

> Borsippa, but appears as a

> 

> 

> form of I�tar, worshipped, with Anu her father,

> at Erech.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Nin-aha-kuku, a name of �a or Aa and of his

> daughter as deity of the

> 

> 

> rivers, and therefore of gardens and

> plantations, which were watered

> 

> 

> by means of the small canals leading therefrom.

> As daughter of �a,

> 

> 

> this deity was also "lady of the

> incantation. "

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Nin-azu, the consort of Ere�-ki-gal, probably as

> "lord physician." He

> 

> 

> is probably to be identified with Nerigal.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Nin-igi-nagar- si, a name somewhat more doubtful

> as to its reading than

> 

> 

> the others, designates �a or Aa as "the god

> of the carpenter." He

> 

> 

> seems to have borne this as "the great

> constructor of heaven" or "of

> 

> 

> Anu."

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Nin-mah, chief goddess of the temple �-mah in

> Babylon. Probably to be

> 

> 

> identified with Aruru, and therefore with

> Zer-pan�tum.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Nin-�ah, a deity whose name is conjectured to

> mean "lord of the wild

> 

> 

> boar." He seems to have been a god of war,

> and was identified with

> 

> 

> Nirig or �nu-r�tu and Pap-sukal.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Nin-sirsir, �a as the god of sailors.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Nin-sun, as pointed out by Jastrow, was probably

> the same as I�tar or

> 

> 

> Nan� of Erech, where she had a shrine, with

> them, in �-anna, "the

> 

> 

> house of Anu." He renders her name

> "the annihilating lady,"[*]

> 

> 

> "appropriate for the consort of a

> sun-god," for such he regards Lugal-

> 

> 

> banda her spouse. King Sin-gasid of Erech (about

> 3000 B.C.) refers to

> 

> 

> her as his mother.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> [*] This is due to the second element of the

> name having, with another

> 

> 

> pronunciation, the meaning of

> "to destroy."

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Nun-urra.--�a, as the god of potters.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Pap-sukal.-- A name of Nin-�ah as the

> "divine messenger," who is also

> 

> 

> described as god "of decisions."

> Nin-�ah would seem to have been one

> 

> 

> of the names of Pap-sukal rather than the

> reverse.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Qarradu, "strong," "mighty,"

> "brave."--This word, which was formerly

> 

> 

> translated "warrior," is applied to

> several deities, among them being

> 

> 

> B�l, Nergal, Nirig (�nu-r�tu), and �ama�, the

> sun-god.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Ragimu and Ramimu, names of Rimmon or Hadad as

> "the thunderer." The

> 

> 

> second comes from the same root as Rammanu

> (Rimmon).

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> �uqamunu.--A deity regarded as "lord of

> watercourses, " probably the

> 

> 

> artificial channels dug for the irrigation of

> fields.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Ura-gala, a name of Nerigal.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Ura�, a name of Nirig, under which he was

> worshipped at Dailem, near

> 

> 

> Babylon.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Zagaga, dialectic Zamama.--This deity, who was a

> god of war, was

> 

> 

> identified with Nirig. One of this titles was

> /b�l parakki/, "lord of

> 

> 

> the royal chamber," or "throne-room.

> "

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Zaraqu or Zariqu.--As the root of this name

> means "to sprinkle," he

> 

> 

> was probably also a god of irrigation, and may

> have presided over

> 

> 

> ceremonial purification. He is mentioned in

> names as the "giver of

> 

> 

> seed" and "giver of a name" (i.e.

> offspring).

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> These are only a small proportion of the names

> found in the

> 

> 

> inscriptions, but short as the list necessarily

> is, the nature, if not

> 

> 

> the full composition, of the Babylonian pantheon

> will easily be

> 

> 

> estimated therefrom.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> It will be seen that besides the identifications

> of the deities of all

> 

> 

> the local pantheons with each other, each

> divinity had almost as many

> 

> 

> names as attributes and titles, hence their

> exceeding multiplicity. In

> 

> 

> such an extensive pantheon, many of the gods composing

> it necessarily

> 

> 

> overlap, and identification of each other, to

> which the faith, in its

> 

> 

> primitive form, was a stranger, were inevitable.

> The tendency to

> 

> 

> monotheism which this caused will be referred to

> later on.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The gods and the heavenly bodies.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> It has already been pointed out that, from the

> evidence of the

> 

> 

> Babylonian syllabary, the deities of the

> Babylonians were not astral

> 

> 

> in their origin, the only gods certainly

> originating in heavenly

> 

> 

> bodies being the sun and the moon. This leads to

> the supposition that

> 

> 

> the Babylonians, bearing these two deities in

> mind, may have asked

> 

> 

> themselves why, if these two were represented by

> heavenly bodies, the

> 

> 

> others should not be so represented also. Be

> this as it may, the other

> 

> 

> deities of the pantheon were so represented, and

> the full planetary

> 

> 

> scheme, as given by a bilingual list in the

> British Museum, was as

> 

> 

> follows:

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Aku

> Sin

> the moon Sin

> 

> 

> Bi�ebi

> �ama�

> the sun �ama�

> 

> 

> Dapinu

> Umun-sig-�a Jupiter

> Merodach

> 

> 

> Zib[*]

> Dele-bat

> Venus

> I�tar

> 

> 

> Lu-lim

> Lu-bat-sag-u�

> Saturn

> Nirig (acc. to Jensen)

> 

> 

> Bibbu

> Lubat-gud

> Mercury Nebo

> 

> 

> Simutu

> Mu�tabarru

> Mars

> Nergal

> 

> 

> 

> m�tanu

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> All the above names of planets have the prefix

> of divinity, but in

> 

> 

> other inscriptions the determinative prefix is

> that for "star,"

> 

> 

> /kakkabu/.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> [*] This is apparently a Sumerian dialectic

> form, the original word

> 

> 

> having seemingly been Zig.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Moon and Sun.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Unfortunately, all the above identifications of

> the planets with the

> 

> 

> deities in the fourth column are not certain,

> namely, those

> 

> 

> corresponding with Saturn, Mercury, and Mars.

> With regard to the

> 

> 

> others, however, there is no doubt whatever. The

> reason why the moon

> 

> 

> is placed before the sun is that the sun, as

> already explained, was

> 

> 

> regarded as his son. It was noteworthy also that

> the moon was

> 

> 

> accredited with two other offspring, namely,

> M�u and M�tu--son and

> 

> 

> daughter respectively. As /m�u/ means

> "twin," these names must

> 

> 

> symbolise the two halves, or, as we say,

> "quarters" of the moon, who

> 

> 

> were thus regarded, in Babylonian mythology, as

> his "twin children."

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Jupiter and Saturn.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Concerning Jupiter, who is in the above called

> Dapinu (Semitic), and

> 

> 

> Umun-sig-�a (Sumerian), it has already been

> noted that he was called

> 

> 

> Nibiru--according to Jensen, Merodach as he who

> went about among the

> 

> 

> stars "pasturing" them like sheep, as

> stated in the Babylonian story

> 

> 

> of the Creation (or Bel and the Dragon). This is

> explained by him as

> 

> 

> being due to the comparatively rapid and

> extensive path of Jupiter on

> 

> 

> the ecliptic, and it would seem probable that

> the names of Saturn,

> 

> 

> /K�awanu/ and /Sag-u�/ (the former, which is

> Semitic Babylonian,

> 

> 

> meaning "steadfast," or something

> similar, and the latter, in

> 

> 

> Sumerian, "head-firm" or

> "steadfast"- -"phlegmatic" ), to all

> appearance

> 

> 

> indicate in like manner the deliberation of his

> movements compared

> 

> 

> with those of the planet dedicated to the king

> of the gods.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Venus at sunrise and sunset.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> A fragment of a tablet published in 1870 gives

> some interesting

> 

> 

> particulars concerning the planet Venus,

> probably explaining some as

> 

> 

> yet unknown mythological story concerning her.

> According to this, she

> 

> 

> was a female at sunset, and a male at sunrise;

> I�tar of Agad� (Akad or

> 

> 

> Akkad) at sunrise, and I�tar of Erech at sunset:

> I�tar of the stars at

> 

> 

> sunrise, and the lady of the gods at sunset.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> And

> in the various months.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> I�tar was identified with Nin-si-anna in the

> first month of the year

> 

> 

> (Nisan = March-April) , with the star of the bow

> in Ab (August-

> 

> 

> September), etc. In Sebat (January-February) she

> was the star of the

> 

> 

> water-channel, Ik�, which was Merodach's star in

> Sivan (May-June), and

> 

> 

> in Marcheswan her star was Rabbu, which also

> belonged to Merodach in

> 

> 

> the same month. It will thus be seen, that

> Babylonian astronomy is far

> 

> 

> from being as clear as would be desired, but

> doubtless many

> 

> 

> difficulties will disappear when further

> inscriptions are available.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Stars identified with Merodach.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The same fragment gives the celestial names of

> Merodach for every

> 

> 

> month of the year, from which it would appear,

> that the astrologers

> 

> 

> called him Umun-sig-�a in Nisan (March-April) ,

> Dapinu in Tammuz (June-

> 

> 

> July), Nibiru in Tisri (September-October) , �arru

> (the star Regulus),

> 

> 

> in Tebet (December-January) , etc. The first

> three are names by which

> 

> 

> the planet Jupiter was known.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> As for the planets and stars, so also for the

> constellations, which

> 

> 

> are identified with many gods and divine beings,

> and probably contain

> 

> 

> references, in their names and descriptions, to

> many legends. In the

> 

> 

> sixth tablet of the Creation-series, it is

> related of Merodach that,

> 

> 

> after creating the heavens and the stations for Anu,

> B�l, and Ae,

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> "He built firmly the stations of the

> great gods--

> 

> 

> Stars their likeness--he set up the

> /Lumali/,

> 

> 

> He designated the year, he outlined the

> (heavenly) forms.

> 

> 

> He set for the twelve months three stars

> each,

> 

> 

> From the day when the year begins, . . .

> for signs."

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> As pointed out by Mr. Robert Brown, jr., who has

> made a study of these

> 

> 

> things, the "three stars" for each

> month occur on one of the remains

> 

> 

> of planispheres in the British Museum, and are

> completed by a tablet

> 

> 

> which gives them in list-form, in one case with

> explanations. Until

> 

> 

> these are properly identified, however, it will

> be impossible to

> 

> 

> estimate their real value. The signs of the

> Zodiac, which are given by

> 

> 

> another tablet, are of greater interest, as they

> are the originals of

> 

> 

> those which are in use at the present time:--

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Month

> Sign

> Equivalent

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Nisan

> (Mar.-Apr.) The

> Labourer

> The Ram

> 

> 

> Iyyar

> (Apr.-May) /Mulmula/

> and the Bull of heaven The Bull

> 

> 

> Sivan

> (May-June)

> /Sib-zi-anna/ and the great Twins The Twins

> 

> 

> Tammuz (June-July)

> /Allul/ or

> /Nagar/

> The Crab

> 

> 

> Ab

> (July.-Aug.)

> The Lion (or

> dog)

> The Lion

> 

> 

> Elul

> (Aug.-Sep.) The Ear

> of

> corn(?)

> The ear of Corn (Virgo)

> 

> 

> Tisri

> (Sep.-Oct.) The

> Scales

> The Scales

> 

> 

> Marcheswan (Oct.-Nov.) The

> Scorpion

> The Scorpion

> 

> 

> Chisleu (Nov.-Dec.)

> /Pa-bil-sag/

> The Archer

> 

> 

> Tebet

> (Dec.-Jan.) /Sahar-ma�/,

> the

> Fish-kid

> The Goat

> 

> 

> Sebat

> (Jan.-Feb.)

> /Gula/

> The Water-bearer

> 

> 

> Adar

> (Feb.-Mar.) The Water

> Channel and the Tails The Fishes

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Parallels in Babylonian legends.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The "bull of heaven" probably refers

> to some legend such as that of

> 

> 

> the story of Gilgame� in his conflict with the

> goddess I�tar when the

> 

> 

> divine bull was killed; /Sib-zi-anna/ ,

> "the faithful shepherd of

> 

> 

> heaven," suggests that this constellation

> may refer to Tammuz, the

> 

> 

> divine shepherd; whilst "the scorpion"

> reminds us of the scorpion-men

> 

> 

> who guarded the gate of the sun (�ama�), when

> Gilgame� was journeying

> 

> 

> to gain information concerning his friend

> Enki-du, who had departed to

> 

> 

> the place of the dead. Sir Henry Rawlinson many

> years ago pointed out

> 

> 

> that the story of the Flood occupied the

> eleventh tablet of the

> 

> 

> Gilgame� series, corresponding with the eleventh

> sign of the Zodiac,

> 

> 

> Aquarius, or the Water-bearer.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Other star-names.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Other names of stars or constellations include

> "the weapon of

> 

> 

> Merodach's hand," probably that with which

> he slew the dragon of

> 

> 

> Chaos; "the Horse," which is described

> as "the god Z�," Rimmon's

> 

> 

> storm-bird-- Pegasus; "the Serpent,"

> explained as Ere�-ki-gal, the

> 

> 

> queen of Hades, who would therefore seem to have

> been conceived in

> 

> 

> that form; "the Scorpion," which is

> given as /I�hara t�ntim/, "I�hara

> 

> 

> of the sea," a description difficult to

> explain, unless it refer to

> 

> 

> her as the goddess of the Ph�nician coast. Many

> other identifications,

> 

> 

> exceedingly interesting, await solution.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> How the gods were represented. On cylinder-seals.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Many representations of the gods occur, both on

> bas-reliefs, boundary-

> 

> 

> stones, and cylindrical and ordinary seals.

> Unfortunately, their

> 

> 

> identification generally presents more or less

> difficulty, on account

> 

> 

> of the absence of indications of their identity.

> On a small cylinder-

> 

> 

> seal in the possession of the Rev. Dr. W. Hayes

> Ward, Merodach is

> 

> 

> shown striding along the serpentine body of

> Tiawath, who turns her

> 

> 

> head to attack him, whilst the god threatens her

> with a pointed weapon

> 

> 

> which he carries. Another, published by the same

> scholar, shows a

> 

> 

> deity, whom he regards as being Merodach, driven

> in a chariot drawn by

> 

> 

> a winged lion, upon whose shoulders stands a

> naked goddess, holding

> 

> 

> thunderbolts in each hand, whom he describes as

> Zer-pan�tum. Another

> 

> 

> cylinder-seal shows the corn-deity, probably

> Nisaba, seated in

> 

> 

> flounced robe and horned hat, with corn-stalks

> springing out from his

> 

> 

> shoulders, and holding a twofold ear of corn in

> his hand, whilst an

> 

> 

> attendant introduces, and another with a

> threefold ear of corn

> 

> 

> follows, a man carrying a plough, apparently as

> an offering. On

> 

> 

> another, a beautiful specimen from Assyria,

> I�tar is shown standing on

> 

> 

> an Assyrian lion, which turns his head as if to

> caress her feet. As

> 

> 

> goddess of war, she is armed with bow and

> arrows, and her star is

> 

> 

> represented upon the crown of her tiara.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> On boundary-stones, etc.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> On the boundary-stones of Babylonia and the

> royal monoliths of Assyria

> 

> 

> the emblems of the gods are nearly always seen.

> Most prominent are

> 

> 

> three horned tiaras, emblematic, probably, of

> Merodach, Anu, and B�l

> 

> 

> (the older). A column ending in a ram's head is

> used for �a or Ae, a

> 

> 

> crescent for Sin or Nannar, the moon-god; a disc

> with rays for �ama�,

> 

> 

> the sun-god; a thunderbolt for Rimmon or Hadad,

> the god of thunder,

> 

> 

> lightning, wind, and storms; a lamp for Nusku,

> etc. A bird, perhaps a

> 

> 

> hawk, stood for Utu-gi�gallu, a deity whose name

> has been translated

> 

> 

> "the southern sun," and is explained

> in the bilingual inscriptions as

> 

> 

> �ama�, the sun-god, and Nirig, one of the gods

> of war. The emblem of

> 

> 

> Gal-alim, who is identified with the older B�l,

> is a snarling dragon's

> 

> 

> head forming the termination of a pole, and that

> of Dun-a�aga is a

> 

> 

> bird's head similarly posed. On a boundary-stone

> of the time of

> 

> 

> Nebuchadnezzar I., about 1120 B.C., one of the

> signs of the gods shows

> 

> 

> a horse's head in a kind of shrine, probably the

> emblem of Rimmon's

> 

> 

> storm-bird, Z�, the Babylonian Pegasus.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Other divine figures.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> One of the finest of all the representations of

> divinities is that of

> 

> 

> the "Sun-god-stone, " found by Mr.

> Hormuzd Rassam at Abu-habbah (the

> 

> 

> ancient Sippar), which was one of the chief

> seats of his worship. It

> 

> 

> represents him, seated in his shrine, holding in

> his hand a staff and

> 

> 

> a ring, his usual emblems, typifying his

> position as judge of the

> 

> 

> world and his endless course. The position of

> Merodach as sun-god is

> 

> 

> confirmed by the small lapis-lazuli relief found

> by the German

> 

> 

> expedition at the mound known as Amran ibn 'Ali,

> as he also carries a

> 

> 

> staff and a ring, and his robe is covered with

> ornamental circles,

> 

> 

> showing, in all probability, his solar nature.

> In the same place

> 

> 

> another small relief representing Rimmon or

> Hadad was found. His robe

> 

> 

> has discs emblematical of the five planets, and

> he holds in each hand

> 

> 

> a thunderbolt, one of which he is about to

> launch forth. Merodach is

> 

> 

> accompanied by a large two-horned dragon, whilst

> Hadad has a small

> 

> 

> winged dragon, typifying the swiftness of his

> course, and another

> 

> 

> animal, both of which he holds with cords.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> CHAPTER V

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> THE DEMONS: EXORCISMS AND CEREMONIES

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Good and evil spirits, gods and demons, were

> fully believed in by the

> 

> 

> Babylonians and Assyrians, and many texts

> referring to them exist.

> 

> 

> Naturally it is not in some cases easy to

> distinguish well between the

> 

> 

> special functions of these supernatural

> appearances which they

> 

> 

> supposed to exist, but their nature is, in most

> cases, easily

> 

> 

> ascertained from the inscriptions.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To all appearance, the Babylonians imagined that

> spirits resided

> 

> 

> everywhere, and lay in wait to attack mankind,

> and to each class,

> 

> 

> apparently, a special province in bringing

> misfortune, or tormenting,

> 

> 

> ________________________________

> 

> 

> 

> Windows Live�: Keep your life in sync. Check

> it out.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

 


 

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