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Gaelic

The languages spoken by the Celts of Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man, a branch of Celtic

 

The Cult of Aton (Aten) left Egypt along with the Levites (the elite priesthood class) who had served and lived alongside them at Akhetaten (Tell el-Amarna), and at Avairs, Giza, and Heliopolis. These tribes are put before us today as the "Israelites," the supposed "Jews" of history. Those who became known later as "Jews" were, however, originally neither Israelites nor Hebrews. The name Hebrew comes from Ibaru (or Ibri, or Abri, or Abari) an ancient Egyptian term for the "wise ones." The word rabbi is a rendition or variant of this ancient name. The Ibaru were members of the elect and had a strong blood-line connection to the House of the Pharaoh. This word Ibaru had a similarity to Apiru (Egyptian Apir) which meant wanderer, or shepherd, or foreigner. This unfortunate similarity of etymology has caused great confusion but has favored the machinations of those elites who crave to obscure the truth of their ancestry.

 

 

bulletThe Israelite Dispersion.
bulletFacts about Ireland.
bulletThe DNA link between Ireland and Spain.

 

Our view of Gaelic is based on an East to West movement of civilization which has been proven by archeologists and historians to be wrong. The original civilization was established in the British Isles and points West [Lemuria, Atlantis?] and moved East.   Thus what many believe to be Hebrew words which spread to Ireland and other parts of the British Isles as Gaelic was actually Gaelic which spread from the British Isles and was RENAMED "Hebrew".

The following terms are archeological sites pre-date the earliest "Hebrew" writings, are proof that these Gaelic words existed in Ireland before Moses, Abraham, the Great Flood:

  1. Torah, a city, the capitol of the Druids, and the name by which God's Law is known
  2. Hill of Torah, the ruins of the city Torah, same name as Abraham's father.
  3. Olam Fodlah
  4. Lia Fail, known as Jacob's Pilar, traveled to Scotland as the Stone of Destiny, now in Westminster Abbey.
  5. Celtic crosses which pre-date Jesus.
  6. "Nazi" symbol on Celtic crosses which pre-date Jesus.
  7. Ogham Script found in Irish, Scotish, "native American", and Mayan temples.
  8. Tea Tephi
  9. Scota, daughter of Nefertiti, after whom Scotland was named.
  10. "Rabbi" from the Gaelic word "abari".
  11. "maggi" from the three wise men who visited Jesus is Latin for "Druids".

Irish of the Republic of Ireland, who are 98% Catholic, know that there's something not quite right about Catholic history.  They question why the church would attempt to isolate people from the Hill of Torah by putting a fence around it and building a cathedral at the entrance, complete with a statue of St. Patrick, forcing tourists to virtually go through this church to get to the Hill of Torah.  They question why they renamed it "Hill of Tara", a word which is meaningless.

 

 

 

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A Lost European Culture, Pulled From Obscurity

Published: November 30, 2009

Before the glory that was Greece and Rome, even before the first cities of Mesopotamia or temples along the Nile, there lived in the Lower Danube Valley and the Balkan foothills people who were ahead of their time in art, technology and long-distance trade.

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Rumyana Kostadinova Ivanova and Marius Amarie

LIVING SPACE Artifacts from the Lower Danube Valley and the Balkan foothills are presented in an exhibition, “The Lost World of Old Europe,” at New York University’s Institute for the Study of the Ancient World. More Photos »

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Marius Amarie

WOMEN IN SOCIETY A fired clay Cucuteni figurine, from 4050-3900 B.C. More Photos >

For 1,500 years, starting earlier than 5000 B.C., they farmed and built sizable towns, a few with as many as 2,000 dwellings. They mastered large-scale copper smelting, the new technology of the age. Their graves held an impressive array of exquisite headdresses and necklaces and, in one cemetery, the earliest major assemblage of gold artifacts to be found anywhere in the world.

The striking designs of their pottery speak of the refinement of the culture’s visual language. Until recent discoveries, the most intriguing artifacts were the ubiquitous terracotta “goddess” figurines, originally interpreted as evidence of the spiritual and political power of women in society.

New research, archaeologists and historians say, has broadened understanding of this long overlooked culture, which seemed to have approached the threshold of “civilization” status. Writing had yet to be invented, and so no one knows what the people called themselves. To some scholars, the people and the region are simply Old Europe.

The little-known culture is being rescued from obscurity in an exhibition, “The Lost World of Old Europe: the Danube Valley, 5000-3500 B.C.,” which opened last month at the Institute for the Study of the Ancient World at New York University. More than 250 artifacts from museums in Bulgaria, Moldova and Romania are on display for the first time in the United States. The show will run through April 25.

At its peak, around 4500 B.C., said David W. Anthony, the exhibition’s guest curator, “Old Europe was among the most sophisticated and technologically advanced places in the world” and was developing “many of the political, technological and ideological signs of civilization.”

Dr. Anthony is a professor of anthropology at Hartwick College in Oneonta, N.Y., and author of “The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World.” Historians suggest that the arrival in southeastern Europe of people from the steppes may have contributed to the collapse of the Old Europe culture by 3500 B.C.

At the exhibition preview, Roger S. Bagnall, director of the institute, confessed that until now “a great many archaeologists had not heard of these Old Europe cultures.” Admiring the colorful ceramics, Dr. Bagnall, a specialist in Egyptian archaeology, remarked that at the time “Egyptians were certainly not making pottery like this.”

A show catalog, published by Princeton University Press, is the first compendium in English of research on Old Europe discoveries. The book, edited by Dr. Anthony, with Jennifer Y. Chi, the institute’s associate director for exhibitions, includes essays by experts from Britain, France, Germany, the United States and the countries where the culture existed.

Dr. Chi said the exhibition reflected the institute’s interest in studying the relationships of well-known cultures and the “underappreciated ones.”

Although excavations over the last century uncovered traces of ancient settlements and the goddess figurines, it was not until local archaeologists in 1972 discovered a large fifth-millennium B.C. cemetery at Varna, Bulgaria, that they began to suspect these were not poor people living in unstructured egalitarian societies. Even then, confined in cold war isolation behind the Iron Curtain, Bulgarians and Romanians were unable to spread their knowledge to the West.

The story now emerging is of pioneer farmers after about 6200 B.C. moving north into Old Europe from Greece and Macedonia, bringing wheat and barley seeds and domesticated cattle and sheep. They established colonies along the Black Sea and in the river plains and hills, and these evolved into related but somewhat distinct cultures, archaeologists have learned. The settlements maintained close contact through networks of trade in copper and gold and also shared patterns of ceramics.

The Spondylus shell from the Aegean Sea was a special item of trade. Perhaps the shells, used in pendants and bracelets, were symbols of their Aegean ancestors. Other scholars view such long-distance acquisitions as being motivated in part by ideology in which goods are not commodities in the modern sense but rather “valuables,” symbols of status and recognition.

Noting the diffusion of these shells at this time, Michel Louis Seferiades, an anthropologist at the National Center for Scientific Research in France, suspects “the objects were part of a halo of mysteries, an ensemble of beliefs and myths.”

 

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Language, Cultural, and Religious Ties!
The
HEBREW-CELTIC
CONNECTION
A MISSING LINK IN FULFILLED PROPHECY

In the 8th century, B.C., the Assyrian Empire was at its peak, and its armies threatened the nations on the eastern Mediterranean seaboard, including Israel. The Assyrians were a brutal, fearsome people, the most terrible, perhaps, in all the earth's history. Conquered lands were literally plundered of everything of value - even people, who were taken to slavery in foreign lands. The wall murals of the Assyrians, some of which now bedeck the British Museum in London, depict scenes of horrible savagery and torture. Men were sometimes skinned alive, or impaled on poles to slowly die outside the gates of the city.

Famed archaeologist, Sir Austen Henry Layard, rediscovered and unearthed the ancient Assyrian cities, and graphically described the scenes on the wall murals he found: "Captives... were stretched naked at full length on the ground, and whilst their limbs were held apart by pegs and cords they were being flayed alive. Beneath them were other unfortunate victims undergoing abominable punishments. The brains of one were apparently being beaten out with an iron mace, whilst an officer held him by the beard. A torturer was wrenching the tongue out of the mouth of a second wretch who had been pinioned to the ground. The bleeding heads of the slain were tied round the necks of the living who seemed reserved for still more barbarous tortures." ("Discoveries In The Ruins Of Assyria And Babylon," p. 456)

Inhabitants of Palestine in those days were well aware that Assyria would only too soon conduct a similar brutal warfare against the eastern shore of the Mediterranean. Would not large numbers of Israelites migrate westward, by land and sea, to find safety for them-selves and their families outside of the Assyrian sphere of influence?

Historical evidence indicates that did indeed happen. The authoritative Dictionary of Christ & The Gospels relates, "LARGE NUMBERS OF ISRAELITES HAD BEEN CARRIED AWAY CAPTIVE BY THE ASSYRIANS AND BABYLONIANS... BUT A MUCH LARGER DISPERSION WAS DUE TO VOLUNTARY EMIGRATION." (vol. 1, p.692) Yes, more Israelites emigrated, migrated voluntarily out of Palestine, than even the large numbers of those taken away in the Assyrian and Babylonian captivities. As it became clear that invasion and conquest by Assyria was immanent, Hebrews and Phoenicians emigrated westward to distant lands by the many hundreds of thousands, forming the foundation of European civilization.

These historical facts have been known for centuries, and a plethora of books by leading historians has documented "the Phoenician origin" of Western civilization. Historians have given the Phoenicians most of the credit for this emigration from Palestine to Europe, although the Hebrews were more numerous, and were Divinely promised greatly increased numbers. Perhaps the answer to the confusion is that the Hebrew language is a Phoenician dialect, and the two are virtually identical. But as we will see, a great multitude of the "Phoenician" speaking early European colonists can be shown to be Hebrew. Famed historian, George Rawlinson, commented, "The Tyrians [Phoenicians] conceded to the Israelites a participation in the traffic which they had carried on for so long a time with the nations of the west. Two trading fleets were formed (IKings 9:27; 10:22), to which each of the two nations contributed both ships and men." (Phoenicia, pp.101-102) From their trading colonies then grew and developed early European cities.

LANGUAGE LINK

In the 18th century, historians discovered exciting proof of Phoenician-Celtic ties. An ancient Roman dramatist, Titus Maccius Plautus (died 184 B.C.) wrote a play, the Penulus, in which he placed then-current Phoenician into the speech of one of his characters. In the 18th century, linguists noticed the great similarity between that Phoenician and the early Irish Celtic language. In the adjacent box is a sample given by historian Thomas Moore's, History of Ireland, showing the connection between these languages. Leading 18th and 19th century scholars, such as Gen. Charles Vallancey, Lord Rosse, and Sir William Betham, also wrote on this subject. Vallancey, for instance, speaks of, "The great affinity found in many words, nay whole lines and sentences of this speech, between the Punic [Phoenician] and the Irish." Famed historian, George Rawlinson, added that this and other inscriptions are "READILY EXPLICABLE, IF HEBREW BE ASSUMED AS THE KEY TO THEM, BUT NOT OTHERWISE." (Phoenicia, p. 327)

THE SIMILARITY BETWEEN THE EARLY IRISH-CELTIC AND THE SECOND CENTURY, B.C., HEBREW-PHOENICIAN LANGUAGE, AS SHOWN BY THE PENULUS OF PLAUTUS:
PHOENICIAN OF PLAUTUS:
Byth lym mo thym nociothii nel ech an ti daisc machon
Ys i do iebrim thyfe lyth chy lya chon temlyph ula.

EARLY IRISH-CELTIC:
Beth liom' mo thime nociaithe, niel ach an ti dairie mae coinne
Is i de leabhraim tafach leith, chi lis con teampluibh ulla.
In 1772, General Charles Vallancey, a leading Irish scholar of the day, published his famous work, "Essay On The Antiquity Of The Irish Language, Being A Collation Of The Irish With The Punic (Hebrew) Language." In his opening remarks he states, "On a collation of the Irish with the Celtic, Punic, Phoenician and Hebrew languages, the strongest affinity, (nay a perfect Identity in very many Words) will appear; it may therefore be deemed a Punic-Celtic compound." Vallancey continues, "from the Hebrew proceeded the Phoenician, from the Phoenician, Carthaginian, or Punic was derived the Aeolian, Dorian and Etruscan, and from these was formed the Latin... Of the Roman Saxon capital letters, the Irish use but three, all the others bear a very great resemblance to the primitive Hebrew and Phoenician." (p. 2-3) Modern language scholars have confirmed that there is a definite connection between the Celtic and Hebrew, as we have shown in our tract, "Hebrew And English."


RELIGIOUS LINK
Since it is true that Hebrews and Phoenicians migrated to Europe in large numbers in ancient times, there must be religious and cultural ties, and in fact, such connections abound. Dr. Thomas Moore's, History of Ireland (p. 40), relates:
"That most common of all Celtic monuments, the Cromlech... is to be found not only in most parts of Europe, but also in Asia," including Palestine. "Not less ancient and general, among the Celtic nations, was the circle of upright stones, with either an altar or tall pillar in the centre, and, like its prototype at Gilgal [ancient Israel], serving sometimes as a temple of worship, sometimes as a place of national council or inauguration... The rough, unhewn stone...used in their circular temples by the Druids, was the true, orthodox observance of the divine command delivered to Noah, 'If thou wilt make me an altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of hewn stone.'" (Exo. 20:25) Dr. Beauford, in Druidism Revived, says, "It is remarkable that all the ancient altars found in Ireland, and now distinguished by the name of Cromlechs or sloping stones, were originally called Bothal, or the House of God, and they seem to be of the same species as those mentioned in the Book of Genesis, called by the Hebrews, Bethel, which has the same signification as the Irish Bothal." The Bible (Judges 9:6; 2Ki. 11:14; 2Chon. 23:13) indicates that Hebrew kings were crowned either standing upon or next to a pillar of stone. "The practice of seating the new king upon a stone, at his initiation, was the practice in many of the countries of Europe.... The monarchs of Sweden sat upon a stone placed in the centre of twelve lesser ones, and in a similar kind of circle the Kings of Denmark were crowned." (Moore, ibid., p. 42) Note also the significant Bible number, 'twelve', which was common to both European Celts and the Hebrews.

The book, Identity of the Religions Druidical and Hebrew, adds, "Circular temples...abound in England and other parts of Europe. The most ancient account of them is to be found in the book of Exodus (24:4), "And Moses... builded an altar under the hill, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes.." (p.15) In Europe, Stonehenge, Avebury, and many other early Celtic sites were designed in a circular pattern.


Groves were also features of both Hebrew and Celtic worship. The Bible tells us that Abraham "called on the everlasting God" (Gen. 13:4) from a grove planted by his own hand. Gideon worshipped God under an oak tree. (Judges 6:19-24)

The division of time into a seven-day week was practiced by the Irish Celts, identical to the Hebrews. Dr. Thomas Moore comments that no other nation kept such a hebdomadal (seven day) cycle "excepting only among the family of Abraham," (ibid., p. 54) a remarkable proof of identity between the two peoples!

Since early times, the Israelites sinned against God by adopting many of the pagan practices of their neighbors, and so we find evidence of both Hebrew and Canaanite culture among their descendants in Europe. (The Phoenician is the eastern branch of the Canaanitic people.) The ancient Baal pillar shown at left is one of many such religious monuments which have been found from the Middle East to Ireland.


There are many other examples, however, of customs linking the Celtic Druids specifically with Israel. English historian, William Borlase, in his "Antiquities Of Cornwall," (1754) presented many pages of such evidence: Druids worshipped but one God and allowed no graven images, identical to the Hebrews, and in contradistinction with almost all other ancient religions. Consecration was by sprinkling with blood, as in the Old Testament Hebrew worship. Druid priests were clothed in white, similar to the Hebrew priest's white ephod; sacrificial victims were bled to death, and the blood was collected in basins which served to sprinkle the altars; bulls were sacrificed, and the image of a bull (the heraldic sign of the Hebrew tribe of Ephraim) was carried into war. "While they performed their horrid rites of human sacrifice, the drums and trumpets sounded without intermission, that the cries of the miserable victims might not be heard." (Compare Jer. 7:31-32; the Hebrew/Phoenician place of human sacrifice was called Tophet, meaning 'the drum'). They prayed with uplifted hands, examined entrails for necromancy, and held the oak in veneration. The Druids used the magic wand in imitation of Moses' rod, poured libations, sacrificed upon the tops of rocks, investigated truth by lots, anointed rock pillars with oil, and marked out boundaries with stones. (pp. 104-132, 161) In these and so many other distinctive ways, the religious customs of the Celts and Hebrews bear an unmistakable resemblance!

GEOGRAPHICAL LINK

The early name of southwestern England was "Dumnoni," or "Danmoni," as shown by a portion of a map in Celtic scholar, John Rhys' book, "Early Celtic Britain." This comprises today the British counties of Cornwall and Devon. Highly respected historian William Camden remarked concerning Cornwall: "That region, which according to the geographers, is the first of all Britain, and... was in ancient times inhabited by those Britans, whom Solinas called, Dunmonii, Ptolomy (called) Damnonii, or (as we find in some other copies), MORE TRULY DANMONII. WHICH NAME... DERIVED FROM THE EVER-CONTINUING MINES OF TIN IN THIS TRACT, WHICH THE BRITANS CALL MOINA." (Britannia, p. 183) This compound word is therefore composed of "moina," a tin mine, and "Dan," the people who mined the tin. So this most ancient region of England is properly called "DANMONI," meaning, "DAN'S TIN-MINES." That these early inhabitants known as "Dan" were in fact the Biblical tribe by the same name has been established by leading modern scholars such as Cyrus Gordon, as shown in our tract, "Ancient Hebrew Sea Migrations." If these early colonists had actually been Phoenicians, the region would have been called, not Danmoni, but "Fenimoni," because the Phoenicians were known as the "Punic" or "Feni" civilization.

Celtic scholar, John Rhys, gives strong evidences of Hebrew colonization of the British isles in ancient times. "Ireland was known as IBERION," he says. (p. 201) The ancient name of the Israelites was Ibri or Iberi (modern: Hebrew), which is derived from the name, "EBER," or "HEBER," an ancestor and patriarch of that people. Mr. Rhys continues, "...in Ireland it was Ivernii in Ptolomy's time; and he mentions a town there called Ivernis, and a river Ivernios. To these may be added various forms of the name of the island, such as Juvenal's Iuuerna, distorted more usually by the Romans into Hibernia... THEIR EPONYMOUS ANCESTOR... is variously called... EBER, Emer, and HEBER." (ibid., p. 262-3)

Dr. Rhys discusses a region "just in the vicinity of St. David's or Mnyw, called in the Welsh Chronicle MONI IUDEORUM, which contains an allusion probably to the same people." (ibid., p. 226) Rhys says that some scholars suggest this word, Iudeorum or Judeorum, may relate to the "Jutes," a Germanic tribe in Northern Europe, but that he believes such a view incorrect. Instead, Rhys indicates that it identifies Hebrews of the tribe of Judah. Rhys adds, "...lastly we seem to have a trace of the same form in the Welsh Chronicle, sometimes called Annales Cambriae, when it calls Menevia or St. David's Moni Iudeorum. WE NEED NOT BE HERE TROUBLED BY THE LOST TEN TRIBES OF ISRAEL, BUT... IT WOULD BE HARD TO PROVE THE CONTRARY." (ibid., p. 150) Rhys also discusses early Celtic names and suggests that we "...compare Semitic names...compare the Hebrew." (ibid., p. 259-260)

HISTORICAL LINK

One last fascinating connection with ancient Israel is suggested by Professor Rhys, who says, "the (Celtic) Kymry were for some time indifferently called Cambria or Cumbria, the Welsh word on which they are based being, as now written, Cymru... and is there pronounced nearly as an Englishman would treat it if spelled Kumry or KUMRI." (p. 142) As students of Old Testament history well know, "Kumri" or "Khumri" was the name of the Israelites in Assyrian texts. (see, "The March of Archaeology," by C.W. Ceram, p. 216) The virtual identity in spelling and sound between the Israelite "Khumri," and the Celtic "Kymry," is too much of a coincidence to not have a relationship. Taken with the many other evidences, religious and cultural, the connection between the ancient Hebrews and Celts is too strong to be ignored. In fact, it is no longer a question of, "Did Hebrews settle in Europe in ancient times?" but only a question of, "How many of the people of Europe are of Hebrew descent?" When considering the great numbers of early Israelites (see our tract, "The Real Diaspora"), and the Biblical promise of multitudinous seed (Gen. 26:4, 32:12; Exo. 32:13; Jer. 33:22, etc.), it is evident that the Hebrew-Celtic connection is very significant.

Irish history records three main waves of colonization to that isle in ancient times: the Firbolgs, of whom little is known, the Tuatha de Danaan (meaning 'Tribe of Dan'; tuath means 'tribe'), and the Milesians. The latter two peoples are known to have originated in Asia and may have been related. "The Story Of Ireland," by A.M. Sullivan, tells us this: "The Milesian colony... were an Eastern people...they had passed from land to land, from the shores of Asia across the wide expanse of southern Europe, bearing aloft through all their wanderings the Sacred Banner, which symbolized to them at once their origin and their mission, the blessing and the promise given to their race. This celebrated standard, the 'Sacred Banner of the Milesians,' was a flag on which was represented a dead serpent and the rod of Moses..." (p.12) The Milesians traced their ancestry to "Gadelius," whose grandfather was "the king of Scythia." (p.13) Interestingly, Gad was a son of the patriarch Jacob, and his descendants formed one of the tribes of Israel. The Greek word Scythia is derived from the Semitic, Skutha, and the Persian, Saca, which are terms for the Israelites. (see our tract, "The Real Diaspora") As if this wasn't enough coincidence, the serpent symbol was a family heraldic emblem of the Israelite tribe of Dan (Gen. 49:17), whose descendants have been traced by leading modern American archaeologist Cyrus Gordon, to the Tuatha de Danaan of early Ireland! (see "Before Columbus," pp. 108-111)

SUMMARY

Therefore we can say that in all of these (and a multitude of other) ways, the Celts and Hebrews bear a remarkable relationship. Since the Celts were spread over most of Europe, the cultural, historical, and theological implications of this truth are immensely significant.

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http://abcnews.go.com/sections/scitech/DailyNews/Vikings010403.html

Goldstein found there was a strong Scandinavian genetic influence among the 71 islanders that were examined — evidence that there was plenty of Viking blood among the now far-from-fierce islanders.

But when examining the Celtic credentials of Orkney's males against the Welsh and Irish control groups, the scientists stumbled across a remarkable similarity in the gene patterns passed down the male line. The similarities suggested that the populations on the so-called "Celtic fringe" of the British Isles shared Y chromosome characteristics that pre-dated the fifth century Saxon invasion of the islands.

This was confirmed when the geneticists compared the Irish and Welsh samples with those of Basques, an ancient people inhabiting the border regions between Spain and France. The study concluded that the Basque, Irish and Welsh make up "a Y chromosome community with members more closely related than they are to the other European populations."

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http://jahtruth.bravepages.com/celtisr.htm

The Celts are Israelites Under Another Name.

The word Celt is the Anglicised form of the Greek word Keltoi, which means "the people who are different.*" In Scripture, all nations, except the Twelve Tribes of Israel, are referred to as Gentiles (Foreigners), so the only people who are different are Israel. The word Celt is therefore another word for Israelite. The Celts are part of the Ten "lost" Tribes of Israel; as are the Tuatha de Danaan and Milesians. The Irish people are a mixture of Celts; Danaans; Milesians; Judah/Zarahites (of the "Red Hand" - Genesis 38:28-30�); (Dan-ish) Vikings and Norsemen and are all racially cousins.


* Deuteronomy 14:2 For thou [art] an holy people unto the "I AM" thy God, and the "I AM" hath chosen thee to be a peculiar* people unto Himself, above all the nations that [are] upon the earth.
* Special - Different (Oxford dictionary).


�
Genesis 38:28 And it came to pass, when she travailed, that [the one] put out [his] hand: and the midwife took and bound upon his hand a scarlet thread, saying, This came out first.
38:29 And it came to pass, as he drew back his hand, that, behold, his brother came out: and she said, How hast thou broken forth? Why has thou made [this] breach against thee? Therefore his name was called Pharez (Breach).
38:30 And afterward came out his brother, that had the scarlet thread upon his hand: and his name was called Zarah (Scarlet).

(Please see "The True Origin of The Ulster Flag" article.)


Therefore the Celts, according to God, are Israelites.

The Irish Celts held three sacred assemblies every year at Tara� during Bealtaine; Lughnasadh and Samhain which assured an abundance of corn and milk; freedom from conquest; the enjoyment of Righteous Laws; comfort in every house; fruit in great abundance, and plenty of fish in their lakes, rivers, and estuaries, exactly as God guaranteed Israel in The Torah/Tara, if they kept The Covenant. Also, during the Feast of Tara/Torah the kings of Ireland used to settle the affairs of Ireland for seven years, so that debts, suits and adjustments used not to be submitted for judgement until the next feast, seven years later, which the Torah calls the 'Year of the "I AM's" Release'** when all debts were forgiven, every seven years. This proves that Irish Celtic law was based on The Torah and is further confirmation that the Celts are Israelites.


** Deuteronomy 15:1 At the end of [every] seven years thou shalt make a release.
15:2 And this [is] the manner of the release: Every creditor that lendeth [ought] unto his neighbour shall release [it]; he shall not exact [it] of his neighbour, or of his brother; because it is called the "I AM"'s release.

� Deuteronomy 16:16 Three times in a year shall all thy males appear before the "I AM" thy God in the place which He shall choose; in the Feast of Unleavened Bread, and in the Feast of Weeks, and in the Feast of Tabernacles: and they shall not appear before the "I AM" empty:
16:17 Every man [shall give] as he is able, according to the blessing of the "I AM" thy God which He hath given thee (corn; milk; fish; etc.; etc.; etc.).
16:18 Judges and officers shalt thou make thee in all thy gates, which the "I AM" thy God giveth thee, throughout thy tribes: and they shall judge the people with just Judgment.
16:19 Thou shalt not pervert Judgment; thou shalt not respect persons, neither take a gift: for a gift doth blind the eyes of the wise, and pervert the words of the righteous.
16:20 That which is totally just shalt thou follow, that thou mayest live, and inherit the land which the "I AM" thy God giveth thee.


Also the word British is not English; it is Hebrew.
Brit (Berit) means Covenant in Hebrew and Welsh
Ish means man or people of, in Hebrew and English
Therefore British means The People of The Covenant,
in other words, the People Israel of The Covenant.

The Irish people have rejected the English (Davidic) monarchy and its ANTI-Covenant laws and that is good; very good.
However, the Celtish / Irish people are Israelites descended from Jacob/Israel's fifth of his twelve sons, who was called Dan and fathered the Tuatha de Danaan - the Tribe of Dan (the Irish and Danish). Therefore the Irish people are Celtish / British-Israelites by birth i.e. People of The Covenant in the Torah in the Bible and in The Ark, which is buried at Tara.

Reject the House of Windsor's ANTI-Covenant and therefore illegal laws (Deuteronomy 4:2), by all means possible, but do not reject your birthright as Israelites and British people, with YOUR own emblem the War Queen of Ireland, with Trident and Olive Twig - Teia Tephi.
Tephi, symbolised by Britannia, the sixth century B.C. queen of all Ireland.

If you reject your Birth-Right as Israelites, you are insulting God Who gave your Birthright to you, along with The Covenant.
Ireland is also called Hibernia - Hebernia from Heber/Eber the great grand-dad of Abraham who was the grand-dad of Jacob/Israel from whom the Celts are descended.

Hebernia (Ireland) means Hebrew's new land.
Heberia - Iberia (Spain) means Hebrew's land.
The Basque; Galician; Asturian and Guipuzcoan Celts are your cousins.

Copyright � 1999 JAH. All rights reserved.

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http://www.moseshand.com/studies/planted.htm

What Jeremiah Planted

by Rev. Bertrand L. Comparet, A.B., J.D.

   One of the greatest figures in history is the prophet Jeremiah. God commissioned him to carry out a double task: "See, I have this day set thee over the nations and over the kingdoms, to root out and to pull down and to destroy and to throw down; TO BUILD AND TO PLANT." (Jeremiah 1:10) His rooting out and throwing down was completed when Nebuchadnezzar's Babylonian army finished the deportation of the Kingdom of Judah to Babylon, its last traces being thrown down when the murder of governor Gedaliah was followed by the flight of the survivors to Egypt, compelling Jeremiah to accompany them, despite his warning against this.

   But WHAT AND WHERE DID HE PLANT? Historically, the Bible does not tell us, as it last mentions him at Tahpanhes, in Egypt. Just as Jeremiah, in Jerusalem, had warned the people of Judah not to rebel against Babylon, so had Ezekiel, at Babylon, given the same warning, giving the parable of a great eagle which cropped off the top twigs of the cedar tree (an emblem of Judah's royal family), carried it to Babylon and planted it, where it became a low vine; but another eagle came along and the vine grew toward him. Ezekiel says the first eagle is Nebuchadnezzar, and the second is Pharaoh of Egypt, and warns of punishment for breaking the covenant to be a vassal of Babylon.

   THEN, IN CONTRAST TO WHAT "THE EAGLES" HAVE DONE, GOD SAYS WHAT HE WILL DO: "Thus saith the Lord God: I also will take of the highest branch of the high cedar and will set it; I will crop off from the top of his young twigs A TENDER ONE, and will plant it upon an high mountain and eminent.

   IN THE MOUNTAIN OF THE HEIGHT OF ISRAEL WILL I PLANT IT: and it shall bring forth boughs and bear fruit and be a goodly cedar: and under it shall dwell all fowl of every wing; in the shadow of the branches thereof shall they dwell." (Ezekiel 17:22-23) Feminine words are used for "young twigs a tender one", though masculine words would have served as well. Nebuchadnezzar killed all the sons of the King of Judah, thinking this destroyed the royal family; but under Israel law, when there were no sons the inheritance went to the daughters. (Numbers 27:8)

   The 43rd and 44th chapters of Jeremiah record that he, with his scribe Baruch, and the king's daughters, were taken by the remnant of the people to Tahpanhes, in Egypt; there he warned them that they were all doomed, except such as could possibly escape from Egypt. THIS ESCAPE IS THE ONLY POSSIBLE FULFILLMENT OF GOD'S PROPHECY THAT JEREMIAH WOULD "BUILD AND PLANT." Churches which like to call Jeremiah "the prophet of Doom" have created the fable that he died in Egypt: but by this they accuse their God of failure and falsehood, for Jeremiah could only "Build and Plant", as God prophesied, after leaving Egypt; so let us see WHAT JEREMIAH BUILT AND PLANTED AND WHERE.

   The king's daughters were the "tender twigs" which God said He would plant. Where could Jeremiah have taken them? Remember, it must be to a great Israel nation: "In the mountain in the height of Israel". He did not take them to Babylon, where the people of Judah were captives, for what would have been recorded by Ezekiel and Daniel if it had happened. He would not have been allowed to take them through the Babylonian Empire to where the ten northern Tribes of Israel were by this time known as the Scythians.

   The record is clear that he did not take them back to the old Kingdom of Judah to stay, though he probably stopped off there long enough to pick up the Ark of the Covenant and Jacob's Pillow, the Stone of Destiny, which had been hidden from the Babylonians.

   Where else were there Israelite kingdoms? In Greece, in Spain and in Ireland. Historians agree that Greece was barbarous until a high civilization was brought there by settlers who had come from Egypt, but were not Egyptians, being aliens expelled by the Egyptians. These are the DANAOI, seafarers of the Tribe of Dan, who had left Egypt by sea. The date is approximately that of the Exodus of Israel from Egypt. Also near this date, Ireland had been conquered by highly civilized invaders who came by sea, the Tuatha De Danaan, or Tribe of Dan", who ruled Ireland for about 200 years thereafter.

   Another Hebrew migration from Egypt was that of half of the Royal Tribe of Judah. This Tribe consisted of two branches, respectively the descendants of Pharez and of Zarah. The Zarahites were men of great ability, even Solomon being compared to them in wisdom; but the Pharez branch was considered the older, hence entitled to preference as the Royal line. So, the Zarahites sought other lands where their ability might seek its own level. They settled in Crete, also founded the cities of Troy and Miletus.

   After the fall of Troy, somewhere near 1,000 B.C., Brutus the Trojan and his followers went to England, founding what became the City of London. Miletus became a great power: Milesian coins bore the Lion of Judah; Milesian mercenary troops were hired by Egypt as its chief Border Guards; and Milesians from Spain, with a considerable fleet and army, conquered the Tuatha De Danaan and settled in Ireland, where Milesian civilization lasted as long as Ireland remained independent.

   Their language was "Phoenician", which is a Semitic dialect akin to Hebrew and became the Gaelic language of ancient Ireland and Scotland, which even today is nearly identical with Phoenician. The Irish Chronicles also record that the Milesians introduced the Laws of Moses, which remained Irish Law until the time of St. Patrick. Ancient Irish history records that, about 583 B.C., there came to Ireland from Egypt "Ollam Fodhla" (that which means "The Great Prophet"), with "Brugh" his scribe and Tea Tephi, the daughter of a king. Irish tradition has always identified "Ollam Fodhla" as the Prophet Jeremiah; Brugh, his scribe is, of course, Baruch, mentioned in the Bible as Jeremiah's scribe.

   Near Jeremiah's tomb in Ireland, is a stone inscribed with hieroglyphics which show a star formation which could only have been seen about 583 B.C., which was the time of Jeremiah's migration from Egypt. While the Bible records the capture of the Ark of the Covenant by the Philistines, it does not mention its capture by Babylon, although it does mention their looting the golden vessels of the Temple; hence we may be sure the Ark was safely hidden. In taking the king's daughter on his divinely commanded mission TO BUILD AND TO PLANT, Jeremiah would naturally try to take along the remaining sacred objects.

   While there is no positive record of his taking the Ark, the Irish Chronicles do record his bringing the Stone of Destiny, Jacob's Pillow; and from Ireland, it is historically traced through Scotland to England, where it is now in the Coronation Chair in Westminster Abbey.

   The family of a member of our congregation had their genealogy traced and published; and it records that one ancestor came to Ireland with the Prophet Jeremiah, this ancestor's duty being that of Custodian of the Stone of Destine. I might add that this is not mere wishful thinking, for the member who had the genealogy traced and published knew nothing of the identity of the Anglo-Saxon people with the Israel of the Bible.

   The princess Tea Tephi, brought to Ireland by Jeremiah, is undoubtedly the daughter of King Zedekiah of Judah. She was married to Eochaid, the Heremon (0r Chief King) of Ireland, who was of the Milesian dynasty and therefore of the Zarah branch of the Royal Tribe of Judah: so the two branches of the Royal Tribe were now united in the royal family ruling the free half of Judah.

   As God said to Jeremiah, He would clip off a tender twig from the highest twigs of the great cedar tree of Judah and plant it "in the mountain of the height of Israel", which was fulfilled by this royal marriage. Jeremiah was a prophet of doom only to the Palestinian Kingdom of Judah and his prophecies were accurate. But this was not the end, for God said "See, I have this day set thee over the nations and over the kingdoms, to root out and pull down and to destroy and to throw down but also to BUILD AND TO PLANT." Having finished the rooting out and throwing down, Jeremiah went on to BUILD AND TO PLANT in Ireland, where God's people, Israel, had established a high civilization, just as God had prophesied.

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http://www.behindthename.com/languages.html#celtic

Celtic This term is used to refer to any of the related Indo-European languages that were spoken by the Celtic peoples who inhabited Europe. The modern Celtic tongues are only spoken in western Europe and can be grouped into two branches: Gaelic (Irish and Scottish) and Brythonic (Welsh and Breton).

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http://www.british-israel.ca/Celtic.htm

The Celtic group is divided into two divisions which has three languages in each division. Each division makes up its own unique language.The two branches are:

 

the BRYTHONIC branch which is made up of the Welsh, Breton and Cornish lan guages; and

 

the GOIDELIC branch with the Irish, Scots and Manx Gaelic languages.

 

Perhaps one of the most telling of the commonalities is simply the self-identification as Israelites - the Hibernians - the name of the Irish and the Scots and the Hebrides Islands off the coast of Scotland. The Milesians, one of the early Celtic peoples to come to Ireland from Spain had a tradition that they were of the Lost Tribes. The name Heber, Eber, or H’berian is found throughout early literature to describe the Celts as they described themselves to be “Of Eber” - the grandfather of Abraham.

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http://www.ireland-information.com/heraldichall/irishboysnames.htm

Irish Boys Names

The 100 Most Popular Male Irish Names, 1999
Rank Name Gaelic Equivalent Meaning/Origin
1 Conor Concobhar Gaelic: 'hound lover'
2 Sean Se�n Hebrew: 'God has favoured' or Variants: Eoin, Seon, Shaun, Shawn, Shane
3 Jack Se�n A form of name John. Hebrew: 'God has favoured' or Variants: Eoin, Seon, Shaun, Shawn, Shane
4 James S�amus derived from Jacob
5 Adam Adhamh Gaelic: 'red earth' or 'ruddy', Hebrew: man
6 Michael Miche�l Hebrew: 'who is like God?', one of the archangels
7 David D�ivi, Daithi Hebrew: 'loved one'
8 Aaron �ron Biblical; 'high mountain'
9 Daniel Dain�al, Dainial Hebrew: 'God is my judge'
10 Dylan    
11 Shane Se�n A form of Sean, popularised by Shane of'Neill, Ulster Chieftain, 1567
12 Cian Cian Gaelic: 'ancient', Cain, Kian and Kean are variants
13 Ryan Ryan Gaelic: 'little king'
14 Luke L�c�s Greek: 'of Luciana', popularised by Saint Luke
15 John Se�n Hebrew: 'God has favoured' or Variants: Eoin, Seon, Shaun, Shawn, Shane
16 Eoin Se�n, Iain An Irish form of the name John
17 Mark Marcas Mars: The Roman God of War
18 Patrick P�draig National name of Ireland, from Latin meaning 'noble', Latin word patricius indicates a member of the Patricians, Roman nobility.
19 Thomas Tom�s Aramaic: 'twin', one of the Apostles
20 Jordan   Irish surname
21 Liam Liam Gaelic form of William
22 Jamie   Variant form of James
23 Stephen Stiof�n, Steaf�n Greek: 'crown', Christin martyr
24 Matthew Matha, Maiti� Hebrew: 'God's present', one of the Apostles
25 Oisin �is�n Gaelic: deer, a legendary figure
26 Nathan    
27 Robert Roibe�rd Germanic: 'fame bright'
28 Andrew Aindr�as, Aindrias Greek: 'manly', one ofthe Apostles
29 Darragh   Gaelic: 'oak'
30 Ciaran   Saint Ciaran
31 Joseph Seosamh, Iosaf Hebrew: 'God added', Satin Joseph
32 Dean    
33 Kevin Caoimh�n Gaelic: 'comely birth', Saint Kevin founded Glendalough 618 ad
34 Evan    
35 Jason Iasan Greek: 'healer', Argonaut leader
36 Brian   Gaelic: 'hill' Brian Boru, High King of Ireland 1014 ad, Bryan and Bryant are variants. Surnames include O'Brien and O'Byrne.
37 Niall N�all Gaelic: 'cloud', Niall of the nine Hostages, founder of the O'Neill Gaelic dynasty, Scottish form is Neil
38 Ben Beircheart From Benjamin, Hebrew: ' southerner'
39 Paul P�l Latin paulus: 'little', Roman for Saul: 'asked for', an early Christin
40 Christopher Cr�ost�ir Greek: 'Christ bearing'
41 Eoghan   Gaelic: 'well born', used as a form of Eugene and Owen
42 Cathal   Gaelic: 'battle mighty' Cathal Crobhdhearg 'red hand' was king of Connaught 1224 ad, sometimes used for Charles
43 Ross Ros Gaelic: 'promontory', Ulster name
44 Joshua   Biblical name
45 Ronan R�n�n Gaelic: 'little seal', Ronan was King of Leinster
46 Lee    
47 Darren   Gaelic: 'little great one'
48 Peter Peadar Aramaic: 'rock', name given to Saint Simon by Christ
49 Craig   Gaelic words is 'carrig' meaning 'rock'
50 William Liam Germanic: 'will helmet'
51 Jake    
52 Anthony Antaine, Antoine Roman name
53 Alan Ail�n Gaelic:' noble', Allan and Allen are variants
54 Colm Coilm, Columba Gaelic: 'dove'
55 Cormac Cormac Gaelic: 'raven' Surnames include McCormack and McCormick Cormac MacCuilleanan was king of Munster
56 Samuel Sorley Hebrew: 'name of God'
57 Alex Alastar Alexander, Greek: 'helper of man'
58 Gavin    
59 Killian Cillian Gaelic: 'strife', Saint Killian
60 Kyle    
61 Cillian   Gaelic: 'strife', Saint Killian
62 Padraig Padraig National name of Ireland, from Latin meaning 'noble', Latin word patricius indicates a member of the Patricians, Roman nobility.
63 Richard Risteard Germainc: 'ruler hard'
64 Ian Ion Iain is the Scottish-Gaelic form of Eoin, and thus John
65 Martin M�irt�n Mars, Saint Martin of Tours 397 ad, was relative of St. Patrick
66 Rory Ruair�, Ruaraidh Gaelic: 'red, Rory O'Connor was High King of Ireland 1170 ad
67 Brandon Breandan Gaelic: 'prince', Saint Brendan of Birr, 571 ad
68 Alexander Alastar Alexander, Greek: 'helper of man'
69 Aidan Aodhan Gaelic: 'little fire', Saint Aidan 651 ad
70 Harry    
71 Karl   Germanic form of Charles
72 Gary   A form of Gerald
73 Kieran Ciar�n Gaelic: little dark one', Saint Kieran
74 Keith   Scottish placename
75 Benjamin Beircheart Hebrew: ' southerner'
76 Ethan    
77 Leon    
78 Philip Pilip Greek: 'lover of horses', Kings of Macedonia. Saint Philip was one of the Apostles.
79 Callum    
80 Colin Coile�n Gaelic: 'cub'. Surname Collins
81 Edward Eamonn, Eadbhard Anglo-Saxon: 'rich guard'
82 Gerard Gear�rd Germainc: 'spear hard', Saint Gerald Majella 1755 ad
83 Scott    
84 Brendan Brendan Breandan Gaelic: 'prince', Saint Brendan of Birr, 571 ad
85 Owen Eoghan Gaelic: 'well born', used as a form of Eugene
86 Dillon   Ray of light, hope
87 Jonathan Ionat�n Hebrew: 'God's gift'
88 Sam Sorley Hebrew: 'name of God'
89 Barry Bearach, Barra Gaelic:' spearlike', Saint Barry
90 Eric   Germanic
91 Shaun Se�n A form of John. Hebrew: 'God has favoured' or Variants: Eoin, Seon, Shawn, Shane
92 Daragh   Gaelic: 'oak'
93 Donal D�nal Gaelic: 'world mighty'. Sometimes used for Daniel. SUrnames include O'Donnell and MacDonnells, MacDonalds
94 Diarmuid Diarmuid Gaelic 'envy free', form of Dermot. Legendary Irish hero who eloped with Grania, who was promised to Finn MacCool
95 Lorcan Lorc�n Gaelic: 'little fierce one', Saint Lorcan O'Toole 1180 ad
96 Tadhg   Gaelic: 'poet', used as a form of Timothy
97 Cameron    
98 Fionn Gaelic: 'fair'  
99 Neil N�all Gaelic: 'cloud', Niall of the nine Hostages, founder of the O'Neill Gaelic dynasty, Scottish form is Neil
100 Reece    

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http://www.1335.com/hebrew.html

THE HEBREW - CELTIC CONNECTION

(Language, Cultural and Religious Ties! - A Missing Link In Fulfilled Prophecy)

IN the eighth century, B.C., the Assyrian Empire was at its peak, and its armies threatened the nations on the eastern Mediterranean seaboard, including Israel. The Assyrians were a brutal, fearsome people, the most terrible, perhaps, in all the earth's history. Conquered lands were literally plundered of everything of value - even people, who were taken to slavery in foreign lands. The wall murals of the Assyrians, some of which now bedeck the British Museum in London, depict scenes of horrible savagery and torture. Men were sometimes skinned alive, or impaled on poles to slowly die outside the gates of a city.

Famed archaeologist Sir Austen Henry Layard, rediscovered and unearthed the ancient Assyrian cities, and graphically described the scenes on the wall murals he found: 'Captives ... were stretched naked at full length on the ground, and whilst their limbs were held apart by pegs and cords they were being flayed alive. Beneath them were other unfortunate victims under-going abominable punishments. The brains of one were apparently being beaten out with an iron mace, whilst an officer held him by the beard. A torturer was wrenching the tongue out of the mouth of a second wretch who had been pinioned to the ground. The bleeding heads of the slain were tied round the necks of the living who seemed reserved for still more barbarous tortures.'(Discoveries In The Ruins of Assyria And Babylon p. 456)

Inhabitants of Palestine in those days were well aware that Assyria would only too soon conduct a similar brutal warfare against the eastern shore of the Mediterranean. Would not large numbers of Israelites migrate westward, by land and sea, to find safety for themselves and their families outside of the Assyrian sphere of influence?

Historical evidence indicates that did indeed happen. The authoritative Dictionary of Christ & The Gospels relates, 'LARGE NUMBERS OF ISRAELITES HAD BEEN CARRIED AWAY CAPTIVE BY THE ASSYRIANS AND BABYLONIANS ... BUT A MUCH LARGER DISPERSION WAS DUE TO VOLUNTARY EMIGRATION.'(Vol. 1, p.692) Yes, more Israelites emigrated, migrated voluntarily out of Palestine, than even the large numbers of those taken away in the Assyrian and Babylonian captivities. As it became clear that invasion and conquest by Assyria was imminent, Hebrews and Phoenicians emigrated westward to distant lands by the many hundreds of thousands, forming the foundation of European civilization.

These historical facts have been known for centuries, and a plethora of books by leading historians has documented 'the Phoenician origin' of Western civilization. Historians have given the Phoenicians most of the credit for this emigration from Palestine to Europe, although the Hebrews were more numerous, and were Divinely promised greatly increased numbers. Perhaps the answer to the confusion is that the Hebrew language is a Phoenician dialect, and the two are virtually identical. But as we will see, a great multitude of the 'Phoenician' speaking early European colonists can be shown to be Hebrew. Famed historian, George Rawlinson, added that, 'The Tyrians [Phoenicians] conceded to the Israelites a participation in the traffic which they had carried on for so long a time with the nations of the west. Two trading fleets were formed (I Kings 9:27; 10:22), to which each of the two nations contributed both ships and men.' (Phoenicia pp. 101 - 102) From such trading colonies grew and developed early European cities.

LANGUAGE LINK

In the 18th century, historians discovered exciting proof of Phoenician-Celtic ties. An ancient Roman dramatist, Titus Maccius Plautus (died 184 B.C.) wrote a play, the Penulus in which he placed then current Phoenician into the speech of one of his characters. In the 18th century, linguists noticed the great similarity between that Phoenician and the early Irish Celtic language. In the adjacent box is a sample given by historian Thomas Moore's, History of Ireland, showing the connection between these languages. Leading 18th and 19th century scholars, such as Gen. Charles Vallancey, Lord Rosse, and Sir William Betham, also wrote on this subject. Vallancey, for instance, speaks of, 'The great affinity found in many words, nay whole lines and sentences of this speech, between the Punic [Phoenician] and the Irish.' Famed historian, George Rawlinson, added that this and other inscriptions are 'READILY EXPLICABLE, IF HEBREW BE ASSUMED AS THE KEY TO THEM, BUT NOT OTHERWISE.'(Phoenicia, p. 327)

THE SIMILARITY BETWEEN THE EARLY IRISH-CELTIC AND THE SECOND CENTURY, B.C., HEBREW- PHOENICIAN LANGUAGE, AS SHOWN BY THE PENULUS OF PLAUTUS:

PHOENICIAN OF PLAUTUS:

 

Byth lym mo thym nociothii nel ech an ti daisc machon

Ys i do iebrim thyfe lyth chy lya chon temlyph ula.

EARLY IRISH-CELTIC:

 

Beth liom' mo thime nociaithe, niel ach an ti dairie mae coinne

Is i de leabhraim tafach leith, chi lis con teampluibh ulla.

In 1772, General Charles Vallancey, a leading Irish scholar of the day, published his famous work, Essay On The Antiquity Of The Irish Language, Being A Collation Of The Irish With The Punic (Hebrew) Language.-In his opening remarks he states, 'On a collation of the Irish with the Celtic, Punic, Phoenician and Hebrew languages, the strongest affinity, (nay a perfect Identity in very many Words) will appear, it may therefore be deemed a Punic-Celtic compound.' Vallancey continues, 'from the Hebrew proceeded the Phoenician, from the Phoenician, Carthaginian, or Punic was derived the Aeolian, Dorian and Etruscan and from these was formed the Latin ... Of the Roman Saxon capital letters, the Irish use but three, all the others bear a very great resemblance to the primitive Hebrew and Phoenician.' (p. 2-3) Modern language scholars have confirmed that there is a definite connection between the Celtic and Hebrew, as we have shown in our tract, Hebrew And English.

RELIGIOUS LINK

Since it is true that Hebrews and Phoenicians migrated to Europe in large numbers in ancient times, there must be religious and cultural ties, and in fact, such connections abound. Dr Thornas Moore's, History of Ireland (p. 40), relates:

'That most common of all Celtic monuments, the Cromlech is to be found not only in most parts of Europe, but also in Asia,' including Palestine. 'Not less ancient and general among the Celtic nations, was the circle of upright stones, with either an altar or tall pillar in the centre, and, like its prototype at Gilgal [ancient Israel], serving sometimes as a temple of worship, sometimes as a place of national council or inauguration ... The rough, unhewn stone... used in their circular temples by the Druids, was the true, orthodox observance of the divine command delivered to Noah, 'If thou wilt make me an altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of hewn stone'(Ex. 20:25) Dr Beauford, in Druidism Revived says, 'It is remarkable that all the ancient altars found in Ireland, and now distinguished by the name of Cromlechs or sloping stones, were originally called Bothal, or the House of God, and they seem to be of the same species as those mentioned in the Book of Genesis, called by the Hebrews, Bethel, which has the same signification as the Irish Bothal' The Bible (Judg. 9:6; 2 Ki. 1 1: 1 4; 2 Chr. 23:13) indicates that Hebrew kings were crowned either standing upon or next to a pillar of stone. 'The practice of seating the new king upon a stone, at his initiation, was the practice in many of the countries of Europe ... The monarchs of Sweden sat upon a stone placed in the centre of twelve lesser ones, and in a similar kind of circle the Kings of Denmark were crowned.'(Moore, ibid., p. 42) Note also the significant Bible number, 'twelve' which was common to both European Celts and the Hebrews.

The book, Identity of the Religious Druidical and Hebrew, adds, 'Circular temples ... abound in England and other parts of Europe. The most ancient account of them is to be found in the book of Exodus (24.4), "And Moses ... builded an altar under the hill and twelve pillars according to the twelve tribes." (p. 15)'. In Europe, Stonehenge, Avebury, and many other early Celtic sites were designed in a circular pattern.

Groves were also features of both Hebrew and Celtic worship. The Bible tells us that Abraham 'called on the everlasting God' (Gen. 13:4) from a grove planted by his own hand. Gideon worshipped God under an oak tree. (Judg. 6:19-24)

monu.gif (23954 bytes)The division of time into a seven-day week was practiced by the Irish Celts, identical to the Hebrews. Dr Thomas Moore comments that no other nation kept such a hebdomadal (seven day) cycle 'excepting only among the family of Abraham,' (ibid., p. 54) a remarkable proof of identity between the two peoples!

Since early times, the Israelites sinned against God by adopting many of the pagan practices of their neighbours, and so we find evidence of both Hebrew and Canaanite culture among their descendants in Europe. (The Phoenician is the eastern branch of the Canaanite people.) The ancient Baal pillar shown at left is one of many such religious monuments which have been found from the Middle East to Ireland.

There are many other examples, however, of customs linking the Celtic Druids specifically with Israel. English historian, Williain Borlase, in his Antiquities Of Cornwall (1754) presented many pages of such evidence: Druids worshipped but one God and allowed no graven images, identical to the Hebrews, and in contradistinction with almost all other ancient religions.

Consecration was by sprinkling with blood, as in the Old Testament Hebrew worship. Druid priests were clothed in white, similar to the Hebrew priest's white ephod; sacrificial victims were bled to death, and the blood was collected in basins which served to sprinkle the altars; bulls were sacrificed, and the image of a bull (the heraldic sign of the Hebrew tribe of Ephraim) was carried into war.'While they performed their horrid rites of human sacrifice, the drums and trumpets sounded without intermission, that the cries of the miserable victims might not be heard.' (Compare Jer. 7:31-32, the Hebrew/Phoenician place of human sacrifice was called Tophet, meaning 'the drum'). They prayed with uplifted, hands, examined entrails for necromancy, and held the oak in veneration. The Druids used the magic wand in imitation of Moses' rod, poured libations, sacrificed upon the tops of rocks, investigated truth by lots, anointed rock pillars with oil, and marked out boundaries with stones. (pp. 104-132, 161) In these and so many other distinctive ways, the religious customs of the Celts and Hebrews bear an unmistakable resemblance!

GEOGRAPHICAL LINK

The early name of southwestern England was 'Dumnoni', or 'Danmoni', as shown by a portion of a map in Celtic scholar, Sir John Rhys' book, Early Celtic Britain. This comprises today the British counties of Cornwall and Devon. Highly respected historian William Camden remarked concerning Cornwall: 'That region which according to the geographers, is the first of all Britain, and... was in ancient times inhabited by those Britains, whom Solinas called, Dunmonii, Ptolomy (called) Damnonii, or (as we find in some other copies),

Cornw.gif (50382 bytes)

MORE TRULY DANMONIL WHICH NAME ... DERIVED FROM THE EVER-CONTINUING MINES OF TIN IN THIS TRACT, WHICH THE BRITANS CALL MOINA.'(Britannia p. 183) This compound word is therefore composed of 'moina', a tin mine, and 'Dan', the people who mined the tin. So this most ancient region of England is properly called 'DANMONI', meaning, 'DAN'S TIN-MINES'. That these early inhabitants known as 'Dan' were in fact the Biblical tribe of the same name has been established by leading modern scholars such as Cyrus Gordon, as shown in our tract, Ancient Hebrew Sea Migrations. If these early colonists had actually been Phoenicians, the region would have been called, not Danmoni, but 'Fenimoni,' because the Phoenicians were known as the'Punic'or 'Feni' civilization.

Boats.gif (44014 bytes)Celtic scholar, Sir John Rhys, gives strong evidences of Hebrew colonization of the British isles in ancient times. 'lreland was known as IBERION,' he says. (p. 201) The ancient name of the Israelites was Ibri or Iberi (modern Hebrew), which is derived from the name, 'EBER', or 'HEBER', an ancestor and patriarch of that people. Sir John continues, '...in Ireland it was Ivernii in Ptolomy's time; and he mentions a town there called Ivernis, and a river Ivernios. To these may be added various forms of the name of the island such as Juvenal's luuerna, distorted more usually by the Romans into Hibernia. THEIR EPONYMOUS ANCESTOR ... is variously called EBER, Emer, and HEBER.' (ibid., p. 262-3)

Sir John discusses a region 'just in the vicinity of St David's or Mnyw, called in the Welsh Chronicle MONI IUDEORUM, which contains an allusion probably to the same people.' (ibid., p. 226) Sir John says that some scholars suggest this word, Iudeorurn or Judeorurn, may relate to the 'Jutes', a Germanic tribe in Northern Europe, but that he believes such a view incorrect. Instead, Sir John indicates that it identifies Hebrews of the tribe of Judah. Sir John adds, '... lastly we seem to have a trace of the same form in the Welsh Chronicle, sometimes called Annales Cambriae, when it calls Menevia or St. David's Moni Iudeorum. WE NEED NOT BE HERE TROUBLED BY THE LOST TEN TRIBES OF ISRAEL BUT ... IT WOULD BE HARD TO PROVE THE CONTRARY' (ibid. p.150)

Sir John also discusses early Celtic names and suggests that we '... compare Semitic names ... compare the Hebrew.' (ibid., p. 259-260)

HISTORICAL LINK

One last fascinating connection with ancient Israel is suggested by Sir John, who says, 'the (Celtic) Kymry were for some time indifferently called Cambria or Cumbria, the Welsh word on which they are based being, as now written, Cymru ... and is there pronounced nearly as an Englishman would treat it if spelled Kumry or KUMRI.' (p. 142) As students of Old Testament history well know, 'Kumri' or'Khumri' was the name of the Israelites in Assyrian texts. (see, 'The March of Archaeology, by C.W Ceram, p. 216) The virtual identity in spelling and sound between the Israelite 'Khumri', and the Celtic 'Kymry', is too much of a coincidence to not have a relationship. Taken with the rnany other evidences, religious and cultural, the connection between the ancient Hebrews and Celts is too strong to be ignored.

In fact, it is no longer a question of, 'Did Hebrews settle in Europe in ancient times?' but only a question of, 'How many of the people of Europe are of Hebrew descent?' When considering the great numbers of early Israelites (see our tract, The Real Diaspora), and the Biblical promise of multitudinous seed (Gen. 26:4, 32:12; Ex. 32:13; Jer. 33:22, etc.), it is evident that the Hebrew-Celtic connection is very significant.

Banner.gif (55488 bytes)Irish history records three main waves of colonization to that isle in ancient times: the Firbolgs, of whom little is known, the Tuatha de Danaan (meaning 'Tribe of Dan', tuath means 'tribe'), and the Milesians. The latter two peoples are known to have originated in Asia and may have been related. The Story of Ireland by A.M. Sullivan, tells us this: 'The Milesian colony ... were an Eastern people... they had passed from land to land, from the shores of Asia across the wide expanse of southern Europe, bearing aloft through all their wanderings the Sacred Banner which symbolized to them at once their origin and their mission, the blessing and the promise given to their race. This celebrated standard, the "Sacred Banner of the Milesians," was a flag on which was represented a dead serpent and the rod of Moses...' (p. 12) The Milesians traced their ancestry to 'Gadelius', whose grandfather was 'the king of Scythia' (p.13) Interestingly, Gad was a son of the patriarch Jacob, and his descendants formed one of the tribes of Israel. The Greek word Scythia is derived from the Semitic, Skutha, and the Persian, Saca, which are terms for the Israelites. (see our tract, The Real Diaspora) As if this wasn't enough coincidence, the serpent symbol was a family heraldic emblem of the Israelite tribe of Dan (Gen. 49:17), whose descendants have been traced by leading modern American archaeologist Cyrus Gordon, to the Tuatha de Danaan of early Ireland! (see Before Columbus, pp. 108-111)

 

SUMMARY

Therefore we can say that in all of these (and a multitude of other) ways, the Celts and Hebrews bear a remarkable relationship. Since the Celts were spread over most of Europe, the cultural, historical, and theological implications of this truth are immensely significant. Write us for other tracts and literature on this theme!


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The following source, being endorsed by a jew and a rabbi, is not credible, but it does demonstrate that jews are aware of the differences between jews and Israelites:

http://www.geocities.com/hiberi/identity.html

"Lost Israelite Identity"

'The Hebrew Ancestry of Celtic Races'

by Yair Davidiy

Russell-Davis, Publishers
Shiloh-Hebron-Susia-Jerusalem-Beth-El Israel
     "Lost Israelite Identity" is for those who have an open mind and are prepared to face serious conceptual challenge.  This is an exciting and important work.
     "Lost Israelite Identity" proves that Tribes of Israelite descent by various paths migrated to the west and became assimilated by Celtic civilization.  On the whole they lost knowledge of their Identity which is however remembered in legends and traditions.  "Lost Israelite Identity" brings evidence from the Bible, Talmud, Archaeology, Mythology, Linguistics, Greek and Roman Authors, and General History.  The emphasis is on scholastically-orientated sources of information.  all important points in "Lost Israelite Identify" are referenced by academically-acceptable works.
     The first part of "Lost Israelite Identity" shows how most of the ancient Hebrews were exiled by the Assyrians and became identified as part of the Cimmerian hosts that moved from the Middle East into Europe.
     The second part of "Lost Israelite Identity" relates that part of the exiled Israelites were taken directly overseas to Spain where they merged with the Cimmerian-Israelites coming overland and from there moved to Britain and Ireland.
     The third part of "Lost Israelite Identity" examines Mythology, Ethnic-Names, Languages and Religious Customs that connect Celtic peoples of Britain, Ireland and Gaul to the ancient Israelites.
(the above description is from the cover of "Lost Israelite Identity")

     "Lost Israelite Identity" has a forward approbation from Rabbi Abraham Feld of the Maccabee Institute, Jerusalem, Israel

For more information on this book contact Yair Davidiy
"Lost Israelite Identity"

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http://pages.prodigy.net/cmfawn/dan.html

I have copied an excerpt from a piece of work by the Global Church of God entitled The U.S. and Britain in Prophecy on the wanderings of the northern tribes of Israel, after their Assyrian captivity, in particular that of the tribe of Dan. I offer you this because you challenged my assertions on the prophecy that Dan would "leave his mark by the wayside" and gave Denmark as an example. I love a challenge, and always answer them with great eagerness. At the heart of my defense is that the Hebrews did not use vowels in their written language, so DN can be considered Don, Dan, Din, Dun, or Den. In the area of Ireland, and along a trail leading all the way to Assyria, are recorded all this name's many forms. This connection to Ireland actually predates this diaspora, there is a long history between the Hebrews and the British Isles. The Hebrew language is only the heart of the issue, the rest of the proof in etymology is very fascinating indeed. If the following research is of interest to you, I will forward all 105 pages of the document I am quoting from, at your request.

. . ."Lost Tribes... in Ireland"?

All early histories of Ireland mention a people coming there from Greece called the Tuatha de Danaan. From The Annals of Ireland, we read, "The Dan'ans were a highly civilized people, well skilled in architecture and other arts from their long residence in Greece, and their intercourse with the Phoenicians. Their first appearance in Ireland was 1200 B.C., or 85 years after the great victory of Deborah." It seems pretty clear who we're talking about here.

Irish historian Thomas Moore says that one of the earliest resident peoples of Ireland--the Firbolgs--were dispossessed by the Tuatha de Danaan, "who after sojourning for some time in Greece... proceeded from thence to Denmark and Norway" (History of Ireland, vol. 1, p. 59).

Who were the Tuatha de Danaan who migrated up from Greece into Denmark and Norway and then over to Ireland? The word tuath simply means "tribe"--"Tuath... Irish history... A 'TRIBE' or 'people' in Ireland" (New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, vol. 10, pt. 1, p. 441). So they were the tribe of Danaan from Greece. When we consider that the Danaans or Danoi of Greece were Danites of Israel, it is simple logic to conclude that the Tuatha de Danaan was none other than the Israelite tribe of Dan!

Another Irish historian, Geoffrey Keating, mentions that "the Danaans were a people of great learning and wealth; they left Greece after a battle with the Assyrians and went to Ireland; and also to Danmark, and called it 'DAN-mares,' Dan's country" (History of Ireland, vol. 1, pp. 195-199). Evidently, when the Assyrians began to invade Israel in the eighth century B.C., the Danites--not only of the Promised Land, but from Greece as well--must have struck out in their ships to find and dwell with the vanguard of those Israelites who had already been settling Ireland for some time.

Do we have further evidence of the tribe of Dan settling in Northwest Europe and the British Isles? We certainly do! Remember that the Danites had a regular habit of naming places after their ancient ancestor, Dan. Notice this interesting fact: "According to late Danish tradition... Jutland [the mainland of Denmark] was acquired by DAN, the... ancestor of the DANES" from whom their name derives ("Denmark," Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th ed., vol. 8). As the Danites migrated in hopes of finding a secure homeland, they continued their habit of naming places after their ancestral father, Dan!
J.P. Green's Literal Translation of the Bible, which accompanies his Interlinear Bible, renders Genesis 49:17 as, "Let Dan be a serpent on the way." The word "way" can also be "road," "path," "journey" or "direction" (Logos Software, Enhanced Strong's Lexicon). As a snake leaves a visible trail or path behind it, so would the tribe of Dan leave a trail across those lands they journeyed through--by simply following their old habit of naming places after their ancestor. Since Hebrew was written with only consonants and no vowels, Dan would be spelled "Dn"--and any or no vowel could occur between the two consonants (e.g. Dn, Dan, Deen, Din, Don, Dun, etc.).

By Dan's "serpent trail," we can follow the Danites' ancient travels. In addition to their Mediterranean and Atlantic voyages, Danite mariners almost certainly sailed into the Black Sea and up the major rivers of Europe. Moving east to west along the north shore of the Black Sea, we pass by the mouths of the following rivers: Don, Donets, Dnieper, Dniester and Danube. If we follow the Danube River upstream, it takes us into the very heart of Europe, where we find the Rhine and Rhone Rivers--known in Roman times respectively as the Eridanus and Rhodanus Rivers.

Across northern Europe we find: Danzig in Poland; Sweden (Svea-Dan); Odense in Denmark (Dan's Land); Dunkirk and Dinan in France. If you then cross the English Channel to the British Isles, you will find many dozens of cities, towns or rivers containing the name "Dan"--for example in Scotland we notice Dundee, Dunraven, Aberdeen, Duncansby Head and the Don River. But it is in Ireland where such place names are most prominent: Dun Laoghaire, the Dunkellin River, Dundalk, Dans-Laugh, Dan-Sower, Dungarvan, Dundrum, Dunglow, Dingle Bay, Donegal Bay and Dunmore Head. (It is certainly no coincidence that the Irish Gaelic word Dun or Dunn means "Judge," just as Dan does in Hebrew!)

Dan's migrations, then, can be traced. But that doesn't help us in locating the other Israelite tribes does it? After all, hadn't most of the Danites escaped the Assyrian conquest and deportations (migrating into Europe) while the rest of the northern tribes of Israel were dragged away captive to northern Mesopotamia and the Medo-Persian area? Yes, but Jacob prophesied of the last days, "Dan [Heb. "Judge"] shall judge his people as one of the tribes of Israel" (v. 16). Dan's descendants could not do this very well if they were not located among the other tribes.

So, though the Danites may have parted company with the rest of Israel at the time of the Assyrian captivity, they would all rejoin each other later. Therefore, the proclivity of the Danites to name places by the Hebrew word for "Judge," after their father, was a remarkable CLUE which God planted within their very tribal nature to help us today in searching out ALL of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel which would later follow the Danite migrations. What incredibly detailed planning the Almighty God has done!

Once we understand the racial connection between the Tuatha de Danaan of Ireland and the ancient tribe of Dan, it is easy to see why the song, "O, Danny Boy" is so popular in southern Ireland! With this biblical and historical background, we can also understand why former New York City Mayor Ed Koch made a particular comment. "It was St. Patrick's Day in America," reported a 1987 U.S. News & World Report about the March 17 holiday commonly celebrated by Irish-Americans. "For one day everyone was Irish. Cardinal John O'Connor [of Irish descent] had a warm embrace for [Jewish] Mayor Ed Koch, who explained his presence at the head of the grand parade, 'It's part of my roots. The Ten Lost Tribes of Israel we [Jews] believe ended up in Ireland'" (Mar. 30, p. 7)!

As we've seen, history reveals that at least some early Israelites did end up in the Emerald Isle! But what about the rest of the tribes? Just where did they go after their Assyrian captivity ended? Can we find out anything from Christ and the commission He gave to His apostles?

"The Lost Sheep of the House of Israel"

Christ mentioned "OTHER sheep I have which are not of this fold [of Jews living in Judea]; them also I must bring, and they will hear My voice; and there will be ONE flock and one Shepherd" (John 10:16). The "house of Israel" is repeatedly referred to in the Old Testament as God's SHEEP, the sheep of His pasture (Jer. 23:1-8; Ezek. 34:1-31).

So Christ was clearly referring to the other tribes of Israel. He commissioned His twelve apostles to preach the Gospel to them: "Do not go into the way of the Gentiles, and do not enter a city of the Samaritans [who sometimes claimed, falsely, to be Israelites]. But go rather to the LOST SHEEP of the HOUSE OF ISRAEL" (Matt. 10:5-6; cf. 15:24)!

Obviously, Christ knew the whereabouts of the Ten Lost Tribes and would have made certain His apostles also knew. Why do we hear absolutely nothing about Peter and the other apostles still being in Jerusalem and Judea during the years immediately preceding the fall of Jerusalem in 70 A.D.?

The twelve apostles knew the Jews had not been totally "lost." So after taking the Gospel to the Jews in Judea, and after preaching to the Jewish communities in the big cities of the Near East, Greece and North Africa, Peter and the apostles then took Christ's Gospel to the dispersed "lost sheep of the house of Israel." Some of these dispersed Israelites were then living around the Black Sea (see box: "The 'Diaspora'"). But by the first century A.D., many of the Ten Lost Tribes had already left Western Asia and had migrated elsewhere. But to where?

Scotland's most treasured document, the Declaration of Arbroath (also called the Scottish Declaration of Independence), was drawn up in 1320 A.D. In it, King Robert the Bruce (1306-1329)--recently popularized in the 1995 box-office hit movie, Braveheart--and his Scottish nobles solemnly appealed to Pope John XXII to persuade the King of England (Edward II) to allow the Scots to live in peace, unmolested by their English tormentors.

The declaration states that the Scots "journeyed from Greater Scythia [present-day southern Russia] by way of the Pillars of Hercules [Gibraltar], and dwelt for a long course of time in Spain.... Thence they came [c. 250 B.C.], twelve hundred years after the people of Israel crossed the Red Sea, to their home in the west where they still live today" (para. 2). Why did the Scots solemnly preserve, as an important milestone in their nation's history, this reference to the crossing of the Red Sea?

The declaration reminds the pope how the Scots received Christianity: "Nor would He [Christ] have them confirmed in that faith by merely anyone but by the most gentle Saint ANDREW, the Blessed Peter's brother" (para. 4). So the Apostle Andrew obeyed Christ's command to go "to the lost sheep of the house of Israel"--some of whom then lived in Scotland!
 

THE "DIASPORA"
 Notice how James, the Lord's half-brother, addressed his epistle around A.D. 60: "James, a servant of God and of... Jesus Christ, to the TWELVE TRIBES [not just the two tribes of Judah and Benjamin] which are scattered abroad [Gk. diaspora, "dispersed"]" (1:1). James did not address his epistle to just the Jews. Rather, he addressed his inspired letter to ALL the Israelites-"to the TWELVE TRIBES in the Dispersion"(same verse, NRSV and Moffatt). The English translation of the original Aramaic text is as follows: "James... to the twelve tribes which are scattered among the Gentiles." The Goodspeed Bible renders this verse in a similar way: "James... to the twelve tribes that are scattered over the world."
 The dispersed Jews are only part of the diaspora-only a small portion of the Israelite all nations. Of course the diaspora would not be of the same nature for the Jews as for the other Israelites. The Jews were widely dispersed but never "lost," whereas the Ten Tribes of Israel were both dispersed and later "lost" to the world in general.
 Where were these Israelites of all Twelve Tribes--including the Ten Lost Tribes--living in New Testament times? The Apostle Peter gives us part of the answer to that question: "Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the pilgrims ["strangers" KJV] of the Dispersion [which were then] in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father" (1 Pet.1:1-2). These areas of dispersed Jews and Israelites were in what is today northern Turkey-showing a westward migration. As we will see in the next chapter, there is abundant historical evidence to prove that many of the Ten Lost Tribes migrated even beyond this point in the centuries preceding Christ; but some of them still lingered here on the southern shores of the Black Sea in the days of Christ and His apostles. This area was immediately west of the Caucasus Mountains and the Caspian Sea--along the land route from western Asia into Europe.
The Story of Joseph of Arimathea
Many Britons believe that Joseph of Arimathea--the important rich man in Judea who buried Christ and had secretly been His disciple (Matt. 27:57; Mark 15:43; John 19:38)--once lived in what is now Glastonbury, England, using that village as his home base from which to preach the Gospel to many of the British people. "Joseph, Saint, Of Arimathea (fl. c. A.D. 30), a Jew who undertook the burial of Jesus and whom later legend connected with the Holy Grail of Glastonbury.... A mid-thirteenth century interpolation... by William of Malmesbury relates that Joseph went to Glastonbury in England as head of 12 missionaries sent thither by the Apostle Philip" ("Joseph, Saint," Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1970).
Tradition maintains that Joseph's oldest brother was the father of Mary, Jesus' mother. If true, that would make him Christ's great uncle. And a common saying in the English countryside is that "Joseph was a tin man." Tin mining was big in early Britain. In fact, the British Isles were known in ancient times as the Cassiterides ("tin islands"). And, through Phoenician-established commerce links, the tin trade between Britain and the Eastern Mediterranean world was quite substantial. Thus, Joseph was probably involved in tin trade between the British Isles and the Near East. In going to Glastonbury in Somerset, he may have been returning to a familiar place, where he could  effectively preach the Gospel.

Collier's Encyclopedia says, "Glastonbury Abbey, a ruined abbey in Somersetshire, about 6 miles south of Wells, England. Tr
 

For an updated version of this informative booklet go to The U.S. and Britain in Prophecy by the Living Church of God

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http://cgca.net/coglinks/origin/oon2.1/vol2_1p3.html

CELTIC-ISRAELITE COMMONALITIES

by Yaacov Levi

To many who are interested in the history of the Celtic peoples and their modern descendants in Ireland, Wales, Scotland, Brittany and Cornwall, and from their descendants around the world a subject that is often brought up is possible connections with the ancient Israelites, in particular the "Lost Tribes" of Israel.

The purpose of this article is not to establish 'connections' to the Lost Tribes, but to discuss some of the many common characteristics of these modern Celtic peoples and the ancient Israelites. These characteristics I call Commonalities. I am not attempting in this short article to establish connections which has been addressed in many other volumes such as The Tribes and Ephraim by Yair Davidy and The Lost Tribes of Israel - Found! by Steven Collins as well as in ancient works. I am simply going to point out and discuss a very few of the great many commonalities between these peoples.

The Lost Tribes of The House of Israel

The peoples we refer to as the Lost Tribes were part of the Northern Kingdom of Israel which was conquered by the Assyrians around 740-720 BC. and exiled to areas in Assyria and to the north. This is told in the the Bible in 2Kings chapters 17 and 18. About the same time a contingent from the Kingdom of Judah were also exiled to the northern lands. It is these peoples and their immediate descendants that are also variously referred to as the Lost Tribes, and the subject of many works and studies.

Being both Irish and Jewish, I grew up familiar with customs and the cultures of both peoples, only in later years becoming aware that they were quite difference cultures and had greatly varying cultural characteristics. Yet growing up with both cultures, I had noticed similarities even on a casual basis. Over the years I began to see more of this similarity and in recent years I began to collect this data into what I term an Overview which I am still assembling. It is this Overview in differing areas of life that I will discuss here.

There are a number of areas that I have been looking at which includes: language, agriculture, religion and taboos, burial practices, music and folk dancing, the traditions and self determinations and self-identification of the Celts and other areas as the arise. I will point out a few items in each category and note that these are just a few of a great many commonalities and I mention them as examples.

Language is one of the subjects that led to my overall interest in the topic as early on I had noticed similarities. Considering the long period of time from the expulsion of the Israelites to our time, it would seem unlikely that there would be little, if any, common letters, words or structure, but that is not the case - there is indeed much in common.

Gaelic is a member of the Celtic group of the Indo-European family of languages that includes Russian, English, German, Spanish, French, Hindi and Italian. The Celtic group has been confined to the British Isles and part of the French coast.

Linguistic Similarities

The Celtic group is divided into two divisions which has three languages in each division. Each division makes up its own unique language.The two branches are:

bulletthe BRYTHONIC branch which is made up of the Welsh, Breton and Cornish lan guages; and
bulletthe GOIDELIC branch with the Irish, Scots and Manx Gaelic languages.

The Breton and Cornish languages are seeing some resurgence after near extinction while the Irish, Scots and Welsh languages are holding their own at this time. Manx is an ancient form of Irish and is considered to be oldest and purest Irish Gaelic in existence. Manx is very close to the extinct dialects of nearby Ulster and Galloway and separated from Old Irish in about the fifth century of our era. It occupies much the same position to Old Irish as Icelandic does to Old Norse. For the purpose of my study I have chose to concentrate on Manx and Scots Gaelic. I am sure though that an indepth study of Welsh or the other Gaelic languages would provide much food for thought on this issue.

The Gaelic alphabet as well as the ordinal numbers show more commonality than could be expected after 2,700 years of divergence; for example we have a Hebrew "S" retained in the modern Gaelic - the Hebrew Sheen, pronounced Shh is found in the Irish "S" as in the name Sean pronounced Shawn. Other letters are similar, the ordinal numbers 6 & 7 are pronounced almost the same as Hebrew and Gaelic. Words with same or similar meanings abound; for instance the Hebrew word for holy in common usage according to Halacha (Jewish law) is Kasher. The word in Manx Gaelic for hallowed or holy is Casherick. The syntax of Gaelic is entirely different from any other European language, especially English. RL Thompson, in his work Outline of Manx Literature and Language says that "in several respects Gaelic syntax has similarities with that of languages like Hebrew and Arabic".

As in Hebrew, adjectives follow the noun that they describe: for example "ben vie" = "a good woman" in Gaelic and "Rosh ketan" = "small head" or "stupid" in Hebrew. Vie of ketan being the adjectives. The word order also is similar in Hebrew in that the verb is usually first in the sentence unlike English or many other European languages. These are just a very few of the many commonalities that I believe suggest a definite connection between the two languages and their family streams. This alone could constitute a major comparative study.

Commonalities in Ethnic Customs

One of the first areas in which I noticed similarities was in customs, notably folk dancing and later, musical instruments. The Hebrew Hora and other old traditional dances are parallelled in many Gaelic folk dances and especially the wedding dance of the Gaels which is very similar to the traditional Ashkenazic wedding dances of Europe. The musical instruments of the Gaels are found in the Israelite tradition, notably the harp in both Celtic tales and certainly Hebrew tradition as the favoured instrument of the psalmist David [see the article "The Harp of David and the Harp of Ireland" by John Wheeler in the August-October issue of Origins of Nations - ed]. But, one of the most intriguing things to come up was that the Irish and Scots pipes we are all familiar with has its origins in the desert flute played daily throughout\t the Middle East. The flute of the desert shepherds is identifiable in the "chanter" of the Irish and Scots pipes.

Amazing Religious Parallels

The ancient religion of the Celtic peoples prior to Christianity was generally believed to be Druidism, of which we know very little; yet that which we do know has many overtones of the Canaanite religions that the northern tribes turned to after the split of King Solomon's Kingdom under his son into a Northern and a Southern Kingdom. Like the pagans of Canaan, their sacred places became high hilltops and sacred groves, notably oaks. There is a great deal of similarities from what we know archaeologically in both the Northern Kingdom ritual sites and the Druid sites in the Isles. Additionally, the burial practices of both the peoples of the northern Kingdom and the Celts bear much similarity in the presence of Dolmens - large slabs of stone place horizontally across upright stones with the graves under them. These are found throughout the area of Europe which Celtic peoples passed and are found also in the areas of present day Jordan and Israel in which the Northern Israelite tribes dwelled.

You can find pictures of these dolmens in Yair Davidy's book Ephraim on pages 137-38. This book is available from History Research Projects. Overseas it may be purchased direct from Yair Davidy in Israel.

Even Agricultural Similarities!

Agriculturally there are interesting commonalities - the grain crops are much the same, and even though wheat was known to them in their passage through Europe it was not a major crop in their final homes. In fact oats and barley were their staple grains. As with the Israelites, the cattle were of several colours, but the preferred colour for ritual for both peoples was red. The virgin cow used in the Hebrew ritual for purification was the forerunner of the red cattle used by the Druids in their rituals.

After the invasion of the Romans into the Isles, white cattle were introduced and later used; until that time red was the preferred colour. One of the most famous wars in Irish history was over a Red Bull stolen by a northern Irish tribe. Also, swine were not raised in any of the early Celtic areas until after they were introduced by the Romans; the Celts had a taboo against them, along with scaleless fish as eels and shellfish. The Celts, in similitude to the Israelites, were excellent headsman and developed identifiable breeds of sheep, cattle and horses, that carried on the traditions of the Israelites.

Other Proofs

Perhaps one of the most telling of the commonalities is simply the self-identification as Israelites - the Hibernians - the name of the Irish and the Scots and the Hebrides Islands off the coast of Scotland. The Milesians, one of the early Celtic peoples to come to Ireland from Spain had a tradition that they were of the Lost Tribes. The name Heber, Eber, or H'berian is found throughout early literature to describe the Celts as they described themselves to be "Of Eber" - the grandfather of Abraham.

What I have presented here in greatly abbreviated form just skims the surface of the commonalities between the Celtic Peoples and the Israelites. There is a tremendous amount of information available for those who would like to look at this closer themselves. A few resources are listed at the end. This is one of those subjects in which at first one can say "oh - that's an interesting coincidence". But the sheer mass of these "coincidences" that build up after one goes from discipline to another becomes totally overwhelming. The fact that so much of the languages are similar almost three thousand years later, that customs are clearly identifiable as being related, that religious practices are uniquely similar and that the everyday agricultural practices and crops were similar - all along with the many other commonalities bespeak a common origin.

For those interested in pursuing this I wish you well and much enjoyment.

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Suggested information sources:

Manx Gaelic Society
Yn Cheshaght Ghailckagh
St Judes
Isle of Man IM7 2EW
United Kingdom

Gaelic Books Council
Dept of Celtic
University of Glasgow
Glasgow G12 8QQ
Scotland

Yair Davidy
Brit-Am
PO Box 595
Jerusalem
Israel 91004


Chadwick, N (1965) Celtic Britain. London.
Chadwick, N (1970) The Celts. United Kingdom.
Rankin, H (1987) Celts and the Classical World. London.
Squire, C (1905) Celtic Myth and Legend, Poetry and Romance. London.
Squire, C (1909) The Mythology of Ancient Britain and Ireland. London.

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Editorial

In Brief

bulletCultural Links Between the Israelites and Myceneans
bulletWestminster Abbey
bulletElam's Volatile Relationship with Israelitish Nations
bulletWho are the East Asians, Polynesians and American Indians?
bulletEphraim

The Chaldeans

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http://www.british-israel.ca/USA8.htm

Dan, The Pioneer of Israel

Page 8

When the 12 tribes of Israel actually took possession of the promised land, the tribe of Dan was allotted its tribal inheritance in the southwestern area of that land.. Dan was situated west-Northwest of Judah; Dan's territory extended westward to the Mediterranean Sea, and included the busy port of Joppa, next to modern Tel-Aviv (Joshua 19:40-48).

Now the Danites migrated Northwards to Laish, and called the city Dan, after their father, see Judges 18. The northern city Laish, now called Dan, by the tribe of Dan, was about thirty miles inland from the ancient busy port of Tyre. Thus the ancient Danites must of had frequent contacts with the people of Tyre, which was in fact occupied by their brethren the tribe of Asher, see Joshua 19:29. So since their Israelite brothers occupied the land of Tyre, they had access to Tyre at anytime. These people of Tyre were a people of sea trade and navigation, see Ezekiel 27. These people built Tyre and Sidon on the Lebanese coast.

In the 1200's B.C., before Dan went to Laish, in a song commemorating a great Israelite victory, the Judge Deborah lamented that during the battle, the "men of Gilead stayed beyond the Jordan [River], and [asked] why DAN REMAINED IN SHIPS?" (Judges 5:17). The Danites were so preoccupied with the Sea and sea trade that they chose to remain in their ships than help their brethren. So even before the time they went to Laish, the Danites were already engaged in sea-faring activities.

J.C. Gawler quotes from the Chronicles of Ireland and says: "Again (p.123), 'The Danites ruled about two centuries until the arrival of the Milesians, which took place, 1000 years before the Christian era.' Thus the date of the arrival of the FIRST COLONY OF DANAANS WOULD BE 1200 B.C., or 85 years after Deborah and Baraks victory, when we are told Dan had ships...The early connection with Greece, Phoenician and Egypt is constantly alluded throughout the Chronicles [of Ireland] and records of the Irish Dannans" (Dan Pioneer of Israel, pp.30-31, emphasis added). After the first batch of Dannans left for Ireland, the remaining Danites migrated North 30 miles away from Tyre. These Danites that migrated North to Laish are the 3RD BATCH OF DANAANS THAT WENT TO IRELAND. These Danites worshipped Idol gods at that time, and brought them to Ireland, and Gawler points out, "The Psalter at Cashel says that the Tower of Tara [In Ireland] was built for the preservation of the fire of Baal, and was called Bel Theine...and that the mark of Phoenicia and Israel [was] Baal worship" (ibid., p.31).

What route did the first batch of Danaans take? Irish Historian Thomas Moore says that one of the earliest resident peoples of Ireland-the Firbolgs-were dispossessed by the Tuatha de Danaans, "who after sojourning for some time in Greece...proceeded thence to Denmark and Norway" (History of Ireland, vol.1, p.59) Then the Danaans proceeded to Ireland. So we see a time span of about 85 years, after Deborah, the judge of Israel uttered those words about Dan in ships!

The word "Tuatha" simply means "tribe"-"Tuatha...Irish history...A 'Tribe' or 'people' in Ireland"' (New English Dictionary on Historical principles, vol.10, pt 1, p.441). The word Dan means Judge in the Hebrew. "Dan [Heb "Judge"] shall Judge his people as one of the tribes of Israel" (Gen 49:16). "It is certainly no coincidence that the Irish Gaelic word Dun or Dunn means Judge..."' (America and Britain in Prophecy, Raymond McNair, p.25, emphasis theirs).

Another Irish Historian Geoffrey Keating mentions the SECOND BATCH of Danites of Judges 18, who were the THIRD BATCH OF DANAANS that went to Ireland AFTER THE MILESIANS, and he says: "...the Danaans were a people of great learning and wealth; they left Greece after a battle with the ASSYRIANS and went to Ireland; and also to Denmark, and called it 'DAN-mares,' Dans' country" (History of Ireland, vol.1, pp.195, 199, emphasis added). When the Assyrians attacked in the 8th century, the Danites of the promised land, left and joined their brothers in Ireland, who already settled there in different waves of immigration. They left to get away from the battle with Assyria.

The Encyclopedia Britannica tells us that the ancestor of the Danaans was "According to late Danish tradition...Juteland [mainland Denmark] was acquired by DAN, THE ANCESTOR OF THE DANES FROM WHERE THEIR NAME DERIVES (under article 'Denmark,' vol.8, 11th edition, emphasis added). Like the Danites of old, they named Denmark after their father Dan.

Testimony of Josephus, the Jewish Historian

Jewish Historian Josephus shows that the Lacedemonian (Spartans of Greece) were actually Danites, and therefore closely related to the Jews. Josephus relates an incredible letter from Sparta to Judah: "

"Jonathan the high priest of the Jewish nation . . . to the ephori and senate and the people of the Lacedemonians, send greeting:

"When in former times an epistle was brought to Onias, who was then our high priest . . . we have discovered that both the Jews and the Lacedemonians are of ONE STOCK, and are derived from the KINDRED OF ABRAHAM...concerning the KINDRED THAT WAS BETWEEN US AND YOU, a copy of which is here subjoined, we both joyfully received the epistle . . . because we were well satisfied about it from the SACRED WRITINGS, yet did not we think fit, first to begin the claim of this RELATION TO YOU, the glory which is now given us by you. It is a long time since this relation of ours to you hath been renewed, and when we, upon holy and festival days offer sacrifices to God, we pray to Him for your preservation and victory . . . . You will, therefore, do well yourselves to write to us, and send us an account of what you stand in need of from us, since we are in all things disposed to act according to your desires...This letter is foursquare: and the seal is an eagle, with a dragon [snake or serpent] in its claws" (Antiquities of the Jews, bk 12 chapter 4 sec 10; XIII, 5, 8, emphasis added).

 

The Lacedemonians received the Jewish ambassadors carrying the letter kindly and made a decree of friendship and mutual assistance with the Jews, and then sent the letter to their Lacedemonian kinsmen.

In Ancient Mythology, Bryant relates that Stephanus Byzantium shows that Alexander Polyhistor and Claudius Jolaus also speak of a direct relationship or kindship between the Spartan Greeks and the people of Judaea (vol.5, p.51-52, 60).

 

Dan -- A Serpent's Trail

Jacob prophesied that Dan would be a "Serpent by the way, an adder by the path," meaning that he would leave a trail wherever he would go. In the Bible we have seen evidence of this naming everything after their father "Dan," see Joshua 19:47; Judges 18:12, 27-29. When the Danites migrated to Ireland, they left a trail of names throughout Europe. The city of Troy was located at the mouth of the Bosporus DarDANelles. From their they migrated into Europe and left names all over and into    DANmark and Norway.

In Hebrew there are no vowels, so the name Dan is written DN, or its Hebrew equivalent. Thus words like Dan, Din, Don, Dun, Den, or Dn, correspond to the name of Dan.

Just west of the Black Sea, ancient geographers designated a region by the name of Moesia, which means the land of the "Moses-ites." These people revered a person whom they called Zal-moxis. "Zal" significes "chief," so this person, "chief Moxis" or "leader Moxis" was actually "chier MOSES," the man of God who led Israel to the promised land, and whom these people remembered as their original leader. The tribe of Dan also passed through this region, and the surrounding territory, leaving its name in Mace-DON-ia, and the Dar-DAN-elles, and to the north by the river DAN-ube. In the territory of Sarmatia (or Samaria, meaning the Israelites), were located the rivers DN-iper, DN-ister, and the DON.

Professor Totten declares:

"There is no grander theme upon the scrolls of history than the story of this struggle of the Anglo-Saxons westward. The very streams of Europe mark their resting places, and in the root of nearly all their ancient names (Dan, or Don) recall the sacred stream Jor-dan river of rest-- from whose whose hands, so far away, as exiles, they set out. It was either the little colony of Dan, obeying its tribal proclivity for naming everything it cap- turied (Jud.18:1-29) after their father, or else the mere survival of a word and custom; but, none the less, it serves to TRACE these wanderers LIKE A TRAIL. Hence the Dan-ube, the Dan-ieper, the Dan-iester, the Dan-au, the Daci and Davi, the Dan, the Don, the U-Don, the Eri-don, and the THOUSAND OTHER dans and dons of ancient and early geography, down to the Danes in Dan-emerke, or 'Dan's last resting place'" (quoted in Allen, Judah's Sceptre and Joseph's Birthright, p.263-64).

Denmark, the name of the modern country in Europe north of Germany, means, literally, "Dan's mark." It's people are called "Danes." In fact, because at one time Denmark ruled all the surrounding region, the whole region took its name from them the ScanDINavian peninsula! Clearly, here are remnants of the people of DAN, who migrated westward overland from the Caucasus to their present location in northern Europe!

However, other Danites, who dwelt or abode in ships, and who associated themselves with the sea peoples of Tyre and Sidon, fled westward through the Mediterranean when northern Israel fell. Early Danites fled Egypt  migrated through SarDINia, and left their trail along the sea-coasts of the Mediterranean. Thus Dan, who was a "lion's whelp" who would "leap from Bashan," leaped all the way to Ireland, where historians explain that the early settlers were known as the "Tuatha de Danaan" -- literally, the "tribe of Dan." The Greeks called them the Danoi, the Romans called them Danaus.

In Ireland, today, we find their customary evidence -- their place names -- in abundance. Such names as Dans-Lough, Dan-Sower, Dan-Monism, Dun-dalke, Dun-drum, Don-egal Bay, Don-egal City, Dun-glow and Lon-don-derry, as well as Din-gle, Dun-garven and Duns-more, which means "MORE DANS." Of course, the most famous Irish ballad of all time is the song, "Danny Boy." It should be plain that the country of Ireland is replete, filled with names which derive from the ancient patriarch of the Hebrews -- DAN, the son of Jacob! It should be plain that the ancient Danites settled in Ireland, and most of them dwell in that land, today.

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http://www.british-israel.com/MythCelt_files/MythCelt.htm

 

"The religion of the Britons appears to have been very much the same as…the Patriarchal religion."

-Canon Samuel Lysons, 'Our British Ancestors' (p. 58)

The

Old Testament Roots

of Celtic Mythology

FOUNDATIONS OF DRUIDISM IN THE BIBLE

            The mythology of Druidism is said to have been brought to England in ancient times by Hu Gadarn Hysicion, who came from the east with a party of colonists and built Stonehenge. Who were these Eastern colonists? Historians tell us that Phoenician-speaking peoples colonized the British Isles in early times. The Israelites, a seafaring people, spoke a Phoenician dialect, and the early history of these two peoples is intertwined. The Bible speaks of Israelites sending "ships to Tarshish," or Spain, and Solomon’s navy sailed with the Phoenicians on their trade and colonizing expeditions. (2 Chron. 9:21; Isa. 60:9) Phoenician-speaking peoples, including Israelites, colonized Spain and Britain in ancient times, mining ores such as silver, iron, tin, and lead, as we document in our tract, "Ancient Hebrew Sea Migrations." The Druidic religion of early Britain and Ireland should therefore exhibit signs of both Hebrew and Phoenician origins.

HEBREW RELIGION

            Celtic scholar, John Daniel, in his book, "The Druidic Idea of God," lists the Druidic terms for the Deity and their meaning:

Celi                                     The Invisible One

Ior                                       The Eternal

Duw                                     Commonly translated 'God'; lit., 'He Who Wills'

Rheen                                 All-Pervading Spirit

Peryl                                  Author of Existence

Dofydd                              Governor

Deon                                   Distributor

Yr Hen Ddihenydd     Eternally Ancient One, or "Ancient of Days"

Mr. Daniels remarks, "Nobody can fail to see in these terms a similarity to the common phraseology of the Christian Church... There is such perfect consonance between these [Celtic] appellations of the Deity and those of Biblical theology, that it is strange anyone should so fail to see it..." (p.4, compare Dan.7:9,13,22, etc.) Daniels also points out that the Celtic name for the Deity was IAO, pronounced, "Yah-o," which is virtually identical to the Hebrew name for God, "Yah" or "Yahu." In early alphabets, letters represented ideas. In Hebrew, aleph, the first letter, stood for an ox; bet symbolized a house, gimel was a camel, dalet a door, and so on. Similarly, in Celtic the letter "I" stood for 'the future.' "A" represented 'the present', and "O" stood for 'the past'. (ibid., pp.16-17) Thus, the Druidic name for God, "IAO," literally meant "the Everliving," a being in existence past, present, and future. This is the exact definition given by scholars for the name of the Hebrew God, "Yahu" or "Yahweh." In fact, the Ferrar Fenton Bible consistently translates the name of God as "the Everliving." The identity of the Celtic and Hebrew Deities is obvious, for "there can hardly be a question that the three letters were originally no other name than IAO, the Latinized form… of the Hebrew [Yah or Yahu]; and that such was the rendering of that name, we have the authority of several ancient writers. Diodorus Siculus says it was related amongst the Jews, that Moses attributed the framing of the laws to the God called IAO; and Theodoret states that God was by the Jews called IAO." (ibid., p.12)

...In addition, the Druidic "IAO" was called the "Unutterable Name," again identical to the Hebrew, "Yah." Daniels states, "So to the Druids there was a secret name for the Deity, which was unutterable ("Aflafar") to all but the most privileged of their order, and was symbolized by the three Bardic characters representing the vowels IAO." (ibid., p. 11) With such close resemblance's between the Celtic and the Hebrew Deity, it is not surprising that England was converted without the shedding of a single drop of blood. There is no record of martyrdom for any early Christian missionary, and it has been truly said that Druidism was only accepting a fuller, better revelation through the adoption of Christianity!

The Druidic priests, like the Levitical priests of the Bible, were exempt from military service. The Druidic and Levitical priests were both divided into three classes. Even the Druidic ceremonial robes remind one of the Mosaic priests, with their breastplates of gold and jewels. The Druidic rituals, like the Old Testament Levitical, included the sacrifice of sheep, oxen, and goats, but no idol worship.

       In the Bible, the prophet Jeremiah in chapter 3l verse 21 instructed scattered Israel to “set thee up waymarks, make thee high heaps,” and thus we find a trail of unhewn stone monuments, called dolmens, menhirs, and cromlechs, leading from Palestine (Gen. 35:14, etc.) across Europe, and into the British Isles, where they were used in worship by the Druidic priests. In England, according to Isabel Hill Elder’s book, “Celt, Druid, and Culdee,” each stone monument was called a “Si’on” in the ancient Celtic language. The similarity between this and the Hebrew word “Zion”, meaning a stone fortress, is striking. Truly, these are additional witnesses to the identity of the House of Israel in the world today.

BAAL WORSHIP

            But the religious customs of the Covenant people became corrupted with the religion of the Phoenician Canaanites. The Prophet Elijah's challenge of the Hebrew priests of Baal is one of the most moving Bible accounts. (I Ki.18:18-40) The Bible indicates that at one time the majority of Hebrew priests and people followed the rituals of Baal worship. Noted 19th century antiquarian, Sir William Betham, made an exhaustive study of the ancient Celtic peoples, and states in his book, The Gael and Cimbri, “Baal... has the precise meaning in Gaelic as in Phoenician -- the lord of heaven.” (p. 226) Many customs hearken back to Palestine, as well; “even the cakes which the idolatrous Jews, in imitation of the Phoenicians, made in honour of the queen of heaven are still the most popular cake in Ireland under the old name of the barn-brack, or speckled cake.” (p. 236) Ancient customs and rituals are persistent among mankind, and therefore provide tangible evidence of a people’s origins, even where no written proof survives. Betham comments, “Thus we see at this day, fires lighted up in Ireland, on the eve of the summer solstice and the equinoxes, to the Phoenician god, Baal, and even called Baal’s fire, baaltinnes, though the object of veneration be forgotten...” (p. 222-223) In addition, archaeological proof points to a Hebrew-Phoenician origin of the Britons and Irish. Betham relates, “On an altar-stone, dug up near Kirby Thore, in Westmorland, is this inscription:”

“DEO BEL ATUCADRO LIB[ERUM] VOTUM. FECIT IOLUS.”

            The text translates as follows: “To the god Baal, the friend of man, Iolus made his free vow.”

            Numerous other stone altars to Phoenician gods, which have been discovered in Britain, Ireland, and Gaul, are discussed and translated in Betham’s work. Some of the principal finds include altar-stones found in Northumbria and other parts of Britain. He states that these ancient monuments to “Baal, by the ancient British... are unanswerable evidences of the identity of the people of the two islands {i.e., Britain and Ireland] and Gaul, which the most unwilling and incredulous caviler at etymologies, can scarcely refuse to receive as conclusive. It proves more, for it shows an identity of the deities of the Celtae and the [Hebrew]-Phoenicians...” (p. 228-229)

            Numerous other parallels exist between Celtic and Hebrew-Canaanite worship, including mystic well-worship, worship of sacred stones, and the veneration of the autumnal equinoxes. In fact, both the Canaanites and Celts practiced autumnal sacrifices to Baal, which the Celts called, “Baal-tinnes,” as previously mentioned.

AVEN

            Aven was another of the deities of the Phoenician Canaanites, and temples to this god were called, 'Beth-Aven," or 'house of Aven.' The idolatrous Israelites also had adopted worship of this false god, as we see in Hoseh 4:15-17: "…come not ye unto Gilgal, neither go ye up to Bethaven, nor swear, the Lord liveth. For Israel slideth back as a backsliding heifer…Ephraim is joined to idols…" Israelite worship of this god was so pervasive, that the prophet Isaiah used the word, "Aven," to signify an idol in general: "…he that burneth incense, as if he blessed an idol." (Hebrew, "Aven") All idols are vanity, and aven itself came to have a secondary meaning of vanity. Since this so-called god was no god at all, the idolaters were literally worshipping nothing! The Apostle Paul picks up on this theme in First Corinthians 4:8, "We know that an idol is nothing in the world, and that there is no other god but One."

            There are five rivers Avon in Britain, of which three pass through Gloustershire, where Celtic worship of this god was centered. In the same English district is an old town named Avening. The 'ing' suffix means the place of, so Avening is the place of Aven. Historian Samuel Lysons, in "Our British Ancestors" says, "The worship at Beth-Aven, in Canaan, and that of Avening in Gloucestershire, and that of Aven, Heliopolis, or Baal bec, were all identical. The stone altars, the high place, the calves' bones discovered there, mark the similarity." (p.123)

MOLOCH AND CHIUN

            The Canaanite god and goddess, Moloch and Chiun, are mentioned in connection with Israel's worship by the prophet Amos (5:25), "But ye have borne the tabernacle of your Moloch and Chiun your images, the star of your god, which ye made to yourselves. Therefore will I cause you to go into captivity…"

            At Windmill Hill, near Avebury, Wiltshire, England, there are evidences of Druidical worship, but no windmill. 'Win' is the Celtic word for 'eye,' and 'Win-Melk' is the 'eye of Moloch.' Dr. Maurice, in "Indian Antiquities," says, "the Druids worshipped the sun under the title of Moloch, so we are certain that worship was derived to them from their Eastern ancestors." The British towns Melch-bourne in Bedfordshire, and Melc-combe in Dorset, both retain evidence of the worship of Moloch in early times.

            Similarly, the goddess Chiun was worshipped by the idolatrous Canaanites and the Israelites who followed their custom. Chiun was the moon goddess, and was considered so important that she was called the queen of heaven. In fact, it is from this word, Chiun, that we derive our English word, queen. The Prophet Jeremiah mentions worship of this goddess several times. He laments Israel's worship of her, saying, "The children gather wood, and the fathers kindle the fire, and the women knead their dough, to make cakes to the queen of heaven, and to pour out drink offerings unto other gods, that they may provoke me to anger." (7:18; compare 44:17-25) The goddess Chiun had her adherents in Britain also, as seen in the name of the famous king, Cuno-bel-inus, whose name combines the worship of both Chiun and Bel. Similarly, Chiun is seen in the early British names Cunedag, Cingetorix, Conan, and Maglo-cunus.

SUN WORSHIP: AL

            The Hebrew word, Al, signifies the sun, and is equivalent to the Phoenician Hal, Greek Halios, Babylonian Il, and Celto-British Heaul. Mallet's "Northern Antiquities," (vol.2, p.68) states, "All Celtic nations have been accustomed to the worship of the sun…It was a custom that everywhere prevailed in ancient times to celebrate a feast at the winter solstice, by which men testified their joy at seeing this great luminary return again to this part of the heavens. This was the greatest solemnity of the year. They called it, in many places, Yole or Yuul, from the word Hiaul, which even at this day signifies the sun in the languages of the Bas-Bretagne and Cornwall." Christmas is still called Yule. A Christmas holiday beer, Ale, may be from the same root. Holly and Holy come from the word, heaul, meaning 'to hallow, to deem sacred,' with roots to the Hebrew, 'El,' God. The German words, 'heilig' and 'ale' mean 'to swear, to call on the name of God.' The words 'all,' ''whole,' and 'heal,' may be related to this.

            The Hebrew name for the sun appears in many places in Britain with names beginning with 'Al,' 'Ail,' 'Ayl,' 'Hal,' 'Hayl,' and the like. There are many examples, including Albury, Albourne, Alcester, Alby, Althorp, Alton, Allington, Allerton, Alford, Allenby, Alsop, and dozens more.

AUN OR ON

            In Genesis 41:45, we read, "And Pharaoh called Joseph's name Zaphnathpaaneah; and he gave him to WIFE ASENATH the DAUGHTER OF POTIPHERAH PRIEST OF ON. And Joseph went out over all the land of Egypt." Again in Genesis 46:20, we are told, "And unto Joseph in the land of Egypt were born Manasseh and Ephraim, which ASENATH THE DAUGHTER OF POTIPHERAH PRIEST OF ON bare unto him." (compare 41:50) The word, On, signifies the sun, and is derived from the Hebrew Aun, Assyrian Anu, Babylonian Aunu, Celto-British On, and the Greek On. The ancient Celtic poet, Taliesin, is quoted in "Davies' British Druids," as saying, "Even the sovereign On, the ancient, the generous feeder." (p.527) Historian George Rawlinson states, "Aunu signified 'the god,' and was no doubt in use among the primitive Babylonians from the very earliest times." (Herodotus, Essay x, vol. 1, p. 591) Who was this "Asenath, the daughter of Potipherah the priest of On," whom the Biblical patriarch Joseph married? It is popular teaching today to say because Asenath dwelled in Egypt, that therefore Joseph married a Negro. But the fact that her family were sun-worshippers worshipping On, the Semitic sun-god, is proof positive of a Semitic identity.

            It is from this word, On, that we derive the Latin, annus, meaning a year, from the annual solar revolution, and the English, annual. Samuel Lysons states, "That Aven and On were the same, is shown by the Greek translation of Beth-aven as 'the house of On.' Heliopolis, Egypt was at different periods called Ain, Aven, and On… Possibly our word Evening, Dutch Avond, and German Abend, may represent Aven, as the declining sun." (ibid., p. 238-239)

            British place-names showing early sun-worship include Ansley, Anston, Anslow, Ancoats, Ancaster (Caer An), Ancroft, Anford, Anwick, Avon, Avening, Arran, and many others. Concerning this last location, a circle of Druidic stones with a cromlech in the center at Arran indicates sun worship.

FURTHER EVIDENCES

            British antiquarian, Aylett Sammes, writing in 1676, noted that “the customs, religion, idols, offices, and dignities of the ancient Britons are all clearly Phoenician.” John Pinkarton, in his “Enquiry Into The History Of Scotland,” (1789), also stated that Druidism was directly descended from the Phoenicians, while British antiquarian William Stukely, in the book, “Stonehenge,” believed that it had the marks of Israelite worship and culture.

            Stukely pointed out Old Testament references to oaks, which gave these trees symbolic or mystical attributes. Abraham’s altar of sacrifice was prepared by the oak of Moreh. ”And Abram passed through the land unto the place of Sichem, unto the plain (lit: “oak) of Moreh. And the Canaanite was then in the land. And the LORD appeared unto Abram, and said, Unto thy seed will I give this land: and there builded he an altar unto the LORD, who appeared unto him.” (Gen. 12:6-7) We are further told in Hoseh 4:13, “They sacrifice upon the tops of the mountains, and burn incense upon the hills, under oaks...” The importance of worship under oaks in Druidism is well known. Modern Celtic scholar, John King, in his book, “The Celtic Druids’ Year,” adds, “The Hebrew word for oak also means oath, and there is evidence that the oak signified a burial place. The golden calf or bull worshipped as an idol by the Israelites has its counterpart in the Druidical image of the god Hu Gadarn, or Hu the Mighty, who, like Noah, survived the deluge and first brought the skill of ploughing to mankind. Dibbuks, demons and lesser deities, some of which might seem to correlate to Celtic spiritual figures, have been pushed into the background by contemporary Judaism.” (p. 26) Thus the Hebrew connection is little-known but factual.

            Perhaps we can do no better in summing up our study than to quote the venerable Sir William Betham: “The connection of this [Hebrew-Canaanite] worship with the historical traditions of the Pagan Irish is so evident, and so extensive, that it …strongly illustrates the [Biblical] account of the progress of population from the plains of Sennaar [i.e., in the Middle-East] to the western extremities of Europe...” (p. 242) This is obvious, for no one but God's people exhibited the peculiar mix of true and false religion seen in the early Celts.

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Science shows Y the Irish are from Spain

New York: For any observer of last week's St Patrick's Day celebrants who wondered where all those Irish came from, science has provided an unexpected answer: Spain.

Irish geneticists have used surnames and the male Y chromosome to reconstruct a 1,000-year-old genetic map of Ireland. It shows that Irish men in Connaught, a western province of Ireland, are almost all descended from an ancestral population of hunter-gatherers that inhabited Ireland before the invention of agriculture.

Dr Daniel Bradley and colleagues at Trinity College, Dublin, began by analysing a DNA signature, which was assumed to belong to these first inhabitants.

In terms of the percentage of the population that carries the signature, there is a gradient across Europe, from 2 per cent in Turkey to 63 per cent in Britain, and 78 per cent in Ireland as a whole, as if reflecting the degree of mixing between Europe's ancestral hunter-gatherer population and the farming invaders from the east.

The signature is carried on the Y chromosome, which is bequeathed unchanged from father to son. Knowing that surnames are inherited the same way, Dr Bradley measured the commonness of the DNA signature in Irish men with surnames from various parts of Ireland.

He and his colleagues report in the journal Nature that the DNA signature gradient continues within Ireland, with 98 per cent of Connaught men on the west coast carrying the signature.

From genetic variations within the signature, Dr Bradley estimates the Irish versions of it stemmed from individuals who lived 4,000 or more years ago. Ireland is believed to have been inhabited for 9,000 years, so Irish men who carry the signature could be descendants of the country's first occupants.

"It seems that in our extreme west of Ireland we have a snapshot of what western Europe was like before farming," Dr Bradley said.

But where did those first hunter-gatherers come from?

The first carriers of the ancestral European DNA signature are estimated to have lived 30,000 years ago and presumably were among the earliest modern human occupants of the continent after the Neanderthals were driven out.

Outside Ireland, the signature is most common in the Basque country of northern Spain, where 89 per cent of men carry it.

In the last ice age, which lasted in Europe until about 10,000 years ago, Spain was a refuge for many plants and animals that recolonised Europe as the glaciers retreated.

Dr Bradley believes people may have done the same. "They may have peopled this part of Europe by coming up from Spain," he said.

If the hints in the DNA evidence are right, those St Patrick's day marchers have come a long way.

The New York Times

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gentile =

http://www.ceantar.org/Dicts/search.html

http://www.e-sword.net

English Hebrew Gaelic Korean
jewel kliy cliejeen bo suk
gold zahab canach goum
knowledge da'ath aithne ahn ne
language lashon lioar-ghlare moal
hill har ardan unduck
serpent nachash nathair bam
subtle arum reabh be mil
God elo jeem Jee ha na nyim
wife ish shah ben heshee ah ney
girl yal dah yah soo nya
boy yeled quilley soo nyun
people am daimh sa rahm

 

 

 

 

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the REAL terrorists--not a single one is an Arab

serial killers are all jews

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