Graduate Record Exam
Bell Curves & Gaussian
As if though the race and gender gap wasn't already huge enough, there was
another huge but completely unreported [and as yet, unexplained] jump in the
gap in the 2000-2001 tests
The gender gap in GRE Verbal of 0.32 SD
is about the size of the gender gap in SAT math, where none the highest scoring
girls, the ones who got A's in college math, demonstrated the math skills of the
boys who got A's and B's, who were more than half the boys
At the 8th grade level, girls in the US score 0.31
standard deviations higher than boys in PISA reading (513 vs. 488). By 12th
grade, as measured by SAT verbal, boys have a slight 0.18 standard deviation
advantage over girls (420 vs. 438). But after college, the gender gap in verbal
skills as measured by GRE verbal (512 vs 484) gives males a 0.28 standard
deviation advantage over females, on par with their 0.35 standard deviation
advantage on SAT math.
There are 5,940,000 female and 4,861,000 male students in our
undergraduate schools, and if the math skills of these girls follows the pattern
of the Howard Wainer study, then 2,678,940 girls
have math skills equivalent to boys who flunk out of math, 1,799,820 have math
skills equivalent to boys who get D's, and 1,455,300 have math skills equivalent
to boys who get C's.
None of them have math skills which would qualify them to follow a career in
STEMS, while more than half of the 5,940,000 boys who were rejected (or
2,970,000 of them) to make room for these girl students, WOULD have benefited
from a career in STEMS.
Why would we as a society do this at a time when high tech careers are so
valuable, and so profitable? It's like cutting our nose off to spite our face. f
you ever wondered why we can't make our own shoes, much less our own
semiconductors and electronics, and instead must go all the way to China to have
them made for us, then now you know why.
Math tests simply present mathematical facts to students to measure how well
they can solve problems, and cannot be designed to "discriminate against" women,
Blacks, Hispanics, nor Asians (particularly Asian men who score higher than the
so-called privileged White men). The fact that 51% of college boys can solve
problems ( and thus get A's and B's in college math) which no girls can solve,
not even those who get A's in college math, means just that--no American girl
can solve problems that at least half of American boys have proven on SAT math
tests that they CAN solve. All math problems are representative of how well a
citizen can solve problems at school, at work, in science, in politics, and in
What's the effect of this invidious discrimination against our
boys? If all of the 5,940,000 boys who had been denied admission to make
room for this many girls, had instead been accepted, we would now have
10,801,000 boys in college, and at least half of them, or 5,400,500 boys who CAN
solve math problems, would be in our undergraduate schools where they CAN
benefit from an undergraduate education. This is 122% more than the current
figure of 2,430,500 students who DO understand math.
One Standard Deviation is 3.7 IQ Points
In 2007, in TIMSS math, 4,972 students from Hong Kong scored
584, with a Standard Deviation of 68, which is 9.5 SD higher than the 5,101
students from Ghana who scored 261.
According to Professor Lynn, Ghana has an IQ of 71, which is 35 IQ points lower
than Hong Kong at 106.
Thus 35 IQ points = 9.5 SD, statistical proof that the actual SD for IQ scores
is 1SD = 3.7 IQ points.
This means that the 106 - 64 = 42 point gap between Hong Kong and Senegal is
11.4 SD, whereas a Sengalese has one chance out of 506,797,346 of scoring only 5
standard deviations higher than the mean for Senegal of 64, which is an IQ of
only 106, not 137.
For a Senegalese to have an IQ of 137, he would have to score TWENTY STANDARD
DEVIATIONS higher than the average of 64 for Senegal.
This is pure math. We don't need to engage in character assassination against
Senegal to make this point.
Another way to look at this is Exhibit 2.2 on pg. 71 which shows that NONE of
the students in Botswana or Ghana (nor even Northern Africa, in Algeria, and
Morocco) scored higher than 550, compared to 71% in Taipei, Korea, or Singapore,
61% in Hong Kong and Japan, and half in Massachusetts:
Needless to say, none in Africa scored higher than 625 compared to almost half
in Taipei, Korea, and Singapore, and one third in Japan and Hong Kong.
625 equals an IQ of 106 so any claim of a Senegalese to have an IQ of 137 is 4.2
SD higher than Japan, an IQ that NONE of the Japanese students exhibited.
I went to school in Japan and know that the real serious education there starts
AFTER the 8th Grade which is the grade tested by both PISA and TIMSS. No Asian
country has participated in any of the 12th grade tests as we have. So we are
very aware that both the race and gender gaps get much bigger between 8th and
American Blacks go BACKWARDS between 8th and 12th grade, and yet we already know
that on IAEP at the 8th grade level, Blacks in D.C. score one standard deviation
lower than Mozambique.
One Standard Deviation = 3.0 IQ Points
Math in 2003, the Netherlands, with an average IQ of 103, scored 540, and
South Africa, with an average IQ of 72, scored 264. Since the standard deviation
for TIMSS scores was 55, this 276 point gap is 10.0 standard deviations.
And since this 10.0 standard deviations is equivalent to a 30 point gap in IQ
scores, the standard deviation for IQ scores is 30 / 10 or 3.0 IQ points.
540 - 264 = 276
/ (55 /2) = 10.04
102 - 72 = 30
30 / 10.04 = 2.98804780876494 or rounded to 3.0
40 Years of GRE Verbal
Over 4 decades, the 264,501 American Black men who have taken
the Graduate Record Exam Verbal test, the creme de la creme of American Blacks,
scored an average of 399 with a standard deviation of 93. None have scored over
590, and only 8 scored higher than 585.
The 660,521 American Black women who took the test scored an average of 388, 11
points lower, with a standard deviation of 88, none have scored over 570, and
only 21 scored over 564, the average for White protestant men.
The 203,880 Asian men who took the test scored 490 with a standard deviation of
121, which means that 32,3457 scored higher than 573 (higher than any Black
woman and higher than all but 32 Black men). The 84,805 Mexican men who took the
test scored an average of 449 with a standard deviation of 101, which means none
of them scored higher than 650 and only 119 scored higher than 595. Ditto for
the 84,Hispanic men who scored 472, none scored higher than 690, and only 108
scored higher than 634. Ditto for the 1,019,213 Catholic men who took the test
who scored even lower than Mexicans (432 vs. 449), with a standard deviation of
101. This means none of them scored higher than 640 and only 1,427 scored higher
than 584, about the average for White Protestant men.
Of the 2,038,427 Protestant men who've taken the test and scored 559 with a
standard deviation of 99, 323,407 scored higher than 609, a score no Black man,
no Black woman, and less than a thousand Hispanic men, Mexican men, and White
Catholic men, combined, have ever achieved.
Why Does Italy Score Closer to Kenya Than to The Netherlands?
Standard deviation, GRE quantitative
Indian = 0.47 sd
Asian = 0.58 sd
Black = 0.13 sd
Mexican = 0.59 sd
Puerto Rican = 0.50 sd
Hispanic = 0.64 sd
White = 0.68 sd
Other = 0.60 sd
Total = 0.62
Asian male to Black Female = 2.25 sd
White female to Black Male = 1.11 sd
White male to Black Female = 1.4 sd (verbal)
Within country, by sex
Netherlands = 0.65 sd
Norway = 0.68
US = 0.1 sd
Switzerland = 0.41 sd
South Africa = 0.21
Denmark = 0.65 sd
Iceland = 0.68
Czech Republic = 0.65 (science)
Within country, by sex
US AP calculus = 0.19 sd
US avg = 0.26
Denmark = 0.33 sd
Lithuania = 0.44 sd
Canada = 0.46 sd
Russia = 0.53
Switzerland = 0.63 sd
Czech Republic = 0.89
Austria = 0.93 sd
Women HATE to be reminded that their smaller brains DO have a significant
negative effect on their IQ, across the world, across the races, across the
country, from state to state, and from city to city.
- Race/sex gap leaps from
234 to 267 points.
- Ain't no black
top 97% of applicants to the
of Texas are WHITE men who are DENIED ADMISSION.
of Texas applicants are representative of
distribution of GRE scores are equivalent to that for
pattern is identical with
and all other standardized test scores.
and sex differences are
20 times greater
than year to year variations in GRE test scores.
GRE Verbal Scores to IQ.
Scoring of the GRE Quantitative
test is similar to that for the SAT Math test
which consists of one essay question which can be scored only by
subjective means, opening it up to controversy about whether or not it's valid
or accurate. The most objective part of the test are the 225 five part multiple
choice questions which attempt to measure the probability of a student
succeeding in college or graduate school. About 1/4th of these questions can be
answered strictly from rote memorization. For simplicity we include the
three quarters of the test which require some
form of reasoning or calculation which can be measured objectively.
Both tests have a base score of 200
which is assigned when a student signs their name. Of the 600
points between 200 and 800, another 150 points can be gained by knowing the
subjects but not exhibiting any reasoning or critical thinking skills, for a
total score thus far of 350. If a person were to just guess on the balance of
the five part multiple choice questions without evaluating
the answers in any way whatsoever, he would on average get 20% of them
correct just by chance, for another 90 points and a total score of 440.
This score of 440 is conservative. In TIMSS physics,
which is scored similarly and which has questions of equal validity and
depth, a score of 446 for
American girls represents a score which is 30 points lower
than if they'd just guessed on this part of the test.
A score of 446 is not indicative of any
reasoning or critical thinking skills at all. These skills can be measured
between 446 and 800. And
because many Asian students (more than 10% of them) score higher than 800,
the SAT is not a very accurate IQ test, particularly when
American blacks consistently score lower than 431 in both SAT Verbal
and SAT Math, lower than 391 in GRE Verbal, and
lower than 416 in GRE Quantitative.
While the College Board does provide the
standard deviation for black students in both SAT and GRE, scores this low
most likely do not follow a normal Gaussian
Distribution. For the average to be 431, there can't be too many students who
score higher than this, because it's almost impossible to score lower than this,
so their estimate that the standard deviation, say for black women who took GRE
Verbal, is 88, is the most optimistic estimate.
GRE vs. IQ
The correlation of Graduate Record Exam quantitative
scores with IQ
's enables us to express the huge race and sex
differences in terms that more people might understand or appreciate.
Where many people might not grasp what a 234 GRE point spread between Asian
men and black women means, expressing it as a 61 point spread in IQ might
make more sense. This is a test that more than one quarter of a
million students spend a lot of money to take very year, because they know
that both graduate schools and employers depend heavily on the outcome of
these scores in admissions and hiring decisions. Whatever quantity is
measured by this test is a desirable feature in both students and employees.
People who don't do well on this test aren't, or should not be, hired or
admitted, even under affirmative action programs.
Year after year, from test to test, gaps between races and the sexes
have been fairly consistent [other than the as-yet unexplained jump in the
gap between 1997 and 2001]. Within each race, when expressed as IQ,
the gap between black men and black women is the lowest, with black men scoring 10
points higher than black women. The biggest gap is 19 points for "Other
Hispanic", "White", and "Other". The gap between Asian men and women,
and Mexican men and women, is 17 points. Puerto Ricans are at 16, and
American Indians are at 13.
As seen in the graph above, within each sex, the IQ of Asian men is
116, which is 13 points higher than White men at 103, and 51 points higher
than black men at 65; and the IQ of Asian women is 99, which is 15 points
higher than White women at 84, and 44 points higher than black women at 55.
Across races and sexes, the most notable points are that the average IQ
of White women
is equal to Mexican men, 1 point higher than Indian and "Other" men,
2 points higher than Puerto Rican men, and 19 points higher than black men,
whereas the IQ of black women is 28 points lower than Indian men and 61 points
lower than Asian men.
Is it reasonable to believe that American black women have an average
IQ of 55 rather than the 85 touted in the news media? Could reality be
30 points lower than perception? What other evidence is there to
Without worrying too much about why females within each race score the
equivalent of 13 to 19 IQ points lower than males within each race, and
accepting point blank that whatever is being measured is of value to both
industry and education, this 10 point gender gap is predicted, explainable,
and completely reasonable. Many different ways of measuring IQs in
Africa have confirmed that two African nations have an average IQ of 59, and
two dozen nations have an average IQ lower than 70. It's reasonable to
believe that those who had been taken as slaves were not selected from the
intelligentsia, as the purpose of slavery was brawn, not brains. It's
not unreasonable to believe that the average IQ for slaves was from the
lowest intellectual strata of Africa, or 55 for women and 65 for men.
And there's no reason to believe that this average increased during slavery,
by miscegenation with Caucasoids, nor by the huge education expenditures
which left them with the world's highest murder and violent crime rates.
||Lynn IQ Adjusted
Race/sex Gap JUMPS From 234 to 267 Points
Why the news media
blackout on this VITAL issue at a time when discussions
about the quality of education had reached a crescendo?� Why did the media convey the false
impression that �the gender gap is decreasing�, at a time when it actually leapfrogged?� For three years, the gender/race gap in GRE
scores was fairly constant, but then suddenly on the Quantitative Scores of
the 2000-2001 test:
The gap between Asian men and Black women jumped from 234 to 267 points.
The gap between White men and Black women jumped from 182 to
gap between Asian men and Asian women jumped from 66 to
The gap between Indian men and Indian women jumped from 52
to 68 points.
The gap between Mexican men and Mexican women jumped from 66
to 71 points.
The gap between Black men and Black women jumped from 42 to
The gap between �Other� men and �Other� women increased from
74 to 75 points.
The gap between all men and all women increased from 73 to
very same time these gender and racial differences were WIDENING
SIGNIFICANTLY, we also had IDIOT RACISTS and IDIOT SEXISTS proposing �solutions�
like the following from the infamous FAME report:
�The last issue I have been pondering has been what if there
were no differences between white males and other groups, and, even, what if
we developed a measure where white males were 80-100 points lower than other
groups? What would the role of this measure be in the graduate admissions
punishing White men even more than they�ve already been punished still won�t
solve your putative �problem�:� they�d
STILL out perform every other race and every other sex by a MILE!� It�s encouraging that, with such political
or politically correct pressure on GRE to dumb down, water down, nullify, or
even NEGATE the purpose of the test that the College Board stuck by its guns and
published the TRUTH!
Except that another
anomaly about the 2000-2001 test, the increase in the overall average score
from 529 to 544, undermines that possibility.� As this paralleled an increase in the
number of test takers from 274,296 to 279,586, we cannot chalk it up merely to a more
selective group of test takers.� We
thus must conclude it�s the result of intentionally re-centering or
re-scaling the test in order to put rose colored glasses on students and
teachers about the persistent and *permanent* race and sex differences which
made this world and nation GREAT.
But why?� What�s to be gained by conveying the FALSE
impression that America�s scores are increasing when credible, solid,
scientific international tests have PROVEN in spades that programs like NCLB have caused them to DECREASE, DRAMATICALLY?
organizations who LIE with statistics like that can never be trusted.
NO BLACK Ever Scored Higher than 700
Since the Graduate Record Exam began in 1949, 2,038,427 Protestant men,
1,019,213 Catholic men, 76,920 Hispanic men, 84,800 Mexican men, 124,760 "other"
men, and 203,880 Asian men have taken the test, and in total, the following
scored higher than 700:
Protestant men = 323,407
Catholic men = 161,704
Hispanic men = 12
Mexican men = 211
Asian men = 6,636
"Other" men = 4,639
Conversely, of the 256,400 Black men and 660,520 Black women who've taken this
premier test, NONE of them scored higher than 700, and:
Only 21 Black women scored higher than 612
Only 8 Black men scored higher than 696.
GRE Scores Consistent With TIMSS Math Scores Broken Down by Race
general test score information by ethnic group and sex: 1996-97
To accurately reflect the unannounced, unexpected, unpublicized, unknown,
unexplainable, unpredictable INCREASE in the "gender gap" in the midst of all
the media hoopla about the "narrowing of the gender gap", we must add that to
the above charts, in red, as follows:
It seems GRE quit producing this study, and it seems the reason they did is that
it revealed an alarming trend: while our mediots proclaim from the hilltops that
the gender gap is narrowing, these studies instead showed an alarming INCREASE.
As far as I know, the following is the last complete analysis of the GRE Verbal
GRE Verbal scores from Table A.1 "GRE General Test Score Information by Ethnic
Group and Sex: 2001-02
Total 279,856 students
98,763 Men = 500
181,093 Women = 471
gender gap = 29 points
Standard deviation = 105
Gender gap = 0.28 sd
Indian men = 473
Indian women = 443
Gender gap = 30 points
Asian men = 490
Asian women = 484
Gender gap = 6 points
Black men = 401
Black women = 391
Gender gap = 10 points
Mexican men = 442
Mexican women = 420
Gender gap = 22 points
Puerto Rican men = 419
Puerto Rican women = 403
Gender gap = 16 points
Hispanic men = 459
Hispanic women = 431
Gender gap = 28 points
White men = 512
White women = 484
Gender gap = 28 points
Note that this 29 GRE Point Gender Gap is very close to the 33 SAT Math Point
gender gap which Howard Wainer proved actually conceals that what this means--
half the college boys scored in a range which NONE of the college girls scored
in, which is most likely a very similar situation for GRE Verbal scores.
A CERTIFIABLE LIE
"However, on average, higher scores are observed on Quantitative Reasoning for
men than for women. Women performed better on Analytical Writing than men"
The ETS and NCES and most of our "educators" have bent over backwards to TRY to
force the gender gap to narrow, and the only result has been to push the scores
of both sexes DOWN, WAY DOWN.
But this statement even directly contradicts the GRE's very own Verbal reports
which show that women of NO race score higher than the men of their race in
Analytical Writing, Table 4 on your url.
Also note that even though this NEW scale shows a suspiciously small standard
deviation, that the gap between Asian men and Black women on GRE quantitative of
(156.3 - 142.3 = 14 points / sd of 6.4) is 2.18 sd, MUCH bigger than the 1.88 sd
on the old scale [which is the only explanation for why they would make the old
scale even more misleading, rather than being honest with us].
Base Score on new GRE test 2012 is 147
Indian men = 6.1
Indian women = 3.5
Gender gap = 2.6 points
Asian men = 6.5
Asian women = 4.7
Gender gap = 1.8 points
Black men = 0.6
Black women = - 0.6
Gender gap = 1.2 points
Mexican men = 2.7
Mexican women = 1.9
Gender gap = 22 points
Puerto Rican men = 2.4
Puerto Rican women = 1.2
Gender gap = 1.2 points
Hispanic men = 4.9
Hispanic women = 2.2
Gender gap = 2.7 points
White men = 8.6
White women = 6.1
Gender gap = 2.5 points
brain size per Professor Rushton