Forum

Free news

FREE blog

Donate

Search

Subscribe

jews/911

Feedback

dna

Gun poll

RCC

AIDS

Home

Fathers

Surveys

Holocaust

IQ

14th Amdt

19th Amdt

Israelites

NWO

Homicide

Blacks

Whites

Signatory

Talmud

Watchman

Gaelic

Traitors

Health?

 

Gwanggaeto Stele Translation

 

 

http://www004.upp.so-net.ne.jp/teikoku-denmo/english/history/kohtaioh-hi_hibun.html

Inscription on the Gwanggaeto Stele Translation of the full text

Copyright on English translation (Jul.27,2006) by IWAYA Bunta

 

HOME CONTENTS  BACK

 

 

Inscription on the Gwanggaeto Stele Inscription on the Gwanggaeto Stele

 

Explanatory Notes:

Original inscription in archaic Chinese

  1. ?* = variant or defective characters which are most likely identified by instances.
  2. ?^ = partly missing characters.
  3. [?] = variant, unclear or possibly misused characters that other characters are also suggested by some scholars. On this webpage, these characters are mostly based on a rubbing copy owned by the Institute for Research in Humanities of Kyoto University and partly on Sakawa's copy owned by the Tokyo National Museum.
  4. [(?)] = characters that do not appear on these rubbing copies but suggested by several scholars based on examinations. On this webpage, these characters are chosen that coincide among several scholars, not just one or two.
  5. ? = eroded and completely unreadable characters.
  6. � = areas which the stele itself is crumbled.

English translation

  1. &  2.  All readable and clearly identified parts are written in a plain font.
  2. Some parts that have a few different decodings and interpretations are put [in brackets].
  3. Some parts that don't appear on rubbing copies are indicated in [Italic in brackets].
  4. Disappeared characters are indicated as [xxx] or [. . .].
  5. Crumbled areas are indicates as [: : : : :].

 


horizontal rule

Inscription on the Gwanggaeto Stele
Built in 411 by the King Jangsu of Goguryeo
Jian, Jinling Province, China

Side 1

?????�????????????????????????????[?]??[?]??[?^]??????????[?]???????�????????????????????????????????*??!???????*?????????????????????????

Long time ago, the first king Chumo (???) established the country. He was born in North Buyeo (???). His father is the Emperor of the Heavens and mother's name is Habaek (????). He cracked the eggshell and [stepped down to this world]. He was innately the monarch [of virtue who]...  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    (He) went [a round in the country riding on a carriage], through Buyeo (??) and Eomri Daesu River (????), to the south. At a bank of the Bullyu Cave (???), he said, "I am the King Chumo. My father is the Emperor of the Heavens and mother is Habaek. Turtles, float and form a line for me!" In the answer to his voice, innumerable turtles floated in a row to let him cross the river. He built the capital on the Seongsan Mountain (??) in the west of Holbon (??).

[?]??*?[?]??????*?? ??????*?[?]?[?]????????????*?????????????

[Since] the country seemed [stable and tranquil for a long time], a messenger (of the God), a golden dragon came down to invite him to the Heavens. On a hill in the east of Holbon, the king ascended to the heaven [on] the [golden] dragon's [back of the neck]. According to Chumo's will, King Yuryu (???) ruled the country thereafter, and then King Daejuryu (????) succeeded.

[?]?????�??*?????????????????????????[?^]?*??????*??????[(?)]?????????????*????????

The 17th King is the Gukgangsang Gwanggaeto Gyeongpyeongan Hotae Wang (????????????). He ascended the throne at age of 18 and his throne title is the "King Yeongrak of the Great" (????). His merciful heart [was like] the Emperor of the Heavens, and his dignity and bravery swayed the four oceans. He swept away [all the anxieties] and securely ruled the country. The nation was wealthy, people were prosperous, the harvest was abundant, and the sky was clear without calamities.

NB: Gukgangsang Gwanggaeto Gyeongpyeongan Hotae Wang is his full posthumous name that means "The great king on the capital hill, great expander of the territory in tranquil borders." The commonly known name,Gwanggaeto means the "Great expander of the territory." His throne name Youngrak means the "Eternal peace."

????[?]?????????????????????[?]?????????[?]?????[(?)]?:

He [abdicated the throne] at age of 39 [by his death]. As of Eul'yu day (??) September 29, Gap'in year (??; CE 411), this stone monument is set up for his mountain tomb with inscription of his achievements to pass it [eternally] down to posterity:

NB:
Eul'yu day (??): Yin Wood Chicken; Sexagemary day 22.
Gap'in year (??): Yang Wood Tiger; Sexagenary year (??) 51 ; CE 411.

?????????:
???*??[?]??[?]??????*??�[?]?????????[?]??*???????[?]?????????????[?*]??�??[?^?]�??�??�[???]???????[?]???

Year of Youngrak 5 (??; CE 395), Eulmi (??):
Since Paryeo tribe (??) did not [stop xxx-ing], the King led troops to subjugate them [again]. Passing through Bu (??) and [Dap] (??) mountains, the King's troops reached by the Yeomsu River (??) and defeated Paryeo's [military] fort with troops of 600-700 strong. There were countless cows, horses and sheep. On his return trip, the King inspected through the states passing through [Gok]pyeong-do (???), Dongrae[hu Castle] (????), Ryeok Castle (??), Bukping (??) and [Obihae] (???), and did a hunting before returning in triumph.

NB:
Youngrak is Goguryeo's era of CE 391-413; Youngrak 5 is CE 395.
Eulmi year ((??): Yin Wood Sheep; Sexagenary year 32; CE 395.
Paryeo tribe (??) is believed to be a Khitan tribe.

??????????????????*???????????[(?)]??^???????

Since Baekjan (??) and Silla (??) are originally subservient states (of Goguryeo), they paid tributes (to Goguryeo). And since the Sinmyo year (???; CE 391), the Wa (?; Japan) came across the sea, defeated Baekjan, [(then xxx-ed Sil]la and made them subjects.

NB:
Baekjan (??): a derogative name of Baekje (??) by Goguryeo.
Sinmyo year (???): Yin Metal Rabbit; Sexagenary year 28; CE 391.

?*????????[?]???[?]??????[?]??:???�???*?�[?]??*?�???[(?)]�???�???�??*[(?)]�???�[(?)?]??�???������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������???????�?[?]?�???�???�?[?]???�[?(??)]�??[?]�[?]??*?[(?)]�[?]?�[(???)]�[(???)]�???�?[(??)]

In Yeongrak 6, Hyeongsin year (??; CE 396), the King led [navy] troops to [punish] Baekjan. The troops conquered [(Baekjae's) provincial] castles of Ilpal (???), Gumono (????), [Gak]mono (????), Gandaeri (????), [xxx], Gakmi (???), Mono (???), Misa (???), [Gosa]yeon (????), Adan (???), Gori (???), [xx]-ri (???), Jap[jin] (???), Ori (???), Homo (???), Go[mo]yara (?????), [Makchu] (???), [xxx], [Bu]niyara (?????), [Yeon] (??), [Eori] (???), [Nongmae] (???), Duno (???), Bul[palbi]-

NB: Hyeongsin year (??): Yang Fire Monkey; Sexagenary year 33; CE 396.

Side 2

?*?�???�???�[?]???�???�??[?]????[(?)]�[?*?]?�[?(?)]?�[(?)?]?�??�???�?*??�??*?�???�[?]???�??[?]?�??�??[(?)]�??[(?)]�?[?]?�???�???�????�???�?^??�?*?*?�[(???)]�[(??)]??�?????????[(?)]????

-ri (?????), Michu (???), Yari (???), [Dae]sanhan (????), Soga (???), Donbal (???), [xxx], [Rumai] (???), [San'na] (???), [Naru] (???), Se (??), Moru (???), Uru (???), Sohoe (???), Yeonru (???), [Seo]jiri (????), Am-mun[ji] (????), Lim (??), [xxx], [xxx], [xx-ri] (???), Chwichu (???), [xx]bal (???), Gomoru (????), Yun'no (???), Gwan'no (???), Pungyang (???), [Bobal] (???), [Jon'go]ra (????), Gucheon (???), [xxx].

???*[?]??[?]??????????????*???[?(?????)]?[?]??[?]?[?]????[?]???[?]????????*?[?]???????*???????????[?]???*????????????[(?)]???????????[?]?*[?]??????????

The rebels (Baekje) still disobeyed and defied to have a [total] war. It made the king enraged. He led troops crossing the Arisu moat (???) and closed in on the castle. They [made an attack from the flank, destroyed castle walls], and quickly [besieged] the castle. [Now] (Baek)jan [king] was driven into a corner and offered 1,000 people [as captives] and 1,000 pil (?) of fabrics, then himself swore to be obedient to become a subject (of Goguryeo) forever. The King Gwanggaetto granted amnesty to the (Baekjae King's) frenzied blunders in the past and wrote down the (Beakje King's) oath as the "Faith of submission" (????). Accordingly, the Great King [acquired] 58 castles, 700 village towns and returned to the capital in triumph with (Baek)jan [king's] younger brother and 10 nobles (as hostages).

NB: Pil (?): 1 pil is about 20m/65ft

????:
???????*??????????????????????????*?*??????

Youngrak 8, Musul year (??; CE 398):
King sent a troop to scout a tribe of Sushen (??). It resulted to have a tiny profit of capturing the Maksilla Castle (????) and seizing the 300 Taera-gok Cave (???) people. Since then, they have sent tribute (to Goguryeo).

NB: Musul year (??): Yang Earth Dog; Sexagenary year 35; CE 398.

????:
?????*????????????????????????????????*??? ??????????[??*]??[(?)]?[(?)]??????*[(?)?^]?

Youngrak 9, Gihae year (??; CE 399):
Baekjan broke the pervious promise and allied with Wa. The King advanced to Pyongyang (??). There he saw Silla's messengers telling him, "There were full of the Wa troops around the border and the castle's moat was filled in. Since we are servants of Your Majesty, we pledge our allegiance to you and cordially ask your help." The King mercifully [praised] their allegiance and let the messengers return (to Silla) [with his secret] message [of a stratagem].

NB: Gihae year (??): Yin Earth Pig; Sexagenary year 36; CE 399.

????:
???????[?]???????????????[?]????[?]???????����?????[?]????????????????????????[?]??[?]?[?]??[?]??????��������������?[(??)?]???[??^?]???????[(???)]????[(??)]?????

Youngrak 10, Gyeongja year (??; CE 400):
The King sent 50,000 troops to save Silla. From the Namgeo Castle (???) to the Silla Castle (???; Silla capital), these castles were [full up with] the Wa troops. When Goguryeo [soldiers] arrived, the Wa troops retreated.   : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   ...(the Goguryeo troops) [hurried] to chase after (the Wa troops) to Imna Gara (????). When they assaulted the castle, the castle yielded immediately. (Meanwhile), the Alla defense soldiers (?????) [attacked] the Silla [Castle being full up with] the Wa troops. The Wa annihilated the castle and greatly...   : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :  ...[although the 90 percent in the castle] were killed, [they rejected to surrender and these Alla soldiers were seized in the (Sil)la Castle]...  . . . . . . . .  ...the [castle town was especially]...  . . . . . . . . . . . .

* The edge of the stele is crambled and many characters are completeley unreadable.
NB: Gyeongja year (??): Yang Metal Rat; Sexagenary year 37; CE400.

Side 3

[(?)]??[(?)]?[?]?[(?)]????????[?]????????????[(??)]???????????[(?)??(?)]??????

. . .  ...[a correspondence of]...  . . . . . .  ...[at the dawn]...  . .  ...[the Wa soldiers]...  . .  ...[small]...  . . . . . . . . . . .  ...[occurred]... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ...declined...  . . . . .  ...[the (Baek)jan and the Wa]...  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ...annihilated, the Alla soldiers [of the Castle were also]...

????[(?)]??????[?(???????)]?????[?]??[(???????)]???[(??)]?????

Until that time, [the Prince] of Silla never appeared (to Goguryeo) by himself to [discuss on matters. The King Gukgangsang Gwang]gaeto Gyeongpyeongan Hotae [xxx-ed Silla so that the Prince] Bokho (??) [of the xxxx house petitioned] to pay [a thousand of xxxx for] tribute (to Goguryeo).

?????:
???????????[(?????)]??????????[(??)?(???)]??????[(?)]????????????????????

Youngrak 14, Gapjin year (??; CE 404):
The Wa unexpectedly invaded the southern border at Daifang (??). [The Wa allying with the (Baek)jan soldiers reached] the Seok Castle (??). Their [xxx] fleet...  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    [The King himself led troops from] Pyongyang (??) [to defeat them].   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ...[colliding] each other. The (Goguryeo) swordsmen with the King's flag slashed at the enemies and the Wa pirate (??) collapsed with enormous casualties.

NB: Gapjin year (??): Yang Wood Dragon; Sexagenary year 41; CE 404.

?????:
?????????????????[(?)?(??)]?????????[?*]?????????????[?]??????*?�??�[?(??)]�?[(?)]�???�?[(?)]???

Youngrak 17, Jeongmi year (??; CE 407):
The King sent 50,000 troops to (defeat ???).   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [the King's army] battled [all around], and entirely killed the troops. The triumphant force [acquired] over 10,000 armors and enormous amount of military equipment with recapturing six castles of Sagu (???), Ru (??), [Hwanju] (???), [xxx], [xxx], [xxnaxx] (????).

NB: Jeongmi year (??): Yin Fire Sheep; Sexagenary year 44; CE 407.

????:
??????????????????????????????[??(??)]???????????[?]?????????????:?????�?????�[??]???�???[(??)]�??[?]?????????????????

Youngrak 20, Gyeongsul year (??; CE 410):
Among subservient states since the time of the King Chumo (???), only East Buyeo (???) was disobedient and did not pay tribute (to Goguryeo). The King led troops to subjugate them. When the troops arrived at the Yeo Castle (??), they [were surprised and became obedient, and]...  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ..., the King mercifully decided to refrain from [overthrowing them] and he returned home. There were also (five) nobles (??), Miguru (???), Bisama (???), [Danrip]ru (???), Suksasa (???) and [xxx] following after the King (to Goguryeo) as they submitted to the King's august virtue. The number of conquered castles are 64 and villages are 1,400.

NB:
Gyeongsul year (??): Yang Metal Dog; Sexagenary year 47; CE 410.
Yeo Castle (??): the garrison capital of East Buyeo.

?????:
???�?:???�???????:???�??????:[(?)]?????????:?????????:?????????�?:???�????[?]?:??????[?]?�?:???�???[?]?[?]?:??????[?]?:???????[?]?:???????[?]?:????????:?????????:??????

List of tomb keeper families:

Maihoyeo (???) [subjects] (?): 2 State Tomb Keepers & 3 Regular Tomb Keepers; Donhaemai (???): 3 state keepers & 5 regular keepers; Don Castle (??) subjects: 4 families serve for Regular; Gan Castle (??): 1 family for Regular; Biri Castle (???): 2 families for State Keepers; Pyongyang Castle (???) subjects: 1 State & 10 Regular; [Ji]ryeon (??): 2 families for Regular; [Bae]ru (??) people: 1 State & [42] Regular; [Gye]gok (??): 2 families for Regular; [Gye] Castle (??): 2 families for Regular; An[bu]ryeon (???): 22 families for Regular; [Gae]gok (??): 3 families for Regular; Sin Castle (??): 3 families for Regular; Namso Castle (???): 1 family for State.

NB:
State tomb keeper, Gukyeon (??)
Capital tomb keeper, Doyeon (??)
Regular tomb keeper, Ganyeon (??)

????:
???:???�???????:??????[?]????:??????[?]???:??????[??]?:?????????�??:???�??????[??]??:??????[?]??:???�???????:?????????�???:??????????�?:??????[?]???:??????????:?????????:??????????:???�????[??]?:[???]???

New tomb keepers of Han (?) and Ye (?)
Sasu Castle (???): 1 State & 1 Regular; Churu Castle (???): 2 families for Regular; Dubiapgeum Han (?????): 5 families for Regular; Gumo Gaekdu (????): 2 families for Regular; Gujeo Han (???): 1 family for Regular; Sayeon Castle (???) Han Yeon: 21 Regular; Gomoyara Castle (?????): 1 family for Regular; Makgo Castle (???): 1 State & 3 Regular; Gaekhyeon Han (???): 1 family for Regular; Adan Castle (???) & Japjin Castle (???): 10 families for Regular; Pano Castle (???) Han: 9 families for Regular; [Gu]mono Castle (????): 4 families for Regular; Gakmono Castle (????): 2 families for Regular; Mono Castle (???): 3 families for Regular; Gandaegri Castle (????): 1 State & 3 Regular; [Miya] Castle (???): [6 Gukyeon], [xx] Regular

Side 4

?????[(?????)]:?^????????:???�???????:???ï��½????[??]?:???�??????�???:????????[?]???:?????????:??????[?]????:???�[?]????????:???��¿½????[?]?:???�??????:?????????:???????*?*?:??????????:?????????:?????????:?????????:?????????:????????:[(?)]?????

& [7 xxxx; Yari (???)]: 3 families for Regular; Duno (???): 1 State & 2 Regular; Ori (???): 2 State & 8 Regular; [Suya] (???): 2 State & 5 Regular; Baekjan Namgeo Han (?????): 1 State & 5 Regular; [Dae]sanhan Castle (????): 6 families for Regular; Nongmae (???): 1 State & [1] Regular; Yun'no (???): 2 State & 22 [Capital Tomb Keepers]; Gomoru (????): 2 State & 8 Regular; [Yeon] (??): 1 State & 8 Regular; Mi (??): 6 families for Regular; [Chwija] (???): 5 families for Regular; Pungyang (???): 24 families for Regular; San'na (???): 1 family for State; Nadan (???): 1 family for Regular; Homo (???): 1 family for Regular; Eori (???): 8 families for Regular; Biri (???): 3 families for Regular; Se (??): [3] families for Regular.

??*?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????[?]??????????!? ????????????????????????????????????????[?]????????????????????????????????????????*??[?]?????????????????????????????*????^???????????????????????????[?]????????????????????

 

When the King Gwanggaeto of the Great was in life, he said, "The Grand-King and the Former King appointed the people within the original territory of Goguryeo to tomb keepers to guard and maintain tombs of ancestral kings. I am anxious that people would become lazy five thousand years later. For tomb keepers who retain tombs reposeful, collect people from Han (?) and Ye (?) that (subject states) myself [led troops] to subjugate. Order them to be prepared!"

This is his words so we hence regard it as his instruction. Accordingly, 220 families of the Han and the Ye have been appointed. By a consideration that these people are not familiar with the regulation (of Goguryeo), the 110 Goguryeo families have been also assigned. Altogether with Silla's tomb keepers, there are total 330 families of 30 Gukyeon (?? State Tomb Keepers) and 300 Ganyeon (?? Regular Tomb Keepers).

Since there were no tombstones on ancestral kings' tombs, it made tomb keepers confused. Gwanggaeto of the Great [is the king who] had tombstones built for ancestral kings in order not to make tomb keepers confused any longer. Moreover, (these tombstones have been set) to prevent tomb keepers to resell hereafter. Even the people who are wealthy enough are not able to purchase [arbitrarily]. Thus, unlawful sellers are subject to be punished, and buyers are obligated to become tomb keepers.

NB:
Han (?): the south part of the Korean Peninsula, current South Korea.
Ye (?): the northeast part of the Korean Peninsula including the eastern part of North Korea and the northeast part of South Korea.

 

horizontal rule

 

References

  1. Rubbed Copy of the Gwanggaeto Stele (????????). Institute for Research in Humanities of Kyoto University (???????????) http://kanji.zinbun.kyoto-u.ac.jp/db-machine/imgsrv/takuhon/type_b/menu/21.html (Japanese)
  2. Exhibition of the Gwanggaeto Stele Inscription in the Tokyo National Museum (????????@???????). Cheers for the Channel Sakura CH 767 (?????? CH767 ?????). (Photographs of complete Sakawa's copy).
    http://chsakura.dw.land.to/koukaido/index.html (Japanese)
  3. Rubbed Copies of the Gwanggaeto Stele (??????). in Concerning the Ancient Times (??????). 2005. (the first side of five rubbing copies).
    http://toron.pepper.jp/jp/kodai/nicchou/takuhon.html (Japanese)


Other sources

  1. HAMADA K�saku (????). Japanese-Korean Relationships in 4th Century (4???????). The Japan-Korea Cultural Foundation (????????). 2005. (Identification of characters and a gramatical interpretation)
    http://www.jkcf.or.jp/history/1/1-01-hamada_j.pdf (Japanese,PDF)
  2. No Dae-don (???). Interpretations on Korean Ancient Inscriptions (?????????). 1992. Sited in National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage. (Comparison with interpretations by several Korean scholars)
    http://gsm.nricp.go.kr/_third/user/search/KBD007.jsp?ksmno=2512 (Traditional Chinese/Korean)
  3. TAKEDA Yukio (????). Whole text of the Gwanggaeto Stele in History of Goguryeo and East Asia (?????????). Exhibition at the Tokyo National Museum (???????).
    http://chsakura.dw.land.to/koukaido/9/DSC00120.JPG
  4. Li Fang-yuan (???). Grammatical interpretation of Gwanggaeto Stele's inscription (??????). NianDaiXue.com (???).
    http://www.niandaixue.com/bbs/lofi.php?t1031.html (Simplified Chinese)
  5. Gwanggaeto Stele (?????). Concerning the Ancient Times (??????). 2005.
    http://toron.pepper.jp/jp/kodai/nicchou/koukaido0.html (Japanese)
  6. Gwanggaeto Stele of Goguryeo (????????(?)). Features of the Wa Confederacy (?????).
    http://members3.jcom.home.ne.jp/wakokunosobo/shiryo/kotaiohi.html (Japanese)
  7. Gwanggaeto Stele (???????????). Studies on Various Topics.
    http://wondreams.hihome.com/temasogo_gwangetodewang%20bimun.htm (Korean)
  8. Inscription on the Gwanggaeto Stele (???????????). Researches on Ancient Times (?????).
    http://www001.upp.so-net.ne.jp/dassai/koutaiou/koutaiou_gen.htm (Japanese)
  9. Iong Bak-hiong (???). Posthumous manuscript (19th century) for "Goryeo Gravestones" (????) in Shengu (??; Ancient Shenyang). Sited in "Gist of the Conspiracy Theory on the Gwanggaeto Stele" (?????�????????) in Concerning the Ancient Times (??????). 2005.
    http://toron.pepper.jp/jp/kodai/nicchou/kaizan1.html (Japanese)

 

koreanogam.jpg (22393 bytes)

koreanogam2.jpg (40226 bytes)

 

TRAITOR McCain

jewn McCain

ASSASSIN of JFK, Patton, many other Whites

killed 264 MILLION Christians in WWII

killed 64 million Christians in Russia

holocaust denier extraordinaire--denying the Armenian holocaust

millions dead in the Middle East

tens of millions of dead Christians

LOST $1.2 TRILLION in Pentagon
spearheaded torture & sodomy of all non-jews
millions dead in Iraq

42 dead, mass murderer Goldman LOVED by jews

serial killer of 13 Christians

the REAL terrorists--not a single one is an Arab

serial killers are all jews

framed Christians for anti-semitism, got caught
left 350 firemen behind to die in WTC

legally insane debarred lawyer CENSORED free speech

mother of all fnazis, certified mentally ill

10,000 Whites DEAD from one jew LIE

moser HATED by jews: he followed the law

f.ck Jesus--from a "news" person!!

1000 fold the child of perdition

 

Hit Counter

 

Modified Saturday, March 11, 2017

Copyright @ 2007 by Fathers' Manifesto & Christian Party