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King Herod the Great--Encyclopedia Britannica

In 54 BC Crassus plundered the Temple treasury, which Pompcy, nine years earlier, had left intact out of respect for the sacred- ness of the place. Herod the Great, an ardent builder, undertook the rebuilding of the Tem- ple (20 BC) on an enlarged site. (When a gold- en eagle, symbol of Roman power, was placed over the gate, outraged Jews shattered it and were summarily executed). Work was still unfinished when Roman legions under Titus leveled Jerusalem in AD 70.

 

 

In his own kingdom he could not give full rein to his love of magnificence, for fear of offending the Pharisees, the leading faction of Judaism, with whom he was always in conflict because they regarded him as a foreigner. Herod undoubtedly saw himself not merely as the patron of grateful pagans but also as the protector of Jewry outside of Palestine, whose Gentile hosts he did all in his power to conciliate.

 

 

Herod I the Great

Herod I the Great, king of Judaea under the Romans and founder of the Herodian house, played a major role in Near Eastern affairs in the 1st century BC, but is prob- ably best known as the tyrant portrayed in the New Testament.

Herod was born in 73 BC in southern Palestine; his fa- ther, Antipaler, was an Edomite (an Arab from the re- gion between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba). Anti- pater was a man of great influence and wealth, who in- creased both by marrying the daughter of a noble from Petra (in southwest Jordan), at that time the capital of the rising Nabataean kingdom. Thus Herod was, al- though a practicing Jew, of Arab origin on both sides.

When Pompey (106-48 BC) invaded Palestine in 63 BC, Antipater supported his campaign and began a long as- sociation with Rome, from which bolh he and Herod were to benefit. Six years later Herod met Mark Antony, whose lifelong friend he was to remain. Julius Caesar also favoured the family; he appointed Antipater procu- rator of Judaea in 47 BC and conferred on him Roman citizenship, an honour that descended to Herod and his children. Herod made his political debut in the same year, when his father appointed him governor of Galilee. Six years later Mark Antony made him tetrarch of Gali- lee. In 40 BC the Parthians invaded Palestine, civil war broke out, and Herod was forced to flee to Rome. The senate there nominated him king of Judaea and equipped him with an army to make good his claim. In the year 37 BC, at the age of 36, Herod became unchallenged ruler of Judaea, a position he was to maintain for 32 years. To further solidify his power, he divorced his first wife Doris, sent her and his son away from court, and married Mariame, a Hasmonean princess. Although the union was directed at ending his feud with the Hasmo- neans, a prieslly family of Jewish leaders, he was deeply in love with Mariame.

During the conflict between the two triumvirs Octavian and Antony, the heirs to Caesar's power, Herod sup- ported his friend Antony. He continued to do so even when Antony's mistress, Cleopatra, the queen of Egypt, used her influence with Antony to gain much of Herod's best land. After Antony's final defeat at Actium in 31 BC, he frankly confessed to the victorious Octavian which side he had taken. Octavian, who had met Herod in Rome, knew that he was the one man to rule Palestine as Rome wanted it ruled and confirmed him king. He also restored to Herod the land Cleopatra had taken. Herod became the close friend of Augustus' great minis- ter Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, after whom one of bis grandsons and one of his great-grandsons were named. Both Emperor and Minister paid him state visits, and Herod twice again visited Italy. Augustus gave him the oversight of the Cyprus copper mines, with a half share in the profits. He twice increased Herod's territory, in the years 22 and 20 BC, so that it came to include not only Palestine but parts of what are now the kingdom of Jordan to the east of the river and southern Lebanon and Syria. He had intended to bestow the Nabataean kingdom on Herod as well, but by the time that throne fell vacant. Herod's mental and physical deterioration made it impossible.

Herod endowed his realm with massive fortresses and splendid cities, of which the two greatest were new, and largely pagan, foundations: the port of Caesarea Palaes- tinae on the coast between Joppa (Jaffa) and Haifa, which was afterward to become the capital of Roman Palestine; and Sebaste on the long-desolate site of ancient Samaria. In Jerusalem he built the fortress of Antonia, portions of which may still be seen beneath the convents on the Via Dolorosa, and a magnificent palace (of which part survives in the citadel). His most grandiose creation was the Temple, which he wholly rebuilt. The great outer court, 35 acres (14 hectares) in extent, is still visible as Al-Haram ash-Sharif. He also embellished foreign cit- ies: Beirut, Damascus, Antioch, Rhodes, and other towns. Herod patronized the Olympic Games, whose president he became. In his own kingdom he could not give full rein to his love of magnificence, for fear of offending the Pharisees, the leading faction of Judaism, with whom he was always in conflict because they regarded him as a foreigner. Herod undoubtedly saw himself not merely as the patron of grateful pagans but also as the protector of Jewry outside of Palestine, whose Gentile hosts he did all in his power to conciliate.

Unfortunately, there was a dark and cruel streak in Herod's character that showed itself increasingly as he grew older. His mental instability, moreover, was fed by the intrigue and deception that went on within his own family. Deeply in love with Mariame, he was prone to violent attacks of jealousy; his sister Salome (not to be confused with her great-niece, Herodias' daughter) made good use of his natural suspicions and poisoned his mind against his wife in order to wreck the union- T.n the end Herod murdered Mariame, her two sons, her brother, her grandfather, and her mother, a woman of the vilest stamp who had often aided Salome's schemes. Besides Doris and Mariame, Herod had eight other wives and had children by six of them. He had 14 children.

In his last years Herod suffered from arteriosclerosis. He had to repress a revolt, became involved in a quarrel with his Nabataean neighbours, and finally lost the fa- vour of Augustus. He was in great pain and in mental and physical disorder. He altered his will three times and finally disinherited and killed his firstborn, Antipater. The slaying, shortly before his death, of the infants of Bethlehem was wholly consistent with the disarray into which he had fallen. After an unsuccessful attempt at Suicide, Herod died at Jericho at the end of March or beginning of April in 4 BC. His final testament provided that, subject to Augustus' sanction, his realm would be divided among his sons: Archelaus should be king of Judaea and Samaria, with Philip and Antipas sharing the remainder as tetrarchs.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. FLAVIUS JOSEPHUS, the Jewish historian who was of priestly descent, wrote a detailed and vivid ac- count of Herod and his times in his Antiquities, XV, XVI,

XVII, 1-8. Josephus, available in many English edition^ ft • which the Loeb, 9 vol. (1926-65), is the latest and best;<' the foundation for all later work on Herod. A.H.M, .roHM,:

The Herods of Judaea (1938), is a scholar's appreciation. The article "Herodes" in Pauly-Wissowa ReaI-Encyclopailf,:

suppl. vol. 2, pp. 1-199 (1913), is particularly valuable fer its complete family tree. STEWART PEROWNE, The Life and ;

Times of Herod the Great (1956), is the work of one wte' knew intimately the topography of all of Herod's raaas- architectural creations. MICHAEL GRANT, Herod the GrvH. (1971), is a beautifully illustrated book by a scholar ofifl-:

ternational standing.

(S.H.P.)

Temples of Jerusalem

Two Jewish sanc- tuaries built successively atop Mt. Zion, the only places in history where the Jewish nation officially offered sacrifice to God. The First Temple stood from 950 DC to c. 586 BC, the Second, from c. 516 BC to AD 70. Since AD 691 the site has been occupied by a Muslim shrine (Dome of the Rock) surrounded by a great wall, part of which is a remnant of the West- ern Wall (popularly called "Wailing Wall") of the Second Temple courtyard. This relic is still revered by pious Jews who believe that the divine Presence {Shekina} will never de- part from the Temple site.

Because the Temple also housed the Sanhe- drin (highest Jewish court of law) and was the gathering place at pilgrim festivals, it became the focal point of Jewish religious life. Prayers were directed to it, even at a distance, and prophets saw their visions there. Each Jewish tribe had representatives who attended Tem- ple worship in their name at stated intervals. An old tradition says that Abraham also built an altar on this spot to sacrifice his son Isaac.

King David conceived the notion of a Tem- ple (II Sam. and I Chron.), but it was his son and successor, Solomon, who secured Phoeni- cian (Sidonian) architects, craftsmen, and materials for its construction in 950 BC, As part of a larger compound, it possibly served as the king's sanctuary.

Passing through a vestibule, one entered the main hall (holy place, hekhaf), beyond this stood the Holy of Holies (devir), dwelling place of the divine Presence. Once a year the high priest entered the Holy of Holies to per- form the ritual of Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement).

Outside in the courtyard was a huge bronze laver for ritual ablutions and a large altar for year-round animal sacrifices to God. (Lacking adequate sources, scholars cannot give a relia- ble description of the total structure).

Among other things, Temple furnishings in- cluded a small table for burning incense, a seven-branched candelabrum (menora), and the ark of the Covenant. The ark, brought to Jerusalem by David, contained tablets of the Ten Commandments and was carried in the Tabernacle by Jews during their 40 years of wandering in the desert. For them it was a sign of their Covenant with God.

Solomon's Temple was destroyed c. 586 BC by soldiers of Nebuchadrezzar, who then de- ported some of the rebellious Jews to his na- tive Babylonia. In 537 Cyrus the Great, Per- sian conqueror of Babytonia, allowed the Jews to return home.

Construction of a Second Temple began c. 520 under Zerubbabel, the Persian governor. The prophet Haggai had convinced the Jews that a new temple would end their many miseries. Consecrated in 516, it resembled, but did not rival in beauty, the great Temple of Solomon. Nor did it contain the ark of the Covenant, which had disappeared along with other sacred objects originally preserved in the former Temple. Zerubbabel's Temple (as it is sometimes called) nevertheless enjoyed great prestige and pilgrims travelled long dis- tances to offer sacrifices during annual festi- vals. Rituals were elaborate and conducted with great precision by especially instructed priests.

In 168 BC the Syrian king, Antiochus IV Epi- phanes, desecrated the Temple (and set off the Hasmonean revolt) by offering sacrifice to Zeus. Three years later Judas Maccabaeus ritually cleansed and rededicated the Temple, an event now annually celebrated by the festi- val of Hanukka.

In 54 BC Crassus plundered the Temple treasury, which Pompcy, nine years earlier, had left intact out of respect for the sacred- ness of the place. Herod the Great, an ardent builder, undertook the rebuilding of the Tem- ple (20 BC) on an enlarged site. (When a gold- en eagle, symbol of Roman power, was placed over the gate, outraged Jews shattered it and were summarily executed). Work was still unfinished when Roman legions under Titus leveled Jerusalem in AD 70.

Thereafter, synagogues (already well estab- lished) became the centres of Jewish religious life, but sacrifices were never offered.

In modern times some Jews have ceased to hope for the restoration of the Temple, a change reflected in prayer books of both Re- form and Conservative congregations. Ortho- dox Jews, however, still pray for the restora- tion of the Temple and commemorate its de- struction with a fast on the 9th day of the month of Av.

•Aniiochus IV desecration l:995b

•biblical account of their construction 2:896g passim to 897h

•construction and later history 11 •.945g passim to 951b

•destruction and site significance 10:139d

•Herod's endowment of city 8:820b

•Herod the Great's reconstruction 10:146h

•high priest's vestments design 15:635b

•Jeremiah's criticisms and prophecies 10:134e passim to 135h

•Jewish mythical application 10:191e

•Jewish reverence and beliefs 10:297a

•loss of importance in rabbinic era 10:316a

•ritual custom of sacred area enclosure 3:1176c

•ritual functions and importance 10:219f passim to 221c

•ritual importance in ancient Judaism 10:311 h

•sacrifice in ancient Judaism 16:134g

•Solomon's building program 16:1045b

•symbolic cosmos identification 3:1176b

•Talmudic and Midrashic doctrines 17:1011b

 

TRAITOR McCain

jewn McCain

ASSASSIN of JFK, Patton, many other Whites

killed 264 MILLION Christians in WWII

killed 64 million Christians in Russia

holocaust denier extraordinaire--denying the Armenian holocaust

millions dead in the Middle East

tens of millions of dead Christians

LOST $1.2 TRILLION in Pentagon
spearheaded torture & sodomy of all non-jews
millions dead in Iraq

42 dead, mass murderer Goldman LOVED by jews

serial killer of 13 Christians

the REAL terrorists--not a single one is an Arab

serial killers are all jews

framed Christians for anti-semitism, got caught
left 350 firemen behind to die in WTC

legally insane debarred lawyer CENSORED free speech

mother of all fnazis, certified mentally ill

10,000 Whites DEAD from one jew LIE

moser HATED by jews: he followed the law

f.ck Jesus--from a "news" person!!

1000 fold the child of perdition

 

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