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J E W I S H  A L M A N A C    

 

 

 

 

 

The text below is copied from page three of the 1980 Jewish Almanac.


J E W I S H       1      A L M A N A C    

  IDENTITY CRISIS

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE TERMS FOR "JEW"

   Strictly speaking, it is incorrect to call an ancient Israelite a "Jew" or to call a contemporary Jew an "Israelite" or a "Hebrew." The first Hebrews may not have been Jews at all, and contemporary Palestinians, by their own definition of the term "Palestinian," have to include Jews among their own people--although in choosing the name "Palestine" for their homeland, they have picked a name that originally signified the opposite: an enclave of foreigners. A "Zionist'' in the strict sense is not an expansionist: the original "Zion" was only a single hill in Jerusalem, not a whole land, much less "from the Nile to the Euphrates," as the maximalists maintain.

   How these curiosities of terminology evolved is a complicated and interesting bit of history. In a general sense all of these terms---"Hebrew," "Israelite," "Jew," "Palestinian," and "Zionist" -- are essential ingredients in both Jewish and world history, and understanding their knotty interrelation can shed much light on contemporary events in the Middle East. But let the definer beware: original meanings of these loaded words are no guide to subsequent meanings. How people misconstrue a word is as much a part of its meaning as the "correct" meaning, and the history of these five terms has included a number of creative--and sometimes tragic--misconstruals.

HEBREW:

   The word "Hebrew" ('Ivri) occurs in the early narratives of the Pentateuch to refer to an Israelite, but only in those narratives, such as the Joseph story (Gen. 39--48) and the Exodus story (Exod 3-10), that are set in Egypt, where Israelites are regarded as foreigners. There "Hebrew" is either used by Egyptians to refer to Israelites or by Israelites to refer to themselves in the presence of Egyptians--among themselves, the

preferred term is bene Yisrael, "children of Israel," or "Israelites." A similar usage of "Hebrew" is found in the stories of the interaction between Israelites and Philistines in 1 Samuel and the interaction of Abram (Abraham) with Canaanites and other non-Israelites in Gen. 14 (see Gen. 14:13, where the Greek translator renders the term 'lvri by a word meaning "man of the yonder region''). Jonah, likewise, at sea with a crew of non-Israelites, refers to himself in their presence as a "Hebrew."

   Since the term 'lvri is possibly based on the common preposition ever, meaning "across, beyond, yonder" (the suffix i is an adjectival ending called a gentilic, with the sense of "-ite"), the meaning of the term could have the general sense of "yonder-ite," i. e., "foreigner.'' But since a number of regions in the Middle East are designated by the term Ever (e. g., t~ver ha-Yarden, "Transjordan," Ever ha-Yarden, "Trans-riverine," i, e., Trans-Euphrates), the term 'Ivri could just as well designate a dweller of one of these familiar neighboring "Trans-" regions, with no connotation of foreignness--merely regional particularity. Confusion on the Matter is compounded by the additional ambiguity in the frame of reference in which the designation "Hebrew" originated: were the "Hebrews" thought of as "those out yonder" from the standpoint of Mesopotamians or "those from out yonder" from the stand�point of Canaanites?

To complicate the matter further, a word similar in sound and meaning, apiru, habiru, or khapiru, occurs in extrabiblical ancient Near Eastern sources, where it may or may not designate an Israelite. The kings of the Canaanite city-states, in the land that was to become Israel, wrote many .letters to the Egyptian Pharaohs, in the era just preceding the Israelite exodus from Egypt, complaining ...

  Etymology

Jew (n.) Look up Jew at Dictionary.com
c.1175 (in plural, giwis), from Anglo-Fr. iuw, from O.Fr. giu, from L. Judaeum (nom. Judaeus), from Gk. Ioudaios, from Aramaic jehudhai (Heb. y'hudi "Jew," from Y'hudah "Judah," lit. "celebrated," name of Jacob's fourth son and of the tribe descended from him. Replaced O.E. Iudeas "the Jews." Originally, "Hebrew of the kingdom of Judah." Jews' harp "simple mouth harp" is from 1584, earlier Jews' trump (1545); the connection with Jewishness is obscure. Jew-baiting first recorded 1853, in ref. to Ger. Judenhetze. In uneducated times, inexplicable ancient artifacts were credited to Jews, based on the biblical chronology of history: e.g. Jews' money (1577) "Roman coins found in England." In Greece, after Christianity had erased the memory of classical glory, ruins of pagan temples were called "Jews' castles."
"to cheat, to drive a hard bargain," 1824, from Jew (n.) (cf. gyp, welsh, etc.). The campaign to eliminate it in early 20c. was so successful that people began to avoid the noun and adj., too, and started using Hebrew instead.

"Now I'll say 'a Jew' and just the word Jew sounds like a dirty word and people don't know whether to laugh or not." [Lenny Bruce (1925–1966)]

Note:

J Look up J at Dictionary.com
the letter is a late modification of Roman -i-, originally a scribal creation in continental M.L. to distinguish small -i- in cursive writing from the strokes of other letters, especially in the final positions of words. But in Eng., -y- was used for this, and -j- was introduced c.1600-1640 to take up the consonantal sound that had evolved from -i- since L.L. times. This usage first was attested in Sp., where it was in place before 1600. Eng. dictionaries continued to lump together words beginning in -i- and -j- until 19c.
 

TRAITOR McCain

jewn McCain

ASSASSIN of JFK, Patton, many other Whites

killed 264 MILLION Christians in WWII

killed 64 million Christians in Russia

holocaust denier extraordinaire--denying the Armenian holocaust

millions dead in the Middle East

tens of millions of dead Christians

LOST $1.2 TRILLION in Pentagon
spearheaded torture & sodomy of all non-jews
millions dead in Iraq

42 dead, mass murderer Goldman LOVED by jews

serial killer of 13 Christians

the REAL terrorists--not a single one is an Arab

serial killers are all jews

framed Christians for anti-semitism, got caught
left 350 firemen behind to die in WTC

legally insane debarred lawyer CENSORED free speech

mother of all fnazis, certified mentally ill

10,000 Whites DEAD from one jew LIE

moser HATED by jews: he followed the law

f.ck Jesus--from a "news" person!!

1000 fold the child of perdition

 

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Modified Saturday, March 11, 2017

Copyright @ 2007 by Fathers' Manifesto & Christian Party