Rabbi Yaakov HaKohen Kleiman,a lecturer at
Aish HaTorah, Jerusalem:
"In addition to questions of medical interest, there are many interesting
possibilities concerning the origin of Ashkenazi populations and how they migrated in
Europe. It seems likely that Jews began to arrive in Europe perhaps 1,000 to 1,200 years
ago, when settlement was already sufficiently developed
to provide them with opportunities to make a living."
To a jew, it's fait accompli that jews are
not self sufficient enough to create their own societies and thus need
"settlements" which were already "developed" by productive peoples
like Israelites [read: Christians], and Muslims, into which to sink their fangs. But to the peoples who created these "settlements",
it's truly an amazing revelation that jews recognize their own intellectual
limitations in such a candid fashion.
He also made the following racist comments
which a goy or gentile cannot make without dog's chosen people climbing all over them:
results also indicate a low level of admixture (intermarriage, conversion, rape, etc.)
into the gene pool of these various Jewish communities."
"Among the Jewish communities sampled, North Africans
(Moroccans, etc.) were most closely related to Babylonian (Iraqi) Jews. These populations
may best represent the paternal gene pool of the ancient Jewish/Hebrew population dating
back to the First Temple period, before the Babylonian exile (approx. 2,500 years ago)."
of these communities maintained their Jewish customs and religious observance despite
prolonged periods of persecution. Jews remained generally culturally isolated from their
host communities. These genetic studies are a testimony to Jewish family
First, we must thank the rabbi for confirming that
jews consider themselves to be a race, even though most of the rest of the world seems to
view jews as such a mixture of mamzers that the word race doesn't even apply to them.
But more importantly, we must thank the rabbi for confirming the suspicions that
most people have of jews: they're part nigger.
"Despite their long-term
residence in different countries and isolation from one another, most Jewish populations
were not significantly different from one another at the genetic level. The results
support the hypothesis that the paternal gene pools of Jewish communities from Europe,
North Africa and the Middle East descended from a common Middle Eastern ancestral
population, and suggest that most Jewish communities have remained relatively isolated
from neighboring non-Jewish communities during and after the Diaspora."
(M.F. Hammer, Proc. Nat'l Academy of Science, May 9, 2000)
"While these studies support
the idea that two random Jews may have more genetic relatedness than a Jew and a non-Jew,
it has little meaning beyond that. Genetic relatedness is useful for tracing genetic
origins such as where did a particular allele begin. However, it does not mean much more
than that. it does not confirm anything Jewish, unless to be Jewish is to have descended
from a Jew, and that only begs the question of, who was the first Jew?"
The Holy Bible explains it all. It shows that
"the first jew" was a descendant of Ham who married a nigger in Cush, which is
now Ethiopia. The fact that jews still have to ask the question proves that jews
really don't believe what rabbis tell them about jews being descendants of the Israelites.
By Israelite law, an Israelite who married any of the descendants of either Ham or
the Cushites was a jew, not an Israelite.
|There is now
new and exciting DNA evidence for common Jewish origin -- not just among Cohanim, the
Priestly Class, but among Jews scattered all over the globe.
Recently published research in the
field of molecular genetics -- the study of DNA sequences -- indicates that Jewish
populations of the various Diaspora communities have retained their genetic identity
throughout the exile. Despite large geographic distances between the communities and the
passage of thousands of years, far removed Jewish communities share a similar genetic
profile. This research confirms the common ancestry and common geographical origin of
Jewish men from
communities which developed in the Near East -- Iran, Iraq, Kurdistan, Yemen -- and
European Jews have very similar, almost identical genetic profiles.
"Despite their long-term residence in different countries and
isolation from one another, most Jewish populations were not significantly different from
one another at the genetic level. The results support the hypothesis that the paternal
gene pools of Jewish communities from Europe, North Africa and the Middle East descended
from a common Middle Eastern ancestral population, and suggest that most Jewish
communities have remained relatively isolated from neighboring non-Jewish communities
during and after the Diaspora."
(M.F. Hammer, Proc. Nat'l Academy of Science, May 9, 2000)
The basis of this new field of population research is the study of
the Y-chromosome, which is passed virtually unchanged from father to son. The rare
mutations -- which are changes in the non-coding portion of its DNA -- can serve as
markers, which can distinguish peoples. By studying the genetic signatures of various
groups, comparisons can be made to determine the genetic relationships between the groups.
Y-chromosome research of the Jewish people began as an outgrowth of
the study of Cohanim -- the Jewish priestly family. These studies showed a very high
genetic affinity among present-day Cohanim, indicating that they do have a common paternal
ancestor, estimated to have lived some 3,000 years ago. (See The
MOST RECENT RESEARCH
The most recent genetic research consists of obtaining DNA samples,
and doing laboratory analysis and comparison of the DNA markers on the Y-chromosome --
which is passed from father to son, and on the mtDNA (mitrocondrial DNA) -- which is
passed intact from mother to son and daughter. This genetic anthropology promises to be
particularly informative for tracking the history of Jewish populations, and helping to
resolve the debate on the origins and migrations of Jewish communities in the Diaspora.
The researchers proposed to answer the question whether the
scattered groups of modern Jews can be identified as the descendants of the ancient
Hebrews of the Bible, or whether their common ancestry has been diluted through influx of
converts and through intermarriage so that little remains of their "Jewish
The complex recorded history of dispersal from the Land of Israel
and subsequent residence in and movements between various countries in Europe, North
Africa and the Middle East is expected to produce a complex pattern of genetic
relationships among Jewish populations as well as between them and the non-Jewish peoples
among whom they lived.
The research was based on samples from 29 populations, 7 Jewish,
categorized into five major divisions: Jews, Middle-Eastern non-Jews, Europeans, North
Africans, and sub-Saharan Africans.
|The findings were that most Jewish communities do indeed seem to
be genetically similar.
The findings were that most Jewish communities -- long separated
from one another in Europe, North Africa, the Near East and the Arabian Peninsula -- do
indeed seem to be genetically similar and closely related to one another, sharing a common
These Jewish communities are more closely related to each other and
to other Middle Eastern Semitic populations -- Palestinians, Syrians, and Druze -- than to
their neighboring non-Jewish populations in the Diaspora.
The results also indicate a low level of admixture (intermarriage,
conversion, rape, etc.) into the gene pool of these various Jewish communities.
Among the Jewish communities sampled, North Africans (Moroccans,
etc.) were most closely related to Babylonian (Iraqi) Jews. These populations may best
represent the paternal gene pool of the ancient Jewish/Hebrew population dating back to
the First Temple period, before the Babylonian exile (approx. 2,500 years ago).
The Y-chromosome signatures of the Yemenite Jews are also similar
to those of other Jewish and Semitic populations. In contrast, the paternal gene pool of
Ethiopian Jews more closely resembles that of non-Jewish Ethiopian men.
Although the Ashkenazi (European) Jewish community separated from
their Mediterranean ancestors some 1,200 years ago and lived among Central and Eastern
European gentiles, their paternal gene pool still resembles that of other Jewish and
Semitic groups originating in the Middle East.
A low rate of intermarriage between Diaspora Jews and local
gentiles was the key reason for this continuity. Since the Jews first settled in Europe
more than 50 generations ago, the intermarriage rate was estimated to be only about 0.5%
in each generation.
|The findings oppose the suggestion that Ashkenazim are descended
from the Kuzars.
The Ashkenazi paternal gene pool does not appear to be similar to
that of present-day Turkish speakers. This finding opposes the suggestion that Ashkenazim
are descended from the Kuzars, a Turkish-Asian empire that converted to Judaism en masse
in or about the 8th century CE.
The researchers are continuing and expanding their studies
particularly of the Ashkenazi community. They are hoping that by examining the DNA markers
in Jewish populations from different parts of Europe, they will be able to infer the major
historical and demographic patterns in Ashkenazi populations.
In addition to questions of medical interest, there are many
interesting possibilities concerning the origin of Ashkenazi populations and how they
migrated in Europe. It seems likely that Jews began to arrive in Europe perhaps 1,000 to
1,200 years ago, when settlement was already sufficiently developed to provide them with
opportunities to make a living.
One theory claims that the Jews of Eastern Europe derive
predominantly from Jewish migrants from the Rhineland or from Italy, being fairly direct
descendants of the original ancient Jewish/Hebrew populations.
A second theory suggests a northerly migration from the Balkans or
from Central Asia, with the possibility of large-scale conversions of Slavs and/or Kuzars
This argument parallels the controversy over the origin and
development of Yiddish -- the language of Eastern European Jews. One theory proposes that
Jews, migrating from the Rhineland and neighboring regions spoke an old form of German
which provided the basis of Yiddish.
Other scholars reject the German origin of Yiddish. These linguists
see Yiddish grammar as fundamentally Slavonic, with modern Yiddish developed by
incorporating large numbers of German and Hebrew words into the context of a basically
Slavic grammar and syntax.
There has not been enough historical evidence to decide between
such theories. Now, with the newly developed genetic methods, it is possible to test these
ideas, for example to see if there was a significant Slavic contribution to modern
The researchers plan to continue their research by investigating
genetic variation in populations that can trace their Jewish ancestry to localized
communities of Europe, in order to better understand the history and development of
|The genetic research findings support Jewish tradition -- both
written and oral.
These genetic research findings support Jewish tradition -- both
written and oral.
After over 1,000 years of history in the Land of Israel, Jews
dispersed to many and distant locations throughout the world. Some Jewish exile
communities were relatively stable for two millennia -- such as in Babylonia (Iraq) and
Persia (Iran). Others developed centuries later, following successive migrations to North
Africa and Europe.
All of these communities maintained their Jewish customs and
religious observance despite prolonged periods of persecution. Jews remained generally
culturally isolated from their host communities. These genetic studies are a testimony to
Jewish family faithfulness.
Only the Jewish people in the history of mankind has retained its
genetic identity for over 100 generations, while being spread throughout the world --
truly unique and inspiring.
Perhaps, even more unique and inspiring, is that this most unlikely
scenario was a prophecy and a promise.
And God shall scatter you among all the peoples from one end of
the earth to the other end of the earth... (Deuteronomy 28:64)
And God shall return your captivity and be merciful to you, and
will return and gather you from all the nations whither God has scattered you.
As the natural laws are set before Me, so shall the seed of
Israel never cease from being a nation before Me, forever. (Jeremiah 31:36)
Rabbi Yaakov HaKohen Kleiman is a
lecturer at Aish HaTorah, Jerusalem, specializing in Temple studies. He is co-director
with Rabbi Nachman Kahana, of the Center For Kohanim.
See more articles by Rabbi Yaakov Kleiman
||Visitor Comments: 10
A word of caution
While these studies support the idea that two random Jews may have more genetic
relatedness than a Jew and a non-Jew, it has little meaning beyond that. Genetic
relatedness is useful for tracing genetic origins such as where did a particular allele
begin. However, it does not mean much more than that. it does not confirm anything Jewish,
unless to be Jewish is to have descended from a Jew, and that only begs the question of,
who was the first Jew?
Often, Jews and non-Jews alike think of Judaism as a genetic fact. Evidence like this may
even superficially add support to such an idea, but one need only ask the obvious question
to dispel that idea: how do genes make a cultural or religious identity? The answer is,
they don't. A geneotype is not a phenotype. Judaism is in cultural, religion, and
ultimately, one's self-identity. It is not in genes.
It appears that the objective of such a study is to further promote division and
separatism among the Jews. Enough of this currently exist as it relates to the Jews of
African descent. The only African Jews that appear to be readily accepted are those of
Ethiopian descent. What about the West African Jews? Very little attention or focus are
placed on them and the struggles of their descendants.
Conversions and Jewish DNA
Since a convert becomes a Jew, and since, after Abraham, for several years almost every
"new" Jew was a convert, do you have a hypothesis about whether the converts'
genetic profile both changed and merged into the theretofore Jewish DNA? Could there be
more than one 'stream' of Jewish DNA?
Ashkinazi's always assumed to have intermarried?
Why is it that people always make the assumption, as the Kuzari commenter did, that the
Ashkinazi Jews are the ones who have intermarried? Why not make the very same assumption
of the Sephardim? Is it not highly likely that both populations have some of the
blood of some converts in them and that to some extent both groups have changed somewhat?
To me, this seems a likely possibility.
If you have ever looked at the non-Jewish population in Syria or Lebanon, they are not
nearly as darkly pigmented as the non-Jewish population of Yemin. Some have assumed the
Europen Jews have lightened significantly, but we look very much, with individual
exceptions, like other Mediteranian peoples. I believe there was little intermarriage,
little conversion in (for obvious reasons, it was not permitted by the Church), and little
rape there. I also know that darker skin pigmentation is dominant, so it would not take
many converts (and we know historically there were communities in Arabia who had converts
and who fled to Yemin during Mohammed's life), to darken the skin pigmentation of the
While both populations changed somewhat, we both retained our Jewish DNA, indicating that
our changes were not as significant as some want to believe. We are, after all, one big
A word of caution
A word of caution about getting too caught up in racial purity and a genetic basis for
identifying and discriminating between people-- We must remember how Hitler and the Natzis
perverted this type of thinking to discount human life. It is an interesting topic as far
as learning about history but, in the scheme of things, preserving a little strand of
non-coded DNA isn't such a big deal. Far more important is that we treat all people with
respect and appretiation and that we live an honorable life.
Judd Serotta, 1/11/2001
We look different
If Jews of Sephardic and Ashkenazic descent appear to come from very similar gene pools,
why do we look so different? To the non-scientist (like me), it would appear that the
Ashkenaz Jews married local light-skinned people, and the Sephards married local
dark-skinned people (unless they were originally dark-skinned, in which case they could
have been separated). But what accounts for the difference in appearance between
Ashkenazic Jews and Sephardic Jews?
Jennifer Schjolberg, 12/10/2000
I am doing research on Jews living in Africa. I thought the topic was rather obscure, and
it would be difficult to find enough information to do a thorough paper, but thanks to
this article I now have a scientific portion that can be incorporated into my study.
Kevin Brook, 9/18/2000
Dr. Hammer's study is not the final word
The genetics study cited above is interesting but incomplete. For instance, I am not aware
of any study that attempts to compare the genes of
Khazar skeletons or modern North Caucasian Turks (especially Kumuks and
Karachays) with European Jews, which essentially leaves the Khazar question untested.
Also, the study only tests some portions of Jewish genes. The Khazars are certainly not to
be ruled out entirely. A statistical analysis of the study has been conducted by Daniel
Friedman at http://www.khazaria.com/genetics/friedman.html, who concludes that there are
both Israelite and non-Israelite elements in European Jews. Also, there are other genetics
studies you can read about at http://www.khazaria.com/genetics/abstracts.html
It is rather obvious that converts and intermarriages represent some of the ancestry of
Ashkenazi Jews. Dismissing the Jewish Khazars from our history entirely is unwise,
considering that new evidence for their Judaism has come to light. I look forward to
additional genetics studies like this one that can help trace our roots to its various
"in thee and in thy seed shall of the families of the earth be blessed." Gen
Fascinating research with many ramifications! Not least of these is its contribution to
the verification of the credibility of Jewish historical traditions / lineages(as found in
the Bible, Haggadah, Talmud etc). Further, the research enhances the significance of the
fact that while Jews have contributed enormously to the cultural and economic well-being
of countless nations (despite continued mistrust and persecution)they have still
maintained their genetic, cultural and religious distinctiveness. Jews are indeed a marvel
and a wonder to the Nations - evidence of God's hand at work if ever such evidence was
malka dennis, 7/15/2000
who's most jewish
The research is interesting and an inspirational testament to the faithfulness of the
Jewish people to their laws and traditions. It makes me wonder what could I learn about my
family history from my genes? I hope genetic information will not become a vehicle for
some of us to say, "I am more Jewish (or a better Jew) than you because I have a