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Jared Diamond. "Who Are the Jews?" Natural History 102:11 (November 1993): 12-19. Summary:

Diamond argues that Ashkenazic Jews are connected to "their ancient Arab and Egyptian neighbors." (p. 18). Yet he admits: "Although the Jews have been scattered for only a few thousand years, their faces often reflect their scattered homelands." (p. 12). Diamond's explanations are somewhat bizarre. While he is willing to consider Indian Jews, Yemenite Jews, and Ethiopian Jews descendants of converts and mixed marriages (p. 18), he seems to think Ashkenazic Jews are more purely Israelite than other Jewish groups. He suggests that natural selection, rather than intermarriage and conversion, explains how Jews resemble their non-Jewish neighbors (p. 16). In other words, Jews move to Europe, speed up the process of evolution that usually is slower among other human groups, and somehow magically start to look like Russians, Poles, Italians, and Germans, without any genetic contact with them. Skin color and ABO blood group studies contradict the notion that Jews are all homogeneous Middle Easterners (Diamond p. 14, 16) and "G6PD deficiency" genetics is common to Ashkenazim, Russians, and Germans (p. 16-17). But Diamond keeps insisting that this was not due to mixing. "In their fingerprints, Rhesus blood group frequencies, haptoglobins, and several enzyme markers, Ashkenazic Jews resemble Sephardic and Yemenite Jews and differ from Eastern European Gentiles. Furthermore, in these respects Jews resemble many Gentile peoples of the eastern Mediterranean, such as Samaritans, Armenians, Egyptian Cops, and Syrian, Lebanese, and Palestinian Arabs." (p. 16) "Thus, judging by neutral markers, the non-Jewish contribution to the Ashkenazic and Sephardic Jewish gene pool has been low. These groups of Jews may really be transplanted Semites, not converted Khazars or products of massive intermarriage." (p. 18). But this does nothing to explain the magical way in which Jews come to resemble their neighbors. It is as if a Dutchman moving to South Africa would have descendants who would at least be beginning to look more like native Africans, or descendants of the Mayflower starting to adopt American Indian facial characteristics, or Englishmen in Australian turning Aboriginal. Are such things happening absent intermarriage? Obviously not. And how and why would a minority group drastically change its physical appearance (e.g. lightening skin) in order to blend in with the majority? Is this idle speculation? His article contains the typical Koestler-bashing, which shows that one of his intentions was to use genetics research to "disprove" any sort of connection between Khazars and Russian Jews. While he provided a valuable service in summarizing some scientific studies for the general public, his overall explanation is not credible. (In his book Guns, Germs, and Steel he indicated that he believes that geography determined historical patterns much more than human action.)



"Jews and Arabs Share Recent Ancestry." Science Now (American Academy for the Advancement of Science, October 30, 2000). In the last sentence, it is admitted that European Jews mixed with groups residing in Europe. Excerpts:

"More than 70% of Jewish men and half of the Arab men whose DNA was studied inherited their Y chromosomes from the same paternal ancestors who lived in the region within the last few thousand years. The results match historical accounts that some Moslem Arabs are descended from Christians and Jews who lived in the southern Levant, a region that includes Israel and the Sinai... Intrigued by the genetic similarities between the two populations, geneticist Ariella Oppenheim of Hebrew University in Jerusalem, who collaborated on the earlier study, focused on Arab and Jewish men. Her team examined the Y chromosomes of 119 Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews and 143 Israeli and Palestinian Arabs. The Y chromosomes of many of the men had key segments of DNA that were so similar that they clustered into just three of many groups known as haplogroups. Other short segments of DNA called microsatellites were similar enough to reveal that the men must have had common ancestors within the past several thousand years. The study, reported here at a Human Origins and Disease conference, will appear in an upcoming issue of Human Genetics. Hammer praises the new study for 'focusing in detail on the Jewish and Palestinian populations.' Oppenheim's team found, for example, that Jews have mixed more with European populations, which makes sense because some of them lived in Europe during the last millennium."





This finding, along with Nathaniel Pearson's research (whose Ukrainian Jewish Y-chromosomal haplotype matched with an Uzbekistani Uzbek, an Uzbekistani Tajik, and two men from New Delhi in northern India), contradicts the assertion of other geneticists that Ashkenazim are not at all descended from Khazars and other European converts.

Jews as part of the genetic landscape of the Middle East

Posted by Kevin Brook to Kulanu's listserv in November and December 2001



A new study of interest has been published in the November 2001 issue of The American Journal of Human Genetics (volume 69, number 5) on pages 1095-1112. Entitled "The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East" and authored by Almut Nebel, Dvora Filon, Bernd Brinkmann, Partha P. Majumder, Marina Faerman, and Ariella Oppenheim, the article discusses the results of a new genetic test on 526 persons (from the Ashkenazic Jewish, Sephardic Jewish, Kurdish Jewish, Muslim Kurdish, Jordanian Arab, Syrian Arab, Lebanese Arab, Israeli Arab, Palestinian Arab, and Negev Bedouin populations). The results were as follows:

bulletKurdish Jews and North African Jews are very closely related in their paternal lineages.
bulletKurdish Jews and North African Jews are less related to Ashkenazic Jews; the differences between the Sephardic/Oriental and Ashkenazic Jewish groups are described in the abstract as slight yet significant.
bulletAshkenazic Jews, while related to other Jewish groups, might also have a certain amount of European ancestry.
bulletJews are more closely related to Armenians, Kurds, and Anatolian Turks than to their Arab neighbors.
bulletThe haplogroup Eu 9 derived from northern Middle Easterners, while the haplogroup Eu 10 derived from more southerly Middle Easterners. Palestinian Arabs and Bedouins often belong to Eu 10 and could have substantial ancestry from the Arabian Peninsula.

The above study is summarized by Judy Siegel in her Jerusalem Post article "Genetic evidence links Jews to their ancient tribe." (November 20, 2001).

An exceptional North African Jewish community is Libyan Jewry, which appears to differ noticeably from Moroccan Jewry, Tunisian Jewry, and Algerian Jewry. According to Noah A. Rosenberg, Eilon Woolf, Jonathan K. Pritchard, Tamar Schaap, Dov Gefel, Isaac Shpirer, Uri Lavi, Batsheva Bonne'-Tamir, Jossi Hillel, and Marcus W. Feldman in their article "Distinctive genetic signatures in the Libyan Jews." (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (PNAS) 98:3 (January 30, 2001): 858-863), "...Libyan Jews... separate from and show strong differentiation from the other populations of our study. This population has a unique history among North African Jewish communities, including an early founding, a harsh bottleneck, possible admixture with local Berbers, limited contact with other Jewish communities, and small size in the recent past..."

In the article "High-resolution Y chromosome haplotypes of Israeli and Palestinian Arabs reveal geographic substructure and substantial overlap with haplotypes of Jews" (Human Genetics 107(6), December 2000, pp. 630-641), Ariella Oppenheim, Almut Nebel, Dvora Filon, Mark G. Thomas, D. A. Weiss, M. Weale, and Marina Faerman presented evidence that Israeli Jews and Israeli/Palestinian Arabs are genetically similar but not identical. They suggested that these groups shared common origins, with somewhere between 70 to 80 percent of Jews and about 50 percent of Arabs sharing ancestry. The study clarifies the finding of Michael F. Hammer, Alan J. Redd, Elizabeth T. Wood, M. R. Bonner, Hamdi Jarjanazi, Tanya Karafet, Silvana Santachiara-Benerecetti, Ariella Oppenheim, Mark A. Jobling, Trefor Jenkins, Harry Ostrer, and Batsheva Bonne'-Tamir in "Jewish and Middle Eastern non-Jewish Populations Share a Common Pool of Y-chromosome Biallelic Haplotypes", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 97:12 (June 6, 2000) that Ashkenazi Jews are related through paternal ancestry to Palestinians, Syrians, Lebanese, and Anatolian Turks. Meanwhile, Aravinda Chakravarti, director of the McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine at Johns Hopkins University, found that the mutation DFNB1, which causes deafness, is found among Jews, Palestinian Arabs, and other Mediterranean populations.

Notice that the latest study by Nebel et al., like the previous ones, focuses on paternal ancestries rather than maternal ancestries, so the assumption that Moroccan/Algerian/Tunisian Jews did not mix with Berbers and that Kurdish Jews did not mix with Kurds may not necessarily be correct. The Yemenite Jews serve as a useful comparison - the Yemenite Jewish paternal lines appear to come from Israelites while their maternal lines resemble those of Yemenite Arabs. Might the same (increased diversity in mtDNA lineages compared to Y-chromosomal lineages) be true of North African Jews and Ashkenazi Jews?


"In comparison with data available from other relevant populations in the region, Jews were found to be more closely related to groups in the north of the Fertile Crescent (Kurds, Turks, and Armenians) than to their Arab neighbors." - from the abstract to Nebel et al., "The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East" in Am J Hum Gen.

"Surprisingly, the study shows a closer genetic affinity by Jews to the non-Jewish, non-Arab populations in the northern part of the Middle East than to Arabs." - from the article "Genetic evidence links Jews to their ancient tribe" by Siegel in the Jerusalem Post.


I would like to add to my remarks concerning the latest Jewish DNA study ["The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East" by Almut Nebel, Ariella Oppenheim, et al., The American Journal of Human Genetics 69:5 (November 2001): 1095-1112].

First, it says that Jews are most related to Kurds and secondarily to other northern Mediterranean groups, then to Arabs and Europeans.

Second, this study correlates nicely with the finding that the Cohen Modal Haplotype (CMH) is found not only among Sephardic Jews and Ashkenazic Jews but also among Iraqi Kurds*1 and Armenians*2. Plus, Familial Mediterranean Fever is found among Ashkenazic Jews, Iraqi Jews, North African Jews, Armenians, Druze, Anatolian Turks, and Arabs*3.

Third, one point not fully clarified by Ha'aretz*4 and the Jerusalem Post*5 is the following quote directly from the Nebel, Oppenheim, et al. study, which shows that Ashkenazic Jews do have some non-Israelite elements (perhaps Khazarian and Slavic) in paternal lineages. The researchers wrote:

"Previous studies of Y chromosome polymorphisms reported a small European contribution to the Ashkenazi paternal gene pool (Santachiara-Benerecetti et al. 1993). In our sample, this low-level gene flow may be reflected in the Eu 19 chromosomes, which are found at elevated frequency (12.7%) in Ashkenazi Jews and which are very frequent in Eastern Europeans (54%-60%) (Semino et al. 2000). Alternatively, it is attractive to hypothesize that Ashkenazim with Eu 19 chromosomes represent descendants of the Khazars, originally a Turkic tribe from Central Asia, who settled in southern Russia and eastern Ukraine and converted en masse to Judaism in the ninth century of the present era, as described by Yehuda Ha Levi in 1140 AD (Dunlop 1954)."

This finding, along with Nathaniel Pearson's research (whose Ukrainian Jewish Y-chromosomal haplotype matched with an Uzbekistani Uzbek, an Uzbekistani Tajik, and two men from New Delhi in northern India), contradicts the assertion of other geneticists that Ashkenazim are not at all descended from Khazars and other European converts.


bullet1 C. Brinkmann et al., "Human Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in a Kurdish population sample." International Journal of Legal Medicine 112 (1999): 181-183.
bullet2 Communication from Dr. Levon Yepiskoposyan of the Armenian Anthropological Society.
bullet3 Nicholas Wade, "Gene From Mideast Ancestor May Link 4 Disparate Peoples." The New York Times (August 22, 1997).
bullet4 Tamara Traubman, "Study finds close genetic connection between Jews, Kurds." Ha'aretz (November 21, 2001).
bullet5 Judy Siegel, "Genetic evidence links Jews to their ancient tribe." The Jerusalem Post (November 20, 2001).


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ASSASSIN of JFK, Patton, many other Whites

killed 264 MILLION Christians in WWII

killed 64 million Christians in Russia

holocaust denier extraordinaire--denying the Armenian holocaust

millions dead in the Middle East

tens of millions of dead Christians

LOST $1.2 TRILLION in Pentagon
spearheaded torture & sodomy of all non-jews
millions dead in Iraq

42 dead, mass murderer Goldman LOVED by jews

serial killer of 13 Christians

the REAL terrorists--not a single one is an Arab

serial killers are all jews

framed Christians for anti-semitism, got caught
left 350 firemen behind to die in WTC

legally insane debarred lawyer CENSORED free speech

mother of all fnazis, certified mentally ill

10,000 Whites DEAD from one jew LIE

moser HATED by jews: he followed the law Jesus--from a "news" person!!

1000 fold the child of perdition


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