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Moseley, you filthy kike, who’ve never even BEEN to Russia, now lecture me about the ‘j’ sound in Russia, when I travel to Russia often and encounter Russians who have NO trouble *whatsoever* pronouncing my name?

 

And now you claim you’ve BEEN to Latvia, yet don’t even know which letter represents the Latvian “j” sound?

 

<<< FIRST, GUESS WHAT, GENIUS:

          THERE IS NO "J" SOUND IN LATVIAN !>>>

 

The letter “g” with the cedilla under it is SPECIFICALLY the ‘j’ sound in Latvian, and there are MANY Latvian words with this ‘j’ sound, which date back to Sanskrit, or BEFORE.  This exact same sound is also found in the early pharaohic language, because the language spoken by the pharaohs was DERIVED from Latvian.

 

Note the similarity between Latvian and Sanskrit in the following sentence:

 

 

 

 

 

Language

Saying

Latvian:

Dievs deva zobus, Dievs dos maizes donu

Lithuanian:

Dievas davė dantis, Dievas duos duonos

Sanskrit:

Devas adāt datas, Devas dāsyati dhānās

Russian:

[Bog dal zubi, Bog dast hlyeb]

German:

Gott gab die Zähne, Gott wird das Brot geben

Meaning in English:

'God gave teeth, God will give bread'

 

 

There’s no QUESTION that Latvian has a ‘j’ sound, and that Latvian and Sanskrit are closely *related*--the ONLY question is which language came first, and the evidence suggests it was *Latvian* and not Sanskrit which was first.

 

“my children” in Korean is “ja shick”, a phrase in Korean since *before* their calendar began 4,340 years ago.  If Korean, and Latvian, and Sanskrit, and the pharoic language, had the ‘j’ sound five millennia ago, THEN WHY DID THE ISRAELITES NOT HAVE THE ‘J’ SOUND?

 

 

We don’t doubt that you bozo kikes NEVER had the ‘j’ sound—but all that proves is that you bozos aren’t even *CLOSELY* related to us Israelites.

 

 

From: Israelites@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Israelites@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Jon Moseley
Sent: Tuesday, October 30, 2007 9:56 AM
To: TWOMIFTG@yahoogroups.com; israeliteidentity@yahoogroups.com; vikbattaile@aol.com; eli-james@sbcglobal.net; TWOMIFTG@yahoogroups.com
Cc: houseisrael@yahoogroups.com; Israelites@yahoogroups.com; israeliteidentity@yahoogroups.com; hilloftorah@yahoogroups.com; christiandentity@yahoogroups.com; identity@yahoogroups.com; davidicke@yahoogroups.com; TWOMIFTG@yahoogroups.com; thespiritofjacob@yahoogroups.com
Subject: [Israelites] The Name of the One True God in HEBREW

 

OH, NOW YOU ARE CHANGING YOUR STORY when caught lying, I see?

Knight (Hallstrom) you are such an idiot.

Your story has been that the Hebrew language lacked a LETTER "J" -- in the alphabet.

NOW -- once again -- having been proven to be a fool, you are changing your story?

NOW -- knowing that you are lying -- you change your story to the SOUND, instead of the LETTER.

HEBREW IS A COMPLETELY DIFFERENT LANGUAGE.  Words are written using a completely different script.  THERE IS NO RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE WAY WORDS ARE WRITTEN IN HEBREW AND THE WAY THEY ARE WRITTEN IN ENGLISH.

So, as I pointed out, it is completely stupid to talk about whether there is a "J" in Hebrew....  there is no A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, etc. EITHER!   It is a completely different alphabet!

FIRST, GUESS WHAT, GENIUS:

          THERE IS NO "J" SOUND IN LATVIAN !

The letter "J" is prounounced  like "Y" in English.

The written word "JANIS" is pronounced  "YANIS."

So there is no "J" sound in Latvian.

So, your argument is false.

SECOND,  THERE IS NO  "J"  IN  THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE

SO WHAT?

When my Russian-speaking friends in Latvian write my name, they have to combine the "D" and "Z" sounds.   They write my name:

                         ДЖОН

They have to combine a "D" sound with a "Z" sound to create an artificial "J"

THIRD,  Gaelics never knew about any Jews until modern times, so your comment is of course stupid, as usual.

FOURTH, the Latvians do not use a "J" sound to talk about Jews, because they don't have  ANY  "J'" sound at all!

Now, you claim to have visited Latvia often, and even know a particular restaurant in Latvia.

SO YOU KNOW THAT THERE IS NO "J" SOUND IN LATVIAN.

          You are just flat-out  LYING -- intentionally.

Jon Moseley

-----Original Message-----
From: Jacob Israel
Sent: Oct 30, 2007 11:40 AM


So it’s your learned opinion that Israelites were such bozos that, even though 5 other major world languages which preceded theirs, including Gaelic and Latvian, DID have the “j” sound and DID pronounce your race “jews”, Israelites did NOT have that sound?

 

I can accept that jews are such bozos that they never captured the essence of the “j” sound, and even that “modern Hebrew” which jews claim to speak [but don’t seem to understand a single word of] doesn’t have the “j” sound, but I cannot accept that Israelites, with the worldwide influence they’ve had, did NOT have the “j” sound until the 1600’s:

 

http://fathersmanifesto.net/gaelic.htm

 

http://fathersmanifesto.net/ogam.htm

 

http://fathersmanifesto.net/tula.htm

 

John Knight

 

 

 

 

From: israeliteidentity@yahoogroups.com [mailto:israeliteidentity@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Franks-Lhermann
Sent: Sunday, October 28, 2007 10:20 AM
To: israeliteidentity@yahoogroups.com
Subject: [israeliteidentity] Correction.

 



For the sake of clarity, I point out to you that contemporary Hebrew does not have a "J". I expect that the same goes for ancient Hebrew (and Aramaic, a close cousin of Hebrew, now dead, which contributed some words to the lexicon). Spelling for the words "Jehova" and "Jew" begins with the letter which represents the sound "Y" and is pronounced "yeh". I hunch that "J" was introduced by the Greeks or Romans when they translated the Old Testament. I think that the text in English came from them and not from the original.

I am not a semanticist but I may be able to comment on any other discrepancy that you may encounter.

Respectfully,

Milton Franks-Lhermann,

Petach Tikva, Israel.

 

 

----- Original Message -----

From: Jacob Israel

To: houseisrael@yahoogroups.com ; Israelites@yahoogroups.com ; israeliteidentity@yahoogroups.com ; hilloftorah@yahoogroups.com ; christiandentity@yahoogroups.com ; identity@yahoogroups.com ; davidicke@yahoogroups.com ; TWOMIFTG@yahoogroups.com ; thespiritofjacob@yahoogroups.com

Sent: Sunday, October 28, 2007 4:36 PM

Subject: [israeliteidentity] RE: YHVH/YHWH: On The Pronunciation Of God's Name

 

Dear Vic,

Thanks for forwarding this illuminating article on the ���Name of God”, which obviously is important for us to understand.

A common misperception amongst those who refer to “paleo-Hebrew”, for which there is NO written record, whatsoever, is that the letter “j” didn’t exist before it was created in English a millennium ago or so, so the “Name of the LORD” could not have started with a “j”.  The problem is that Chinese, Korean, Dravidian, Sanskrit, Sumerian, Latvian [from which the early Pharaohic language was derived], Gaelic, and Mayan all had the “j” sound long before there was any “paleo” Hebrew”, and most of those languages speak of a race calling themselves “jews” using this “j” sound.

If there WAS a “paleo” Hebrew language, as the JEWS claim there was, then it MUST have had a “j” sound, and it’s probable that the Tetragramaton actually starts with a “j”.

Sincerely,

John Knight

From: vikbattaile@aol.com [mailto:vikbattaile@aol.com]
Sent: Friday, October 26, 2007 4:30 PM
To: eli-james@sbcglobal.net; knight@jacobisrael.us
Subject: YHVH/YHWH: On The Pronunciation Of God's Name


                                  YEHO- AND -YAH


          YHVH/YHWH:  How To Pronounce It

Summary:

As we have seen, the Divine Name must have at least three syllables. Israelite names indicate that it begins with Yeho-, and the short form Yah indicates that it ends with -aH. If we choose to read matres lectionis we get the pronunciation IHŌĀ or IHŪĀ. The form "Yahweh" doesn't explain the vowel "o". This shows us that the form "Yahweh" cannot even be close to the original form.


In the Bible the name of God http://www.divinename.no/images/tetra_10.gifis a fundamental and important part of the text.

The four consonants YHWH (or JHWH / YHVH / JHVH), also called the tetragrammaton (modern Hebrew: http://www.divinename.no/images/yhwh.gif, Paleo-Hebrew: http://www.divinename.no/images/paleo.gif), are preserved from Paleo-Hebrew where the written text only had consonants, and the reader supplied the vowels during reading; as we today would read "blvd." as "boulevard". How the reader should pronounce the words was delivered from generations to generations by word of mouth.

During the period between 500 and 1000 CE the vowel points were invented. These markings were added to the consonants, and should help the reader to pronounce the words correctly.

But before these vowel points were invented, there was developed a superstition against using the divine name.


Attempts to find the original pronunciation

Hieronymus writes that in his time there were some who pronounced God's name as "PIPI", because when some ignorant readers was confronted with the tetragrammaton in a Greek text, these Hebrew letters could look like the Greek letters ΠΙΠΙ, which are pronounced "PIPI".

Scholars have for a long time tried to find the way back to the correct pronunciation, and there are two pronunciations that are generally accepted, namely YeHoWa(H) and YaHWe(H).

Is it possible to find the right pronunciation? Well, we are at least able to find out which one of Jehovah or Jahwe that is closest to the original pronunciation.

A common explanation of the pronunciation "Yehowa" is that the vowels of the name "Yehowa" are picked from the the Hebrew word "adonay". Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament says: "In the post-biblical period, reverence for the ineffable name "Yahweh" caused it to be supplanted in temple reading (but not in writing) with the noun adonay "my master," or Lord. Next, when medieval scholars began to insert vowels to accompany the consonantal OT text, they added to YHWH the Masoretic vowel points for adonay ; and the actual writing became an impossible YaHoWaH ..."

The president of the Association Biblique de Recherche d'Anciens Manuscrits in France writes that this is just a fabrication, it has never been documented. The word "Yahowah" has a blasphemous meaning, and has never been used in any Bibles.


YHWH with the vowels of adonay

A generally accepted explanation of the pronunciation Yehowah, is that the vowels of the word 'adonay (lord) was added to the letters YHWH. But can this explanation be true?

Transliterated

Hebrew letters

YHWH

http://www.divinename.no/images/tetra_20.gif

'adonay

http://www.divinename.no/images/adonay.gif

Yahowah

http://www.divinename.no/images/jahovah.gif

If we add the vowels of 'aDoNaY to YHWH, we get YaHoWaH. Yahowah is a word that is not written, because it can be read as "Yah [is] howah".

The Bible lexicon BDB (Brown Driver Briggs) defines the word "howah" as following:

http://www.divinename.no/images/howah.gif

This word is used in Isaiah 47:11 and Ezekiel 7:26, and is translated into "calamity" or "disaster". We know that "Yah" is used as a short form of the divine name (as in hallelu-Yah), so Yahowah can actually be read as "Yah is calamity" or "Yah is disaster" (the same way as f.ex. the name "Yehoram" means "Yeho is exalted"). Yahowah is a blasphemous name, and it has never been used in any Bibles.

But what about the word Yehowah? Can it mean "Yeh is disaster"? Yes, but Yeh is not a short form of the divine name, actually there is no word Yeh written in the Bible. So "Yeh is disaster" means nothing in Hebrew, and doesn't allow such a blasphemous interpretation.

It is said that the first vowel a by time was changed into e, but this has never been documented.


Before 1100 CE, the tetragrammaton was pointed with two vowels, e and a, taken from the Aramaic word SHeMa which means "the name". The  vowel o was added after 1100 CE.

What the short form Yah shows us

The expression hallelujah (hallelu-Yah) which is used in both the Old and the New Testament, means "praise Yah". Yah is a contraction of the divine name, and is most often used in Israelite poetry. Yah is written with the consonants YH in Hebrew, with the vowel point "a" between these two consonants. The vowel and the consonants are taken from the tetragrammaton, and this indicates a vowel "a" in it. The result is either

Y-aH-W-H or  Y-H-W-aH, depending of which  H  that is taken from the tetragrammaton. This fact alone supports both Yahweh and  Yehowah.


What Israelite names shows us

It is a fact that the Israelite people used to combine names with an abbreviation of God's name when they named their children
. These names are called teophoric names, and they are preserved with vowel pointings. We have lots of examples of teophoric names in the Bible.

There are mainly two kinds of teophoric names in the Bible. One kind begin with the three first consonants of the tetragrammaton, Y-H-W-, and the second kind end with the short form -yah or -yahu (Yahu is a contraction of the expression Yah hu' which means "Yah himself". F. ex. Eliyah means "my God is Yah", and Eliyahu means "my God is Yah himself").

Here are some examples of teophoric names that begin with the three first consonants of the tetragrammaton: Yehoiakim, Yehonathan, Yehoshaphat, Yehoash, Yehoram, Yehoiada, Yehoiarib, among others. These names were sometimes shortened to create new names, and this resulted in Yoiakim, Yonathan, etc. (SEE BELOW FOR MORE EXAMPLES)

When we compare the names that begin with the three first consonants of the tetragrammaton (YHW), we see that all the names are vocalized YeHo-. In Hebrew, the consonant W may be used to represent the vowel sound ō ("o" as in hole), and this is indicated by placing a dot above the consonant W. Usually, the consonantal sound is not pronounced when it represents a vowel (an exception is if this results in two vowels standing beside each other, which is not grammatical correct).

Teophoric names indicates therefore that the tetragrammaton is to be vocalized Ye-H-o-H. Since teophoric names doesn't indicate a vowel "a" in the first half of the tetragrammaton, this means that the -aH in the short form  Yah has to be in the last part of the tetragrammaton. When we combine these two pieces of information, it gives ut the following result: Ye-H-o-aH. In Hebrew grammar, there is an invariable rule that two vowels can't stand beside each other, so therefore the consonantal sound of W has to be pronounced. The result is therefore Ye-H-oW-aH.

One thing that is common in all the names that begin with the first consonants of the divine name, is that the vowel "o" is included, both in the primary form (for example Jehonathan) and in the shortened form (Jonathan). This shows us that the name couldn't have only two syllables. For example Jahwe which only has two syllables cannot have the vowel "o".

Argument against the form YeHoWaH

It is claimed that after the pronunciation of the tetragrammaton was lost, some scribes borrowed the vowels from another word and pointed the tetragrammaton with these vowels, to remind the reader about reading aloud this other word, instead of the tetragrammaton. After a long time, this practice was forgotten, and some ignorant readers read the consonants together with these vowels; something that resulted in the form YeHoWaH. Some people argue that this form therefore cannot be the correct form - but this argument doesn't hold its ground.

If they who added the vowels, and the ignorant readers who read the consonants together with the vowels, didn't knew the original pronunciation of the tetragrammaton - then they neither didn't knew how it not should be pronounced. If they by chance used the correct vowels, this cannot be used as any evidence against the vowels used by teophoric names.

The argument is that the use of Jehovah in old bibles cannot be used to prove that the vowels e-o-a is correct - and this argument is correct. But one cannot either use this argument as proof for these vowels to be wrong.

Are there other sources that accept the form YeHoWaH?

Professor George Buchanan, a professor emeritus at Wesley Theological Seminary in Washington D.C. has written the following: "In no case is the vowel oo or oh omitted. The word was sometimes abbreviated as 'Ya,' but never as 'Ya-weh'." He also wrote: "When the Tetragrammaton was pronounced in one syllable it was 'Yah' or 'Yo'. When it was pronounced in three syllables it would have been 'Yahowah' or 'Yahoowah'. If it was ever abbreviated to two syllables it would have been 'Yaho'." (Biblical Archaeology Review)

D. D. Williams said: "Evidence indicates, nay almost proves, that Jahwéh was not the true pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton ... The Name itself was probably JAHÔH." Dr. Max Reisel writes that "vocalization of the Tetragrammaton must originally have been YeHūàH or YaHūàH" (The Mysterious Name of Y.H.W.H., page 74).

Professord Gérard Gertoux, a Hebrew scholar, says: "This name YHWH is read without difficulty because it is pronounced as it is written...the divine name is pronounced "I_Eh_oU_Ah". He even writes: "The name Yahweh (which is a barbarism) has only been created to battle with the true name Jehovah." (The Name of God ... its story)


Other relations concerning the vocalization of the Divine Name

Before the Hebrew vowel pointing was invented, the Israelites used some of their consonants as vowels, to indicate vowel sounds. These letter are called "vowel letters", or in Latin matres lectionis ("mothers of reading"). There are four consonants that can indicate a vowel - 'aleph, waw, yod, and the letter he' if it is the last letter of a word.

Qumran-findings show us that in the first century the letter Y was often used as the vowel sound Ī (ee as in seek); W was equivalent to Ō (o as in hole) or Ū (oo as in mood); and H at the end of a word was pronounced Ā (a as in father). When these letters are used as a vowel, their consonantal sound are usually not pronounced (except if this results in two vowels standing beside each other, something that is not allowed in Hebrew grammar).

Matres lectionis - vowel letters

Letter

Name

Equivalent vowel

Example

Pronounced

http://www.divinename.no/images/alef.gif

'Aleph

mainly ā

http://www.divinename.no/images/paran.gif   

Pārān

http://www.divinename.no/images/he.gif

He'

mainly ā
(at the end of a word)

http://www.divinename.no/images/lea.gif   
http://www.divinename.no/images/jehu.gif   

Lē'ā
Jēhū

http://www.divinename.no/images/waw.gif

Waw

ō or ū

http://www.divinename.no/images/joel.gif   
http://www.divinename.no/images/barukh.gif   

Jō'ēl
Bārūkh

http://www.divinename.no/images/jod.gif

Yod

ī, ē or æ

http://www.divinename.no/images/david.gif   

Dāwīd




Let's try this manner of reading with a name where we already know it's pronunciation. Lets use the name YHWDH, which is written almost the same way as the divine name. If we write the vowels as they are to be pronounced, Y-H-W-D-H turns into I-H-Ū-D-Ā. This is in agreement with the pronunciation we already know, "YēHūDāH" (the English "Judah").

When we use this manner of reading with the name YHWH, we can do it the same way. Y-H-W-H turns into I-H-Ū-Ā or I-H-Ō-Ā. This brings us closer to "Yehowa" and further away from "Yahwe". (The fact that the divine name is written without a mappiq shows that the last H should be pronounced Ā.)

When we read the vowel letters, we see that YHWH has pretty much the same pronunciation as YHWDH (YēHūDāH), the difference is that the letter D is not in it. If we, as an experiment, removed the D, we would get YēHūāH. But in written Hebrew, there is an invariable rule that two vowels can't stand beside each other, there has to be a consonant between u and a. The consonantal sound of W shall therefore also be pronounced, and we get the pronunciation YēHūWāH.

But why is it that some people don't want to use the form "Jehovah", when it undoubtedly is closest to the original pronunciation? Why are some who earlier have used the form "Jehovah" now refraining from using it, preferring the form "Jahwe" instead - in spite of recent evidence proofing "Jahwe" wrong. For example Norwegian Bible Association have for several years used the name "Jehova" in a footnote for Exodus 3:15, but in the recent years they have instead used "Jahve".

Professor C. Perrot at Institut Catholique de Paris wrote the following to professor Gertoux (mentioned earlier): "Your arguments are very pertinent, but it would be hard to come back without yielding to Jehovah's Witnesses."

So maybe some avoid using the name because they fear getting associated with the religion of Jehovah's Witnesses. But if you really respect the God of the Bible, his Name, and what it represents, you will not allow such a fear to prevent you from using it.


What is the meaning of the Name?

This is a very important question in the context of the Bible, because the meaning of the name shows us the person carrying this name. To ask for the name of God is like asking for his character or personality.

That is what Moses asks for in Exodus 3:13, since Moses already knew the name: "Moses said to God, "Suppose I go to the Israelites and say to them, 'The God of your fathers has sent me to you,' and they ask me, 'What is his name?' Then what shall I tell them?""

There is no need to speculate of the meaning, because the Bible itself gives the answer in Exodus 3:14, written in Hebrew:

http://www.divinename.no/images/ex3-14.gif

The New International Version (1984) has translated this text into this:
"God said to Moses, "I am who I am. This is what you are to say to the Israelites: 'I AM has sent me to you.'" "

The meaning can be found in the Hebrew words http://www.divinename.no/images/ehje-asjer-ehje.gif(ehyeh asher ehyeh) where the New International Version has chosen the translation "I am who I am". This is unfortunately not a good rendering. Ehyeh ("I am") is without doubt a future shape qal (active), and is drawn from the word hayah which means "become" or "prove to be". So ehyeh is about what one chooses to be, or chooses to become, or the role a person has. It is used to describe something in the future.

It is worth noticing that the New International Version has chosen to translate this word into "I will be" most of the other places in the Old Testament. For example in verse 12 in the same chapter, the same word ehyeh is used - and here they have translated it into "I will be with you".

The book The Pentateuch and Haftorahs (Hebrew/English bible with explanations) says that most modern translations translates verse 14 into "I will be what I will be". Note that the latest version of NIV has a footnote for this verse that says "Or I will be what I will be".

The thought about God as a person who "will be" or "shall prove to be" anything that is necessary for his people is also described in Talmud, and other places in the Bible.

The name itself http://www.divinename.no/images/tetra_10.gif(YHWH/YHVH/JHWH/JHVH) is considered to be the causative form of the Hebrew word http://www.divinename.no/images/hava.gif(hawah) and thus means "he causes to become". This describes YHWH as a God who fulfills promises, and he will become whatever he needs to be in order to accomplish his purposes.

It is therefore appropriate that the name is described as an "awesome name" in Deut. 28:58.

Where to find the Name in the Bible

The TANAKH

A well known Bible translation is the King James Version. Do we find God's name in this translation? Yes, in Exodus 6:3, Psalm 83:18, Isaiah 12:2 and Isaiah 26:4.

The name occurs almost 7000 times in the Hebrew writings. It is written with four Hebrew consonants (from right to left) http://www.divinename.no/images/tetra_10.gif(transliterated variants: YHWH/YHVH/JHWH/JHVH), and is therefore also called "the tetragrammaton". In Biblia Hebraica og Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia the tetragrammaton is written 6828 times.

Many translators choose to use titles as "Lord" instead of God's name. But there are also several translations which has preserved God's name, for example American Standard Version which uses the name Jehovah all places where it occur in the Hebrew writings.


Here is a comparison of Psalm 83:18

Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia
http://www.divinename.no/images/sl83-19.gif

American Standard Version
That they may know that thou alone, whose name is Jehovah, Art the Most High over all the earth.

The New Jerusalem Bible
Let them know that you alone bear the name of Yahweh, Most High over all the earth.

King James Version
That men may know that thou, whose name alone is JEHOVAH, art the most high over all the earth.

New International Version
Let them know that you, whose name is the LORD-- that you alone are the Most High over all the earth.

The GOSPEL

In the Greek writings we find the Divine Name only four times in the text. In these four occurrences the Hebrew expression Hallelujah (Hallelu-Yah) is used in the Greek text (Revelation 19:1, 3, 4, 6).

Hallelu-Yah means "praise Yah", and Yah is a contraction of the Divine Name - like the Biblical name Jonathan is a short for Jehonathan.

Since the Divine Name was written both in the Hebrew writings and the early Greek translations of these, the writers of the New Testament knew very well this name.

In the New Testament there are several quotations from the Old Testament where you will find the Divine Name. But in all these verses the name is replaced with the Greek word http://www.divinename.no/images/kyrios.gif("kyrios" - Lord) or http://www.divinename.no/images/theos.gif("theos" - God). Paul Kahle writes: "It was the Christians who replaced the Tetragrammaton by ky'rios, when the divine name written in Hebrew letters was not understood any more." This was done in the second or third century.

This explains the fact that in many old editions of the New Testament, translated into Hebrew, the name of God is included several times in scriptures that is not a quotation from the Old Testament.

Jesus taught his disciples to use God's name, as John 17:6 shows us: "I have revealed your name to the men you gave me out of the world. They belonged to you, and you gave them to me, and they have obeyed your word." (NET Bible)

Because of this, several Bible translators have chosen to re-insert the Divine Name in the New Testament, in places where it most likely were written in the original text.


Should we use the Name?

God had said to Moses: "Say to the Israelites: YHWH, the God of your fathers - the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob - has sent me to you. This is my name forever, the name by which I am to be remembered from generation to generation." (Exodus 3:15)

Israelites often used the name of God. For example the story about Ruth says: "Just then Boaz arrived from Bethlehem and greeted the harvesters, «YHWH be with you!» «YHWH bless you!» they called back." (Ruth 2:4)  

Micah 4:5 shows that they who trust in the God of the Bible, will keep his name: "For all the peoples walk every one in the name of his god; and we will walk in the name of Jehovah our God for ever and ever." (American Standard Version)

On the other side, they who opposes the God of the Bible, are characterized by avoiding using his name. We clearly see the contrast in Jesus' conversation with Satan, as it is described in Matthew 4:1-11. Satan consistently used the title "God", and quoted a scripture that didn't have the name of

God. Jesus answered every time by citing scriptures that had the name of God.

That's the way it is - we like to use the name of a person who really means a lot to us, because it is of great value. On the other hand we will feel despise by only mentioning the name of a person we hate.

The Bible shows us that Satan presumably has a plan of getting people to forget the name of God, by getting people to worship other gods. He wanted this to happen with the Israelites, a situation Jeremiah 23:27 describes: "that think to cause my people to forget my name by their dreams which they tell every man to his neighbor, as their fathers forgat my name for Baal."  (American Standard Version)

Being uncertain of the pronunciation is no reason to avoid using the name. Most of the people have no problem using the name of Jesus, though this is not the correct pronunciation. His name was probably pronounced Yeshua', Yoshua' or Yehoshua'.

The conclusion must be that is is not wrongful to use God's name - it is actually a demand for they who claim to worship the God of the Bible. The Bible says that using his name is necessary to get approved by God: "And everyone who calls on the name of the LORD will be saved" (Joel 2:32, New International Version)




  The pronunciation of God's name, YHVH/YHWH

The pronunciation of God's name, YHVH/YHWH, is easy to find using the theophoric names because without exception, all the theophoric names beginning in YHW- are vocalized YeHÔ- (IÔ- in the Septuagint). Therefore the ultimate theophoric name that is to say YHW-H must be read as YeHÔ-AH.

The meaning of God's name is also easy to determine, that is "He will [prove to] be" according to Exodus 3:14, which gives the correct insight. To suppose an additional insight from the Cabal ("He will make to be"), Hebrew grammar ("He causes to become") or Greek philosophy ("He is, He exists") introduced serious confusion.

There are several hundreds of theophoric names in the Bible, which retain the vocalization of the Tetragram. For example, the usual name "John" comes from the Hebrew name Yehôhanan, which means "Yehow[ah] has been gracious". In the Septuagint the name Yehôha-nan (YHWH-NN) became Iôa-nan in Greek, therefore, if the part Yehoha (YHWH) has been vocalized IÔA (or IOOA), this last vocalization is a good approximation for the Tetragram.

Numerous linguists postulate that, even though YHWH was pronounced Yehouah in the first century, this pronunciation in fact would result from an "archaic" Yahowah or Yahwoh with a classic fall (because of the stressed accent) of the initial vowel, so the first syllable Ya- became Ye-. Now, although change is witnessed in numerous names (although the influence of the Aramaic language on the Hebrew could also explain this modification), there is no trace of this phenomenon for the divine name. If, according to the hypothesis of the previously mentioned linguists, theophoric names were still pronounced Yaho- (in Hebrew) at the beginning of third century BCE, the translators of the LXX should have kept these names as Iaô-. Now, among the thousands of theophoric names in the Greek (or Hebraic) Bible, none remained as Iaô- or even simply as Ia-. So, linguistic laws cannot be used to explain why the Septuagint did not retain any trace of this term Iaô-, which should nevertheless have been very common if the Name had been Yahwoh. Additionally, if the Name had been Yahwoh, the "archaic" pronunciation of the usual name Yôtam (which is found 25 times in the Hebrew Bible) might logically have been Yawtam (Yahwoh being likely to be abbreviated into Yaw-). Unfortunately, its Greek transcription is never Iaôtam (like Nékaô instead of Nekô) or Iautam (like Nabau instead of Nabû), but always Iôatam. In a same manner the transcription of the name Yôqîm is Iôakim (1Ch 4:22), the name Yôah is transcribed Iôaa (1Ch 26:4), the name Yûkal is transcribed Iôakal (Jr 38:1), etc.

Thus, according to the Septuagint the "archaic" pronunciation of the name Yô was Iôa, not Iaô or Iau. Furthermore, the name John is written YHWHNN in Hebrew, making the first part of the name, YHWH, very similar to the Tetragram YHWH. If the name Yehowah is rendered as Iaô it would be logical to render the name Yehoha-nan similarly as Iaô-nan, but that is not the case.

The famous scholar Roger Bacon (1220-1292) wrote in his Hebraic grammar that in Hebrew there are six vowels (aleph, he, vav, heth, iod, ain) near to the usual masoretic vowel-points. The French erudite Fabre d'Olivet also explained in his Hebraic grammar the following equivalence: aleph = â, he = è, heth = é, waw = ô/ u, yod = î, aïn = wo. He said in his work entitled La Langue hébraïque restituée (The Hebrew Tongue Restored) published in 1823, that the best pronunciation of the divine Name according to its letters was Ihôah/ Iôhah/ Jhôah. Moreover, when he began to translate the Bible (Genesis, chapters I to X), he used systematically the name IHÔAH in his translation. Antoine Fabre d'Olivet, renowned polyglot, knew numerous oriental languages, what brought him to privilege the philological choice (rather than theological), that is to say he refused to mix the sound with the sense of the word.

The yod (Y) serves as vowel I, the waw (W) serves as O, and the he (H) and the aleph (’) serve as A.

According to these rudimentary indications, one already could read approximately the name YHWH "according to its letters", as I-H-O-A (because the letter H is never used as vowel inside words; in that exceptional case the use of the letter aleph is preferred.) For example, the name YH is pronounced according to its letters IA in Hebrew, IH in Latin and IE in Greek.

The short name YH is vocalized Yah (Hallelu-Yah in Hebrew and Allelou-ia in Greek).

The (short) name Yah is considered as a name as a whole in the Bible (Ps 68:4), furthermore it appeared in the same time that the (great) Name (Ex 15:2,3) and it was mainly used in the songs (Ps 150:1). Contrary to the Tetragram the name Yah has always been used as the word Alleluia proves it (Rev 19:1-6). The other name Yahû (which is not found in the Bible) is not an abbreviation of the Tetragram but a hypocoristic made from the name Yah. As a matter of fact the name Yahû means "Yah himself" (Yah hû’). On the other hand Yô- in the beginning of some names is an abbreviation of Y(eh)ô- which is itself an abbreviation of the full name Yehow-(ah). One can noticed that in the Bible there is no name beginning by Yah- or Yahû- and none ending by -yô or -yehô.

There is a confusion between the short name YH and the great name YHWH. The reading in Ya- is favored by a confusion between the two names of God: the full name YeHoWaH (Ps 83:18) and the short name YaH (Ps 68:4).


   In addition to the initial part Yehô- which was abbreviated to Yô-, the final part -yah also had a diminutive -yahu, this last term means in Hebrew "Yah himself." This term appeared for two reasons. First, the Hebrew term hu’ means "himself" (implied God) began to play a big role in worship. For example, to distance himself from the other gods and to mark his durability, God often expressed himself by using the Hebraic expression ’ani hu’, that is "myself" or more exactly "I, himself" or "It is I." (Dt 32:39; Is 52:6; etc.) Although human beings can use this expression in speaking of themselves (1Ch 21:17), generally when one used "He" or "Himself" it was in relation to God. (2 Kings 2:14)

   The Israelites did not delay in integrating this divine name into their own names, as into the following names Abihu’ (my father [is] He), Elihu’ (my god [is] He), or Yehu’ (Ye[huah is] He). Later, the final letter of these names being mute, it was not written any more. For example, the name Elihu’ is very often written Elihu. The names Abiyah (my father [is] Yah), and Eliyah (my god [is] Yah) existing also, there was a mixture of Yah and Hu’ to obtain names like Abiyahu’ (my father [is] Yah Himself), or Eliyahu’ (my god [is] Yah Himself).

           

This association provoked the appearance of a new divine name, which one does not find in the Bible, except at the end of some theophoric names: the name Yah hu’, abbreviated as Yahu. The assonance of this expression with the Tetragram doubtless favored the emergence of this abbreviation.

Moreover, one finds this name alone (YHW), written next to the Tetragram (YHWH), in Kuntillet Ajrud's writings, dated from the ninth century before our era. Some specialists object that the ending in U could be a residue of an archaic nominative. However, this would be a unique occurrence. Furthermore, this explanation is all the less convincing as it does not apply to the name Elihu.

The great name YHWH is vocalized Yehowah in Hebrew and Iôa in the beginning of numerous Greek names. In the same way, as there were theophoric names elaborated from the great name, that is names beginning with Yehô- or its shortened form Y(eh)ô-, there were also theophoric names elaborated from Yah. However, a major remark is necessary in the Bible, Greek or Hebraic.

The Israelites took care of making either their names begin with Yehô- or Yô-, or to end their names with -yah, but never the opposite, without exception. So, in the Bible, it is impossible to find, among hundred of existing theophoric names, a single name beginning with Yah-. So, those who vocalize YHWH in Yahweh are obliged to admit that the Tetragram, the theophoric name by excellence, does not belong to its family of theophoric names, what is the height of irony.

This nonsense is clearly apparent when one opens a dictionary, where the name Yahve is completely isolated from the other theophoric names like: Joshua, Jonathan, Jesus, John, etc. For example, the name YHWHNN (John) is vocalized Yehôha-nan in Hebrew and Iôa-nan in Greek (not Iaô-nan). For example, Severi of Antioch (465-538) wrote in his comments on John chapter eight that the Hebrew name of God is IOA (IWA). Furthermore, this name IOA (IWA) is found in the sixth-century Codex Coislinianus.

It is possible to verify that, without exception, the theophoric names beginning in YHW- are vocalized YeHÔ- (IÔ- in the Septuagint), and those ending in -YHW are vocalized -YaHÛ (IA or IOU in the Septuagint). In addition, the vowel a very often follows the sequence YeHÔ-, that is to say the "normal" sequence is YeHÔ-()a. This sequence is so universal in the theophoric names that some names have been "theophorized" by assonance in the following names of the Septuagint: Iôa-tam (Jg 9:7, 57; 2K 15:5, 32), Iôa-kéim (1Ch 4:22), Iôa-s (1Ch 23:10,11), Iôa-sar (1Ch 2:18), Iôa-kal (Jr 37:3), etc. To sum up, the name Yehu’ results from a contraction of YeHoWaH Hu’ to YeHoW-[aH]-u’ that is YeHoWu’ or YeHU’. On the other hand, YaHu results from the contraction of the two names YaH-Hu’.

Examples of theophoric names

Here are a list of some names in the Bible that incorporate a part of God's name. The names are rendered nearly as they are written in Hebrew, so they may look different in your own bible.

The names start with either the first letters of the name of God - "Yeho", or they end with the short form "yah" or "yahu". "Yahu" is a contraction of the expression yah hu'. Hu' in Hebrew means "he" or "himself", so therefore Yahu means "Yah [is] He" or "Yah himself".

God often used the expression "I am He" of himself, and the Hebrews used this expression in their names - f. ex. Elihu means "my God is He". Finally this expression was linked with the short form of the Divine Name, "Yah", to create new names as f. ex. Eliyahu which means "my God is Yah himself".

Some names that begin with the three first consonants of God's name:

1. Chr. 8:36

Yehoaddah

2. Kings 14:2

Yehoaddan

2. Kings 10:35

Yehoahaz

2. Kings 11:21

Yehoash

1. Chr. 26:3

Yehohanan

2. Kings 24:6

Yehoiachin

2. Samuel 8:18

Yehoiada

2. Kings 23:34

Yehoiakim

1. Chr. 9:10

Yehoiarib

2. Kings 10:15

Yehonadab

1. Chr. 27:25

Yehonathan

1. Kings 22:50

Yehoram

2. Chr. 22:11

Yehoshabeath

2. Samuel 8:16

Yehoshaphat

2. Kings 11:2

Yehosheba

2. Kings 12:21

Yehozabad

1. Chr. 6:14

Yehozadak



Some names that end with -yah or -yahu:

1. Kg. 1:7

Adonijah

1. Kg. 1:8

Adoniyahu

1. Kg. 11:29

Akiyah

1. Kg. 17:1

Eliyahu

2. Kg. 1:3

Eliyah

2. Kg. 16:16

Uriyah

2. Sam. 23:22

Benayahu

Jer. 26:20

Uriyahu

Jer. 38:1

Gedalyahu

Jer. 36:14

Neriyahu

Sak. 6:10

Tobiyah

 

How ehyeh is translated in New International Version

Here you have the opportunity to see how the word ehyeh in the Old Testament is translated in the New International Version. The context shows us that the word is used in the manner of what you choose to be, or the role a person has.

Genesis 26:3

I will be with you and will bless you

Genesis 31:3

I will be with you

Exodus 3:12

I will be with you.

Exodus 3:14

I am who I am ... I AM has sent me to you

Exodus 4:12

I will help you speak

Exodus 4:15

I will help both of you speak

Deut. 31:23

I myself will be with you

Joshua 1:5

I will be with you

Joshua 3:7

I am with you

Judges 6:16

I will be with you

Judges 11:9

will I really be your head

Ruth 2:13

I do not have the standing of one of your servant girls

1. Sam. 18:18

I should become the king's son-in-law

1. Sam. 23:17

I will be second to you

2. Sam. 7:6

I have been moving from place to place

2. Sam. 7:9

I have been with you wherever you have gone

2. Sam. 7:14

I will be his father

2. Sam. 15:34

I will be your servant

2. Sam. 16:18

I will remain with him

2. Sam. 16:19

I will serve you

2. Sam. 22:24

I have been blameless before him

1. Chron. 17:5

I have moved from one tent site to another

1. Chron. 17:8

I have been with you wherever you have gone

1. Chron. 17:13

I will be his father

1. Chron. 28:6

I will be his father

Job 3:16

why was I not hidden in the ground

Job 7:20

have I become a burden to you

Job 10:19

if only I had never come into being

Job 12:4

I have become a laughingstock to my friends

Job 17:6

a man in whose face people spit

Psalm 50:21

you thought I was altogether like you

Psalm 102:8

I have become like a bird alone on a roof

Proverbs 8:30

then I was the craftsman ... I was filled with delight

Song 1:7

why should I be like a veiled woman

Isaiah 3:7

I have no remedy

Isaiah. 47:7

I will continue forever the eternal queen

Jeremiah 11:4

I will be your God

Jeremiah 24:7

I will be their God

Jeremiah 30:22

I will be your God

Jeremiah 31:1

I will be the God of all the clans of Israel

Jeremiah 32:38

I will be their God

Ezekiel. 11:20

I will be their God

Ezekiel 14:11

I will be their God

Ezekiel 34:24

I the LORD will be their God

Ezekiel 36:28

I will be your God

Ezekiel 37:23

I will be their God

Hosea 1:9

I am not your God

Hosea 11:4

I lifted the yoke from their neck

Hosea 14:5

I will be like the dew to Israel

Zech. 2:5

I myself will be a wall of fire  ... I will be its glory within

Zech. 8:8

I will be faithful and righteous to them as their God





What archaeological findings tell about the pronunciation

In the Amun-temple in Soleb (Sudan) there are found sculptures from the time of Amenhotep III. These sculptures are from the 14. century BCE.

On one sculpture there is an Egyptian hieroglyph with the Divine Name. This is the oldest archaeological occurrence of the Divine Name as we know.

Below is an illustration from a reconstruction of the sculpture.

http://www.divinename.no/images/skulptur1.jpg


The pronunciation of the hieroglyphs can be interpreted in more than one way. However, Gerard Gertoux, professor at Association Biblique de Recherche d'Anciens Manuscrits in France gives the following vocalization:

http://www.divinename.no/images/hieroglyfer1.gif

Transcription of the hieroglyph:

t3 ¡3-sw-w y-h-w3-w (Shneider's transcription)
ta sha-su-w y-eh-ua-w (conventional vocalization)

The text is easy to decipher - it sounds "ta' sha'suw yehua'w", which means in English "land of the bedouins those of Yehua". It was common to name lands after the name of the gods - for example in Genesis 47:11 we read about "the land of Rameses".

We know little about the vowels of ancient Egyptian words. But for foreign words (like Yhw3), Egyptians used a form of matres lectionis. In this system the vowel letters was like this: 3 = a,  w = u,  ÿ=i. Mr. Gertoux points to the Merneptah's stele, dated 13-th century BCE, where the name Israel is transcribed in hieroglyphs Yÿsri3l, read "Yisrial". Gertoux draws the conclusion that Yhw3 technically can be read as Yehua'.

Professor Jean Leclant writes: "It is evident that the name on the name-ring in Soleb that we discuss corresponds to the 'tetragram' of the god of the Bible YHWH."  He adds: "The name of God appears here in the first place as the name of a place." In a footnote he explains that place-names often are derived of the names of gods.

(Jean Leclant, Le "Tétragramme" à l’époque d’Aménophis III, in "Near Eastern Studies dedicated to H.I.H. Prince Takahito Mikasa on the Occasion of His Seventy-Fifth Birthday," pages 215-219, 1991, Wiesbaden)

Summary:
The oldest archaeological testimony where you can see the Divine Name is from about the 14. century BCE. Professor Gertoux claims that the Egyptian text shows us that the name was pronounced Yehua.


Aerial view of the Amun-temple:

http://www.divinename.no/images/tempel1.gif
The arrow points to where the name-shield was found


Plan of the Amun-temple:

http://www.divinename.no/images/tempel2.gif
The arrow points to where the name-shield was found


Drawing of the excavation site:

http://www.divinename.no/images/tempel3.gif



Sources:
Gérard Gertoux: The Name of God ... its story, 2002, Paris. (primary source)
B.D. Redford: Egypt, Israel, Sinai, Archeological and Historical Relationship in the Biblical Period, Ed. A.F. Rainey, p. 151, 1987, Tel Aviv.
Jean Leclant: Le 'Tétragramme' à l’époque d’Aménophis III, in 'Near Eastern Studies dedicated to H.I.H. Prince Takahito Mikasa on the Occasion of His Seventy-Fifth Birthday', pages 215-219, 1991, Wiesbaden.
Michele Schiff Giorgini: Soleb I, 1813-1963, Firenze.
M. Weippert: The Settlement of the Israelite Tribes in Palestine, 1971, London.
P.J.B.: La naissance de Dieu.  Du Xe au IIIe siècle av. J.C. La révélation de Yahvé, in 'Sciences et Avenir', 01/1999, N° 623.
Shmuel Ahituv: Canaanite Toponyms in Ancient Egyptian Documents, 1984, Leiden.

 

 

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