Thou Shalt Not Kill
The English words "kill", "killed" or "kills" occur 224 times in the Holy Bible, and are translated from 13 different Hebrew words: harag [#2026], zabach [#2076], chalal [#2491], charab [#2717], charam [#2763], tabach [#2873], muth [#4191], nagaph [#5062], nakah [#5221], qatal [#6991], qetal [#6992], ratsach [#7523], and shachat [#7819]. Each of these 13 Hebrew words have a distinct and separate meaning which for the most part was lost in the translation into English.
RATSACH IS AN ISRAELITE KILLING AN ISRAELITE
For example, "Thou shalt not kill" is translated from ratsach, and thus applies to only one of the thirteen Hebrew concepts of "kill":
Exo 20:13 Thou shalt not3808 kill.7523 Deu 5:17 Thou shalt not3808 kill.7523 Num 35:11 Then ye shall appoint you cities to be cities of refuge for you; that the slayer may flee thither, which killeth any person at unawares. Num 35:11 Then ye shall appoint7136 you cities5892 to be1961 cities5892 of refuge4733 for you; that the slayer7523 may flee5127 thither,8033 which killeth5221 any person5315 at unawares.7684
The original Hebrew text in the Ten Commandments made it clear that only the killing of Israelites by Israelites was prohibited in God's Word, explaining the confusion people have between Scripture in which God commanded the Israelites to utterly destroy some races, and this commandment which appeared in the English translation to prohibit killing them.
NAKAH IS KILLING A NON-ISRAELITE
The context of the Scripture reveals that ratsach applies only to the killing of fellow Israelites, and that nakah applies only to the killing of non-Israelites like Ish, Amorites and Amalekites:
Gen 14:7 And they returned,7725 and came935 to413 En-mishpat,5880 which1931 is Kadesh,6946 and smote5221 (853) all3605 the country7704 of the Amalekites,6003 and also1571 (853) the Amorites,567 that dwelt3427 in Hazezon-tamar.2688 Exo 21:12 He that smiteth a man, so that he die, shall be surely put to death.Exo 21:12 He that smiteth5221 a man,376 so that he die,4191 shall be surely put to death.4191, 4191Num 35:15 These six cities shall be a refuge, [both] for the children of Israel, and for the stranger, and for the sojourner among them: that every one that killeth any person unawares may flee thither. Deu 2:33 And the LORD our God delivered him before us; and we smote him, and his sons, and all his people. Deu 3:3 So the LORD our God delivered into our hands Og also, the king of Bashan, and all his people: and we smote him until none was left to him remaining. Deu 4:46 On this side Jordan, in the valley over against Beth-peor, in the land of Sihon king of the Amorites, who dwelt at Heshbon, whom Moses and the children of Israel smote, after they were come forth out of Egypt: 2Sa 1:15 And David called one of the young men, and said, Go near, and fall upon him. And he smote him that he died. 2Ki 3:24 And when they came to the camp of Israel, the Israelites rose up and smote the Moabites, so that they fled before them: but they went forward smiting the Moabites, even in their country.
When Moses slew the Egyptian and hid him in the sand, the Hebrew word from which "slew" was translated was not ratsach, but nakah:
Exo 2:12 And he looked6437 this way3541 and that way,3541 and when he saw7200 that3588 there was no369 man,376 he slew5221 (853) the Egyptian,4713 and hid2934 him in the sand.2344
When David killed the Amakelite who killed King Saul, it was not a violation of the Ten Commandments because the same Hebrew word "nakah" was used:
Thus Moses did not violate the Ten Commandments when he killed the Egyptian, and neither did David when he killed the Amakelite.
HARAG IS ?
When the Israelites who saw Moses kill the Egyptian asked him if he was now going to kill them, a third Hebrew word harag was used:
CHALAL IS AN ISRAELITE KILLING A NON-ISRAELITE IN REVENGE
When the sons of Jacob killed those who had defiled their sister Dinah, the Hebrew word chalal was used:
Gen 34:27 The sons1121 of Jacob3290 came935 upon5921 the slain,2491 and spoiled962 the city,5892 because834 they had defiled2930 their sister.269
NAGAPH IS ISRAELITES KILLED BY THEIR ENEMIES
When the Israelites were slain by their enemies, the word nagaph was used:
QETAL IS ISRAELITES KILLED BY DECREE
When the king of Babylon ordered that the wise men of Israel be slain, the Hebrew word qetal was used:
Dan 2:13 And the decree1882 went forth5312 that the wise2445 men should be slain;6992 and they sought1156 Daniel1841 and his fellows2269 to be slain.6992
CHARAM IS NON-ISREALITES KILLING NON-ISRAELITES
When the Ammonites and Moabites were "utterly to slay" other non-Israelites, the Hebrew word charam was used:
2Ch 20:23 For the children1121 of Ammon5983 and Moab4124 stood up5975 against5921 the inhabitants3427 of mount2022 Seir,8165 utterly to slay2763 and destroy8045 them: and when they had made an end3615 of the inhabitants3427 of Seir,8165 every one376 helped5826 to destroy4889 another.7453
MUTH IS TO DIE
Gen 36:33 And Bela died, and Jobab the son of Zerah of Bozrah reigned in his stead.
MUTH MUTH IS TO PUT TO DEATH
There's a completely different word for putting to death an Israelite who commits a capital crime, and that's "muth" [#4191]:
Gen 26:11 And Abimelech charged all his people, saying, He that toucheth this man or his wife shall surely be put to death.
A primitive root; to smite with deadly intent: - destroy, out of hand, kill, murder (-er), put to [death], make [slaughter], slay (-er), X surely.
A primitive root; to slaughter an animal (usually in sacrifice): - kill, offer, (do) sacrifice, slay.
From H2490; pierced (especially to death); figuratively polluted: - kill, profane, slain (man), X slew, (deadly) wounded.
A primitive root; to parch (through drought), that is, (by analogy) to desolate, destroy, kill: - decay, (be) desolate, destroy (-er), (be) dry (up), slay, X surely, (lay, lie, make) waste.
A primitive root; to seclude; specifically (by a ban) to devote to religious uses (especially destruction); physically and reflexively to be blunt as to the nose: - make accursed, consecrate, (utterly) destroy, devote, forfeit, have a flat nose, utterly (slay, make away).
A primitive root; to slaughter (animals or men): - kill, (make) slaughter, slay.
A primitive root; to die (literally or figuratively); causatively to kill: - X at all, X crying, (be) dead (body, man, one), (put to, worthy of) death, destroy (-er), (cause to, be like to, must) die, kill, necro [-mancer], X must needs, slay, X surely, X very suddenly, X in [no] wise.
A primitive root; to push, gore, defeat, stub (the toe), inflict (a disease): - beat, dash, hurt, plague, slay, smite (down), strike, stumble, X surely, put to the worse.
A primitive root; to strike (lightly or severely, literally or figuratively): - beat, cast forth, clap, give [wounds], X go forward, X indeed, kill, make [slaughter], murderer, punish, slaughter, slay (-er, -ing), smite (-r, -ing), strike, be stricken, (give) stripes, X surely, wound.
A primitive root; to be (causatively make, pronounce or observe as) clean (ceremonially or morally): - appoint, bid, consecrate, dedicate, defile, hallow, (be, keep) holy (-er, place), keep, prepare, proclaim, purify, sanctify (-ied one, self), X wholly.
A primitive root; properly to cut off, that is, (figuratively) put to death: - kill, slay.
A primitive root; properly to dash in pieces, that is, kill (a human being), especially to murder: - put to death, kill, (man-) slay (-er), murder (-er).
A primitive root; to slaughter (in sacrifice or massacre): - kill, offer, shoot out, slay, slaughter.