Miscarriage!So ye shall not pollute the land wherein ye are: for blood it defileth the land: and the land cannot be cleansed of the blood that is shed therein, but by the blood of him that shed it. Numbers 35:33 For the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls: for it is the blood that maketh atonement by reason of the life, Leviticus 17:11
In keeping with our rejection of the common law understanding of a woman's role within the family [read: God's Law], the Court held in Danforth that the Constitution does not permit a State to require a married woman to obtain her husband's consent before undergoing an abortion. 428 U. S., at 69
By age 45, 43% of women in the United States have had at least one abortion
Roe v. Wade didn't give American women the "right" to have 42 million abortions--it simply criminalized the right of American men to object
The most recent and accurate study appears to be that of Whittaker, et. al., (20) who used sensitive early pregnancy tests to demonstrate that the overall rate of miscarriage is about 20% (i.e., 8% very early miscarriages and 12% clinically obvious miscarriages).
The overall miscarriage rate was 12.1% and the fetal loss rate was 15.2%. Four patients (25%) in the antibody-positive group developed symptoms of preeclampsia and fetal growth retardation compared with four patients (9.8%) in the antibody-negative group. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, City Hospital Ruesselsheim, Germany.
Still, a study of 15 semiconductor manufacturers published in the December 1995 issue of the American Journal of Independent Medicine showed that women working in silicon wafer manufacturing rooms who handled chemicals including glycol ethers suffered a 14% miscarriage rate, compared to women in the industry who did not work in fabrication areas, who suffered a rate of 10%. The study was conducted by researchers at the University of California at Davis and was cosponsored by the semiconductor industry. According to Neal, these findings were the primary basis for removal of glycol ethers from the workplace by the semiconductor industry.
Miscarriage Risk Slightly Higher In Flight Attendants
NEW YORK, Jun 21 (Reuters Health) -- Female flight attendants appear to have a slightly increased risk of miscarriage compared with women in other occupations, according to results of a Finnish study.
The miscarriage rate was about 12% in flight attendants who worked early in pregnancy compared with a miscarriage rate of just over 9% seen in women who lived in the same area of Finland, but were not flight attendants.
Those flight attendants who were not working during early pregnancy also had a miscarriage rate of just over 9%, according to an analysis of a subset of women aged 24 to 39. The study included a total of 967 flight attendants who worked between 1973 and 1994.
"Flight attendants who worked during early pregnancy had a slightly elevated risk of spontaneous abortion, as compared with attendants who were pregnant outside a time span of active flying," reported Dr. Rafael Aspholm, of the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, and colleagues in the June issue of the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
The group notes that the slight increase in miscarriage risk was confined to the later years of the study, 1978 through 1994. In contrast, there was no increased risk of miscarriage in the earliest years of the study from 1973 to 1977.
"Cabin crew members are exposed to a variety of physical, chemical and psychological factors that are potentially detrimental to fetal development," the investigators conclude.
Because of the way the study was designed, they were unable to determine the exact cause of the elevated risk. One possible cause is extended exposure to cosmic radiation, namely neutrons and gamma rays, which is increased during air travel.
SOURCE: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 1999;41:486-491.
Following the news that Cherie Blair, the wife of prime minister Tony Blair, is being treated in hospital following a miscarriage, BBC News Online looks at common causes for miscarriage.
What causes it?
There are a number of causes. One common reason is a genetic problem that prevents the baby from developing normally.
In some cases, the foetus does not implant properly into the lining of the womb.
Other causes include hormone imbalances in the mother or problems with a woman's immune system.
In many cases, the cause is unknown.
How common are they?
About one in four pregnancies ends in miscarriage. Sometimes this happens even before a woman knows she is pregnant.
The risk of miscarriage lessens as the pregnancy progresses. It decreases dramatically after the 8th week.
Is miscarriage more common in older women?
According to the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, women who are pregnant at the age of 25-30 have a miscarriage rate of 16%.
By the age of 40, this rises to 25%.
"Then as women get older through the next 10 years the rate goes up and up and up and would probably be at least 50% by 47 or 48," says College spokesman Peter Bowen-Simpkins.
This is because the likelihood of chromosomal abnormalities increases with age.
Do miscarriages need treatment?
Some miscarriages are complete and no surgery is needed.
In other cases, a small operation is carried out to reduce the chance of infection and to stop the bleeding.
This is done under anaesthetic and is known as a D&C (dilatation and curettage).
Are there any complications?
Very rarely, the procedure can lead to an infection of the womb lining.
This is usually treated with a course of antibiotics