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Careful comparisons: Public and private schools in America

     The following report is one of a series analyzing research findings on the quality of American public education. Is it true that private schools are superior to public schools? This report presents the numbers, analyzes the arguments, and concludes that the answer is "no." All things being equal, a good school is a good school—whether it is public or private. NSBA hopes local school board members will be able to use this report to present the facts about public education in their communities. This research effort at NSBA is being coordinated by Michael A. Resnick, associate executive director for advocacy and issues management, and Karen Anderson, director of advocacy research.
     One of the central tenets of the school voucher movement is that private schools in the United States are of much higher quality than public schools. According to voucher proponents, if students are given "vouchers" to use at private schools, they will receive a significantly better education.
     But is this true? In some very limited geographic areas, there may be as many good private as public schools, but the available evidence suggests that private schools as a whole do not necessarily outperform public schools. Given the demographics of students attending public schools, our nation’s public schools are doing an outstanding job of educating a highly diverse population. Our public schools are graduating more students than ever before, and student achievement in many areas is rising.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Schools

     The total number of private elementary and secondary schools has not changed since the late 1980s.
     As of fall 1993, there were just over 26,000 private schools in the United States. According to the National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS), 25 percent of all schools in the U.S. are private.
     However, the percentage of children enrolled in private schools is much lower (11 percent) because public schools are significantly larger.
     There are three general categories of private schools: Catholic, other religious, and non-sectarian. The majority of private schools are in the "other religious" category, with private conservative Christian academies showing the greatest growth as a group since 1980.
     According to data from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) for the 1993-94 school year, Catholic schools make up about one-third of all private schools (32 percent). Non-sectarian schools make up slightly more than 21 percent, while the "other religious" category accounts for the remaining 47 percent. Conservative Christian schools, at about 9 percent, make up the largest group within the third category.
     Although conservative Christian schools have shown the greatest rate of growth (nearly 32 percent since 1980), non-sectarian schools grew at a rate of just over 11 percent. The number of Catholic schools grew only slightly more than 2 percent between 1980 and 1990.
     In looking more closely at the universe of private schools, it is essential to note that most of them are elementary schools that serve children in grades K-8. This is important when considering expenditure factors; one of the commonly cited strengths of private schools is that they are more cost effective than public schools. Elementary education is less expensive than secondary education, whether we’re talking about public or private schools.

Students

     As of fall 1993, slightly more than 4.8 million students in the United States were enrolled in private schools, accounting for about 11 percent of the total population of elementary and secondary school students. Just over half (51 percent) of private school students are enrolled in Catholic schools.
     In terms of racial composition, are the students who attend private school similar to those who attend public school? The answer is "no."
     Seventy-eight percent of the students attending private schools in the United States are white, and the percentages of minority students attending private schools (with the exception of Asian/Pacific Islanders) is lower than that found in public schools.
     In fact, 16 percent of all private schools have no minority students, according to Private School Universe Survey, 1993-94, by NCES.
     Therefore, one fundamental difference between public and private schools can be seen in the populations served: At least in terms of racial makeup, public schools are serving a more diverse population. And they are far more likely to serve limited-English-proficient students. In fact, the general public believes that public schools do a much better job of dealing with diversity.
     Private schools, on the other hand, are more likely to serve children from wealthy families. This remains true even though many of them offer scholarships, and many lower-income families sacrifice to send their children to private school.
     For example, an Education Week article published in June about research conducted by Catholic University states that "over the past 20 years, the typical Catholic secondary school student in the United States has . . . become more likely to be financially well-off."
     Similarly, 1991 data from the U.S. Census Bureau show that more than 43 percent of students attending private elementary schools and more than 49 percent of those in private secondary schools come from high-income families.
     In contrast, only 4.7 percent of students in private elementary schools and 4.3 percent of those in private secondary schools are from low-income families.
     Considering the populations served by public and private schools, it is critical to note another essential issue: Private schools have the ability to select—and retain—their students, and they do so in a variety of ways. Public schools, by definition, do not.
     In fact, many private schools require potential students to pass an entrance exam. Just under 25 percent of all private elementary schools and more than 36 percent of all private secondary schools rely on an admissions exam. Another 18 percent of elementary and 29 percent of secondary schools use some sort of standardized test as part of their admissions process, according to NCES.
     Other private schools rely on an interview, letters of recommendation, and the child’s previous academic record to screen students. And some private schools require students to maintain good grades or adhere to disciplinary codes or their parents to be involved with the school as a condition for continued enrollment. Public schools are prohibited from setting these kinds of conditions.
     Urban students also are overrepresented among private school attendees. In urban areas, according to an analysis of urban schools conducted by NCES, 17 percent of all students attend private schools (this compares to 13 percent of suburban and 7 percent of rural students).
     Analyses of data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) indicate that public school students tend to remain in the public school system for their entire educational careers. For example, 98 percent of all public school eighth graders moved on to a public high school.
     In contrast, of the eighth graders attending private Catholic schools, more than one-third transferred to public high schools. It is the "more academically inclined" Catholic elementary school students who continue on to Catholic high schools, writes Thomas J. Kane in Holding Schools Accountable:Performance-Based Reform in Education, published by the Brookings Institution.

CHARACTERISTICS

Curriculum offerings

     In addition to serving different populations, public and private schools differ in other ways.
     Jane Hannaway, in The Organization and Management of Public and Catholic Schools:Looking Inside the "Black Box," argues that private schools focus on the interests of the individual student, while public schools "serve the wider interests of society."
     In comparing private and public secondary schools, NCES data from the Schools and Staffing Survey found few differences between the two in terms of general graduation requirements.
     Private schools do require slightly more math (2.8 years) and science (2.5 years), however, than do public schools (2.4 years of math, 2.1 of science). Private schools are more likely to require an additional year of a foreign language (1.2 years) than public schools (0.3). There are no differences in English, computer science, or social studies requirements.
     It is important to keep in mind, however, that according to data gathered by NCES for the Private School Universe Survey, 1993-94, private schools at the secondary level typically have only an academic or college preparatory program, while public schools offer a range of curricular options (vocational, general, and academic programs) to their students.
     In an NCES survey of public and private school teachers, respondents were asked to rate how much influence they had over various aspects of the school system. Private school teachers gave higher ratings than public school teachers to their own influence over curriculum offerings.
     Private school principals reported having more control over curriculum (86 percent) than did public school principals (57 percent). Principals at conservative Christian schools reported that their school boards also are highly influential in making curricular decisions.
     Researcher Adam Gamoran compared course-taking patterns for students attending public magnet schools, private secular schools, and Catholic schools. He found that although all three types of schools were similar in terms of course-taking in English, students at public magnet schools lagged behind those in the other two categories in the number of math courses they took. Students in secular private schools were likely to take the most science courses.
     Top-notch public schools, however, are more likely to offer a broad range of Advanced Placement (AP) courses, according to a widely cited article comparing public and private schools in Money magazine. (The article defines "top-notch schools" as those in the top 10 percent of all public schools and are considered as "outstanding academically" as the nation’s elite private schools.)
     In fact, data from the College Board, which oversees the AP program, shows that nearly 70 percent of all public high schools have AP programs.
     Public schools also offer a more diverse assortment of extracurricular activities, such as arts and sports programs. This is important because survey data from the 1996 Phi Delta Kappan/Gallup Poll show that when asked whether they would prefer that their child get A grades or receive average grades while being active in a range of extracurricular activities, 60 percent chose the latter. Only 28 percent of this national sample said they preferred that their child get A grades. Clearly, this is an area where public schools have an advantage over private schools—and it is an advantage that the public supports.
     In short, according to Dennis Topolnicki, the author of the Money article ("Why Private Schools Are Rarely Worth the Money"), "You get the best value for your education dollars at a top public school."

Class size

     Data from NCES shows that private school teachers have fewer students than public school teachers. The average class size is 19.6 in a private school, and 21.2 in a public school classroom. Private schools also are, on average, quite a bit smaller than public schools.
     Are smaller schools better? One educational researcher, George Conway, argues that small school size positively influences the overall culture of the school, which in turn could lead to a variety of positive outcomes for students attending private schools.
     Other researchers—Jeremy Finn and Kristen Voelkl—support the conclusion that minority children who attend smaller schools are more likely to be active participants in the classroom, keep up with their schoolwork, and participate in clubs or community activities.

Governance

     More private school principals (93 percent) say they have control over hiring policies than do public school principals (84 percent). This was particularly true for conservative Christian and other, non-Catholic schools.
     According to NECS, "Decisions about organization policy related to the educational functioning of the school tend to be more influenced by on-site personnel in private schools than in public schools." In other words, in public schools, decisions are less likely to be made at the local school level than at the district level, as compared to private schools. However, the trend in public education is toward increased site-level decision making.
     In fact, Hannaway found that public school boards have more overall influence over aspects of the school such as curriculum and hiring, than do school boards for Catholic schools.

Costs and staffing

     U.S. public schools often are wrongly criticized for spending too much money on administration. However, NCES data from its 1990-91 Schools and Staffing Survey indicate that public secondary schools actually have smaller administrative staffs than private secondary schools. The ratio for public schools is 1.7 administrative staff per 10 teachers, while the ratio for private schools is 3-10.
     In fact, unaffiliated religious schools have the highest ratio of administrators to teachers (4-10).
     Further, public schools are more likely to offer student services that may be classified as administration—such as school nurses, special education aides, and bus drivers—than private schools.
     One obvious difference between public and private schools is their source of revenue. U.S. public schools rely on a combination of federal, state, and local funds to operate. Private schools are supported by a combination of tuition payments and organizational support, as well as some local, state, and federal support.
     The highest tuition is charged by military schools and certain non-Catholic secondary schools. Catholic and conservative Christian schools charge the lowest tuition.
     Tuition has risen faster than median family income, NCES notes, making it difficult for some parents to keep up with the often high expense of private education.
     Because private schools have substantial non-tuition-based revenue sources, differences between private school tuition and public school expenditure rates cannot be compared accurately.
     Much of the costs associated with the financial administration and building maintenance at many religious private schools typically are paid by the sponsoring church via church offerings, endowment income, and private fund-raising efforts. All this can add up to a large financial boost for a private school.
     The extent to which private schools receive public funds often is overlooked. For example, federal funds must be used to educate special education students who attend private schools. Similarly, private school students who are eligible for Title I must be served, which results in funds being shifted from the local public school.
     It is difficult to ascertain how much public support in terms of actual tax dollars is received by private schools, and there is most likely a great deal of variability from state to state.
     According to a recent Washington Post article, 28 states provide transportation for private school students. Pennsylvania is one of 17 states that assist with private school textbook costs.
     And in Ohio, all private schools chartered by the state board of education are eligible to participate in state-funded programs. These programs include funds to purchase textbooks, computer software, and science equipment. The American Education Finance Association reports that, "in 1993-94, 226,629 nonpublic school pupils were served" in Ohio.
     As noted earlier, the vast majority of private schools serve students in grades K-8, and these schools are much less costly to operate than high schools. For example, the salary difference between private elementary and private secondary teachers is quite pronounced ($19,977 vs. $24,896).
     Secondary schools also have a much wider range of programs that may include such costly extras as dropout prevention, school-to-work training, and after-school athletics. Finally, the science labs and sports facilities at secondary schools make them much more costly to operate.
     In conclusion, then, one of the commonly cited strengths of private schools—that they are more cost effective—is substantially due to basic differences between how public and private schools are funded and supported and the kinds of students that are enrolled—and how their special needs are being met.

Student achievement

Test scores

     One of the arguments heard in support of private schools is that their students perform better on measures of academic achievement. Is this true?
     One of the classic pieces of evidence that is mentioned in support of the superiority of private schools is a 1982 study by James Coleman, Thomas Hoffer, and Sally Kilgore. According to their analysis, private school 10th graders performed at much higher levels than public school 10th graders.
     Coleman’s study, however, has been criticized for a number of reasons. In general, critics point out that student achievement is heavily affected by variables such as family income, the demographics of the student body at a school, and the kinds of academic course offerings. Coleman’s research did not factor out those key variables that distinguish private and public education students. All things being equal, a good school is a good school, whether it is public or private.
     Patrick Welsh, a public school teacher, reports that results from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) scores show no difference in the performance of public and private school students when family income is taken into account.
     What does appear to affect scores on achievement tests is "opportunity to learn," or having access to advanced courses in the subject matter being tested. Therefore, when private school students do score higher on achievement tests such as NAEP, it is because they have a greater opportunity to take advanced courses.
     Likewise, numerous studies over the past 20 years show that children attending Catholic schools do, on the whole, perform better on standardized tests. However, private school students are more likely to select college prep courses (78 percent) than are public school students (52 percent)—and it is this factor that leads to higher test scores.
     Other studies have shown that minority students attending Catholic schools, particularly in urban areas, appear to perform better on tests of both verbal and math achievement.
     Coleman found that the achievement gap between white and minority students in Catholic schools is significantly smaller than the gap found in public schools. His explanation for this difference is that private schools are able to create high academic expectations for children, while at the same time they provide a safer environment for instruction.
     An alternative explanation is that there are additional factors, such as parental motivation and involvement, that distinguish public and private school minority students.
     One 1996 study compared public, public magnet, and Catholic high school students on proficiency in math, social studies, reading and science skills. The author, Gamoran, found that although Catholic schools do have a positive impact on math skills, the magnet school students had higher social studies, reading, and science skills.
     Gamoran uses these data to argue against the establishment of private school choice programs. At the same time, his data argue that there should be room for creative new types of public school options. The point is, where private schools do excel, the strategy should be to replicate successful practices in public schools—rather than assume that public schools cannot do it.
     Other data cited by Anthony Bryk from the Department of Education’s High School and Beyond study indicate that parents of Catholic school students have higher average levels of education (15 years) than public school parents (14 years). Children attending Catholic schools are far less likely to come from a single-parent family (16 percent, compared to 28 percent of public school children). Both of these factors affect a child’s academic achievement.
     Finally, John F. Witte emphasizes that "private school enrollment is related to higher family socioeconomic status . . . and greater educational resources in the home."
     That factor has been found to be an important indicator of student achievement. For example, data from the Milwaukee Choice Program indicates that children enrolled in private schools had parents who had higher levels of educational expectations for their children than did public school parents at the same income level.

ACT exam scores

     A 1996 doctoral dissertation conducted by Thomas A. Sunderbruch at the University of Iowa compared ACT college entrance exam scores for public and Catholic school students in Iowa who were matched on a range of non-school based individual variables, such as gender and family income.
     Sixty-four percent of Iowa’s graduating seniors take the ACT exam. Sunderbruch found that when controlling for these individual variables, there were no significant differences in scores on the ACT between public and Catholic school students. This study provides important further evidence that private schools are not necessarily "better" than public schools.
     (We need to keep in mind, however, that these results may not generalize to other states. For example, Iowa is not a typical state in that a much larger percentage of high school graduates go on to college than the national average.)

Dropout rates

     Catholic schools lead all other schools in terms of low school dropout rates (3.4 percent), as compared to public schools (14 percent) or other private schools (12 percent). Even when controlling for family income and other variables, the Catholic schools appear to do a better job of keeping kids in school until graduation.
     Undoubtedly, much of this success has to do with the ability of Catholic schools to screen out or reject students who might be more likely to drop out, as well as the smaller size of most Catholic schools, the higher degree of parental involvement, and the higher percentage of college-bound students.

Expectations

     The NELS data offer the opportunity to look more closely at other differences between public and private school students. One of the questions asked of the eighth graders had to do with highest educational degree they expect to attain.
     Fifty-nine percent of eighth graders attending Catholic schools and 68 percent of students at other private schools expect to attain a graduate degree, compared to only 34 percent of students at public high schools. However, once again, this analysis does not take into account family income, parents’ education, or other family background variables that influence educational aspirations.

College attendance

     NELS data indicate that public school graduates are somewhat less likely to attend a postsecondary institution (a public or private four-year institution, public two-year institution, or a trade/technical program) full time than private school students.
     In general, Catholic high schools send a greater percentage of students to college than public schools. This is particularly true when considering enrollment figures for four-year institutions; Catholic school graduates are about twice as likely to attend a four-year college as public school graduates. Again, however, it is important to note that these figures do not control for family background variables.

Teachers and principals

     According to the NCES Schools and Staffing Survey, there are no differences between public and private school teachers in terms of the number of hours they work each week. Public school teachers work an average of 33 hours a week, private school teachers, 34.

Teacher salaries

     As has been well documented in previous research and media reports, public school teachers make a great deal more money than private school teachers. These differences hold true for both new and experienced teachers. Public schools also offer better health and pension benefits to their teaching staffs.
     Why pay attention to salary differences? Clearly, higher salaries are important in attracting—and keeping—high-quality teachers. Additionally, high salaries also are linked to higher levels of education and experience.

Level of education

     One clear difference between the staff members at public and private schools is their level of education. Public secondary school principals, for example, are far more likely to have an advanced graduate degree.
     To quote from the NCES report, How Different? How Similar?, "almost one-third of private school principals have a bachelor’s degree or less, while few public school principals have less than a graduate degree."
     However, Catholic secondary school principals are more likely to have graduate degrees than other private secondary school principals. (The percentage of Catholic secondary school principals that have graduate degrees is about equal to the percentage of public secondary school principals.)
     Similar results are found when comparing teaching staffs. Private school teachers are less likely to be certified and are less likely to have obtained a graduate degree. Private school teachers, as a group, are also less experienced than public school teachers and are more likely to leave the teaching profession than are public school teachers.
     NCES reported that in 1988-89, just over 5 percent of public school teachers left the profession, while nearly 12 percent of private school teachers left. Additionally, those private school teachers who left were far more likely to find work outside of education.
     In short, the professional staff at public schools is better educated, more experienced, and better paid.
     Because previous research has demonstrated that outstanding teachers have 16 to 20 years of experience and an education level equal to or beyond the master’s degree, we can conclude that public school teachers are likely to be more effective teachers.

Teachers’ choices

     One of the most pervasive myths about the presumed superiority of private schools is that many public school teachers send their own children to private schools.
     Is it true? No, according to Albert Shanker, the late president of the American Federation of Teachers. Based on data collected by Denis Doyle, he wrote that public school teachers choose public schools far more often than other families in the same income bracket.
     For families in the $30,000—$70,000 income bracket, 12 percent of public school teachers (compared to 15 percent of all families) have a child in a private school. For families with incomes above $70,000, 15 percent of public school teachers send a child to private school, compared to 24 percent for all families.
     More generally, public school teachers also choose public schools more often than the general public (12 percent vs. 13 percent). Additionally, of those teachers who do send a child to private school, one third of them also have a child attending a public school.
     According to Shanker, "that means that 92 percent of all public school teacher families send some or all of their children to public schools, compared with 90 percent of the public." Polling data from Public Agenda indicate that 66 percent of public school teachers view public schools as superior to private schools. According to Shanker, three-fourths of private school teachers send at least one of their children to public schools. Two-thirds of all private school teachers send all of their children to public school.
     In conclusion, then, there is no evidence to support the myth that teachers are more likely to send their own children to private schools.

POLLING DATA

     What does the general public think about public vs. private schools? Survey data from a 1995 study conducted by the Public Agenda Foundation indicates that the public thinks private schools have higher academic standards (53 percent vs. 24 percent for public schools), are safer (51 percent vs. 20 percent), and are more likely to promote "honesty and responsibility" (54 percent vs. 17 percent).
     On the other hand, the general public saw public schools as far more likely to provide a better education to children with special needs (51 percent vs. 23 percent for private schools) and to give children experiences with people from diverse backgrounds (53 percent vs. 22 percent).
     Additionally, only one-third of all respondents believe that private school teachers are better than public school teachers.
     When Public Agenda asked the same questions to parents, the margins were narrower. Nevertheless, more parents said private schools are more likely to promote honesty and responsibility (46 percent vs. 19 percent), and to provide a safer environment for learning (same percentages).
     Parents were more likely than the general public to believe that public schools do a better job of educating special needs kids (49 percent vs. 22 percent) and teaching children how to deal with people from diverse backgrounds (54 percent vs. 19 percent).
     Clearly then, although the public schools are seen as doing some things well, there are other places where private schools are seen as superior by parents and the general public.

How You Can Use This Information

  1. Get to know the students, families, and staff associated with the private schools in your community. Strong relations with private schools may help if instances of "public school bashing" occur. Private schools can be important allies.
  2. Discover the potential sources of funding available in your community and state for private schools. This is an important qualifier when someone suggests that private schools are better or more cost effective than public schools.
  3. Look at socioeconomic and demographic trends in your community. Who attends private schools? Who does not? How is this population different from that attending public schools? If your community attempts to initiate a voucher plan, would such a voucher be adequate to meet the costs of attending a private school in your area? Make sure to get the word out!
  4. Show how public education is an integral part of the community. Public school buildings typically are used by other community groups, and public school students (like private school students) often are involved with community service projects. Public schools serve as focal points for the community.
  5. Focus on the special programs that are a part of your public school system and highlight their successes. Does your high school have an outstanding vocational education program? Is your district doing innovative things to help low-income students? What about extracurricular and social service programs in your schools? Make sure the public knows about these programs, as they are not likely to exist at private schools.
  6. Don’t allow debates about the merits of private schools to build support for voucher programs. One of the arguments given in support of vouchers is that the education a child receives at a private school is better than that received at a public school. Learn the facts. Profile the diversity of needs among your student body.
  7. Look at the laws regulating public schools and private schools in your state. Both the Kansas Association of School Boards and the Ohio School Boards Association have done this to highlight the dramatic differences in how states fund and regulate the two types of schools.
  8. Change the terms of the debate. The fundamental conflict should not be public vs. private schools—it should be good vs. bad schools.

Summary

bulletEleven percent of all school-age children attend private schools. The private school population is less diverse than that in public schools—in part because private schools have the ability to accept and reject students, while public schools do not.
bulletPrivate and public schools have highly similar graduation requirements, although private school teachers say they have more influence over curriculum offerings than teachers at public schools. Public schools, however, offer a wider range of Advanced Placement and vocational education/work preparation classes.
bulletIn general, private schools tend to be smaller than public schools, which may positively affect student outcomes.
bulletPublic and private schools have very different sources of revenue, with private schools charging tuition and receiving institutional support. Additionally, private schools also receive public funds for various purposes, such as transportation and special education. That makes tuition alone a misleading indicator of private school revenues.
bulletPublic school teachers earn higher salaries and are more likely to have an advanced degree than teachers at private schools, making them more effective teachers.
bulletBoth public and private school teachers are more likely to send one or more of their own children to a public school than to a private school.
bulletThe issue of whether private school students perform better on achievement tests is unclear. Some studies indicate that there are no differences between public and private school students. Others show that private schools produce higher test scores. However, this is related to the fact that private school students come from more advantaged backgrounds.
bulletThere are other academic indicators where private schools do appear to be ahead of public schools, such as dropout rates and college attendance rates. Private schools, however, are selective by nature—and this helps explain the differences.
bulletThe public believes private schools are stronger on academics, but that public schools are more diverse learning environments and provide better options to special needs children.
bulletThere are two variables that seem to account for the presumed superiority of private schools. These two variables, family income and school size, are what matter—not whether a school is public or private. In fact, we believe that where we do see benefits to private education, they should be replicated in public schools.

 

Racial/ethnic background of
public and private school students—1993-94 (percent)
  Public Private
White 67.3 77.9
Black 16.3 9.3
Hispanic 11.9 8.0
Native American 1.1 0.6
Asian/Pacific Islander 3.4 4.1
Limited English Proficient 5.1 1.0

 

Average base salaries for full-time teachers—1993-94
  Public Private
Total $34,135 $21,968
Elementary $33,517 $19,977
Secondary $34,815 $24,896

 

Number and percent of private schools and students by category—1993-94
  Schools Enrollment
Characteristic Number Percent Number Percent
Total 26,093   4,836,442  
Religious orientation        
Roman Catholic 8,331 31.9 2,488,101 51.4
Amish 405 1.6 12,100 0.3
Assembly of God 507 1.9 69,992 1.5
Baptist 1,990 7.6 271,931 5.6
Christian (unspecified) 2,416 9.3 341,305 7.1
Church of Christ 178 0.7 41,875 0.9
Church of God 123 0.5 13,190 0.3
Episcopal 349 1.3 88,079 1.8
Jewish 647 2.5 171,214 3.5
Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod 1,042 4.0 155,168 3.2
Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod 373 1.4 36,538 0.8
Mennonite 470 1.8 27,028 0.6
Pentecostal 425 1.6 28,985 0.6
Seventh-Day Adventist 1,072 4.1 67,034 1.4
Other 2,399 9.0 174,056 7.3
Non-sectarian        
Exceptional children (disabled) 713 2.7 55,203 1.1
Montessori 693 2.7 45,303 0.9
Other non-sectarian 4,136 15.9 618,255 12.8
[Numbers might not add to totals because of rounding.]
 

TRAITOR McCain

jewn McCain

ASSASSIN of JFK, Patton, many other Whites

killed 264 MILLION Christians in WWII

killed 64 million Christians in Russia

holocaust denier extraordinaire--denying the Armenian holocaust

millions dead in the Middle East

tens of millions of dead Christians

LOST $1.2 TRILLION in Pentagon
spearheaded torture & sodomy of all non-jews
millions dead in Iraq

42 dead, mass murderer Goldman LOVED by jews

serial killer of 13 Christians

the REAL terrorists--not a single one is an Arab

serial killers are all jews

framed Christians for anti-semitism, got caught
left 350 firemen behind to die in WTC

legally insane debarred lawyer CENSORED free speech

mother of all fnazis, certified mentally ill

10,000 Whites DEAD from one jew LIE

moser HATED by jews: he followed the law

f.ck Jesus--from a "news" person!!

1000 fold the child of perdition

 

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