THE PEOPLE V. RUGGLES


 

RUGGLES WAS DISTRIBUTING LITERATURE SAYING JESUS WAS A BASTARD AND HIS MOTHER WAS A WHORE
THIS WAS IN 1811

HE WAS CHARGED WITH AN ATTACK ON THE NATION
THE REASONING BEING IS THAT AN ATTACK ON JESUS WAS AN ATTACK ON CHRISTIANITY
AN ATTACK ON CHRISTIANITY IS AN ATTACK ON A CHRISTIAN NATION
AND SINCE WE WERE A CHRISTIAN NATION
IT WAS AN ATTACK ON US
HE WAS FINED 300 DOLLARS AND GIVEN 5 MONTH IN JAIL


[8:55:11 AM]  RUGGLES WAS DISTRIBUTING LITERATURE SAYING JESUS WAS A BASTARD AND HIS MOTHER WAS A WHORE
[8:55:20 AM] THIS WAS IN 1811
[8:55:30 AM] HE WAS CHARGED WITH AN ATTACK ON THE NATION
[8:55:53 AM] THE REASONING BEING IS THAT AN ATTACK ON JESUS WAS AN ATTACK ON CHRISTIANITY
[8:56:05 AM] AN ATTACK ON CHRISTIANITY IS AN ATTACK ON A CHRISTIAN NATION
[8:56:15 AM] AND SINCE WE WERE A CHRISTIAN NATION
[8:56:21 AM] IT WAS AN ATTACK ON US
[8:57:00 AM]  HE WAS FINED 300 DOLLARS AND GIVEN 5 MONTH IN JAIL

 

 

The People v. Ruggles

1811 NY The People v. Ruggles, 8 Johns 545 (Sup Ct N.Y. 1811) a Blasphemy case is cited 12 times in The Myth of Separation
Legal analysis and writing by Susan Batte, Esq.

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Major claims by Barton in his publications:

From The Myth of Separation, page 55-58, Barton writes:

This case was not only cited in the previous case, it was also the second case cited in Holy Trinity. The offense and surrounding facts are described from the case:

The defendant was indicted ... in December, 1810, for that he did, on the 2nd day of September, 1810 ... wickedly, maliciously, and blasphemously, utter, and with a loud voice publish, in the presence and hearing of divers good and Christian people, of and concerning the Christian religion, and of and concerning Jesus Christ, the false, scandalous, malicious, wicked and blasphemous words following: "Jesus Christ was a bastard, and his mother must be a whore," in contempt of the Christian religion. .. . The defendant was tried and found guilty, and was sentenced by the court to be imprisoned for three months, and to pay a fine of $500.

The attorney for the prisoner presented his defense:

There are no statutes concerning religion.... The constitution allows a free toleration to all religions and all kinds of worship.. .. Judaism and Mahometanism may be preached here, without any legal animadversion. . .. The prisoner may have been a Jew, a Mahometan, or a Socinian: and if so, he had a right, by the constitution, to declare his opinions.

The prosecuting attorney countered:

While the constitution of the State has saved the rights of conscience, and allowed a free and fair discussion of all points of controversy among religious sects, it has left the principal engrafted on the body of our common law, that Christianity is part of the laws of the State, untouched and unimpaired.

The Chief Justice of the New York Supreme Court during this case was Chancellor James Kent, author of Commentaries on American Law. There were few purely American legal precedents or writings in the young nation on which to rely in its early years; consequently, lawyers and judges studied and applied the writings of Sir William Blackstone, an English judge and author of Blackstone's Commentaries on the Law. However, as time progressed and experience accumulated in the young nation, American writings and standards were developed. These were due, in large part, to the four-volume work written by James Kent: Commentaries on American Law. Kent's writings, while heavily dependent upon Blackstone, eventually replaced Blackstone's as the standard in America.

In addition to producing his Commentaries. Kent also originated the practice of written decisions in New York. After his years in that state's supreme court, he went on to a nine-year term as the head of the Court of Chancery--a specialized court dealing with complicated and intricate situations that regular courts were unable to handle. James Kent was much more than an average judge in a northeastern state--he was one of the premier individuals in the development of legal practice in the United States. His words on law carry significant weight and importance. Notice his decision in this case:

Such words uttered with such a disposition were an offense at common law. In Taylor's case the defendant was convicted upon information of speaking similar words, and the Court . . . said that Christianity was parcel of the law, and to cast contumelious reproaches upon it, tended to weaken the foundation of moral obligation, and the efficacy of oaths. And in the case of Rex v. Woolston, on a like conviction, the Court said . . . that whatever strikes at the root of Christianity tends manifestly to the dissolution of civil government. . . . The authorities show that blasphemy against God and . . . profane ridicule of Christ or the Holy Scriptures (which are equally treated as blasphemy), are offenses punishable at common law, whether uttered by words or writings . . . because it tends to corrupt the morals of the people, and to destroy good order. Such offenses have always been considered independent of any religious establishment or the rights of the Church. They are treated as affecting the essential interests of civil society. . . .

We stand equally in need, now as formerly, of all the moral discipline, and of those principles of virtue, which help to bind society together. The people of this State, in common with the people of this country, profess the general doctrines of Christianity, as the rule of their faith and practice; and to scandalize the author of these doctrines is not only ... impious, but . . . is a gross violation of decency and good order. Nothing could be more offensive to the virtuous part of the community, or more injurious to the tender morals of the young, than to declare such profanity lawful.. ..

The free, equal, and undisturbed enjoyment of religious' opinion, whatever it may be, and free and decent discussions on any religious subject, is granted and secured; but to revile ... the religion professed by almost the whole community, is an abuse of that right. . . . We are a Christian people, and the morality of the country is deeply engrafted upon Christianity, and not upon the doctrines or worship of those impostors [other religions].. .. [We are] people whose manners ... and whose morals have been elevated and inspired . . . by means of the Christian religion.

Though the constitution has discarded religious establishments, it does not forbid judicial cognizance of those offenses against religion and morality which have no reference to any such establishment. . . . This [constitutional] declaration (noble and magnanimous as it is, when duly understood) never meant to withdraw religion in general, and with it the best sanctions of moral and social obligation from all consideration and notice of the law. . . . To construe it as breaking down the common law barriers against licentious, wanton, and impious attacks upon Christianity itself, would be an enormous perversion of its meaning. . . . Christianity, in its enlarged sense, as a religion revealed and taught in the Bible, is not unknown to our law. . . . The Court are accordingly of opinion that the judgment below must be affirmed:

[that blasphemy against God, and contumelious reproaches, and profane ridicule of Christ or the Holy Scriptures, are offenses punishable at the common law, whether uttered by words or writings].

These are powerful words, written by one of the fathers of American legal practice! His specific statement concerning Christianity and the Constitution bears repeating:

To construe it [the Constitutional as breaking down the common law barriers against licentious, wanton, and impious attacks upon Christianity itself, would be an enormous perversion of its meaning.

In Addition:

On page 248 of his The Myth of Separation, David Barton provides us with a highly edited quotation from The People v. Ruggles, an 1811 decision by the Supreme Court of the State of New York. The case involved a man arrested for publicly criticizing the Christian religion. Barton quotes the decision (written by Chief Justice James Kent) as follows:

Offenses against religion and morality...strike at the root of moral obligation, and weaken the security of the social ties.... This [First Amendment] declaration...never meant to withdraw religion...and with it the best sanctions of moral and social obligation from all consideration and notice of the law.

For more information on this case, please see: Did the Supreme Court of New York, in an 1811 decision, ever say that the First Amendment was "never meant to withdraw religion...from all consideration and notice of the law?"

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Legal analysis and writing by Susan Batte, Esq.

  1. The number of prosecutions [for blasphemy] was so few and the records so sparse that the prosecutions seem unlikely, inexplicable.

  2. The American temperament looked askance at prosecutions for bad opinions.

  3. Appellate records exist, though appellate decisions on blasphemy occur infrequently. In the American Judicial system, trial courts are courts of record; however, rarely is a trial court judge called upon to render an opinion for publication. The practice has become more common these days, but the effect of such trial court opinions is the same. In our legal system, trial court opinions have no precedent value. Such opinions exist only to serve the particular court from which it originates, and even then, if a court contains more than one court room and more than one judge, opinions may vary from courtroom to courtroom.

  4. Kent is considered the American version of Blackstone, and since opinion in People v. Ruggles exists as the first reported state case on blasphemy, there has to be some suspicion that he heard the appeal simply to give him the opportunity to write about his interpretation of blasphemy law in America. I imagine such an event would occasion a great deal of publicity.

  5. A case of first impression in New York means that People v. Ruggles would have to rely on persuasive authority only. That is, no law would particularly require Kent to follow certain legal precedent. If another state had heard a blasphemy case, those opinions could only be used to Persuade Kent to follow their view. As it was, no other state case existed, so Kent quite naturally turned to English law.

  6. It is curious that no records of People v. Ruggles exist and that we do not even know the first name of Ruggles. This leads me to believe even more so that the case was merely a vehicle for Kent to vent on views he knew were bound to cause a stir and rustle up some publicity for him.

  7. The opinions presented to the court were 1) they could have created a common law principle that blasphemy could not be prosecuted because such prosecutions conflicted with the state constitutional guarantee of religious liberty. 2) They could have rejected the English law concept of Blasphemy. 3) They could have found that Ruggles remarks were protected under free speech guarantees in the state constitution.

  8. Kent as ultra-Federalist: Because Kent was an ultra federalist, he viewed the constitutional protections guaranteed under the Federal Constitution and Bill of Rights as pertaining to limitations on the Federal government only. In addition, the reservation of rights to the states (10th amendment) would have allowed Kent as a State court judge, to write his only law concerning religion, religious establishments, and criminal punishment for reviling the Christian religion.

  9. More cases concerning Sunday laws ( laws prohibiting labor or employment on Sundays, and preventing recovery for injuries inflicted on Sunday if the person injured engaged in any activity outside the charitable exception) than blasphemy in the time period prior to the beginning of the 20th century.

  10. In New York, prior to Ruggles, Sunday laws existed, but there were no other statutes concerning religion, nor were there any cases (common law) decided in New York courts concerning Christianity, religion, etc.

  11. The issue was "Whether blasphemy constituted an offense, absent a statute criminalizing it. This means that either the judge had to have a case presented before him which had decided to criminalize blasphemy, or the judge had to declare that after thoroughly examining any and all sources available to him (legal and non-legal) he had discovered that blasphemy was in fact criminalized and punishable. Often times, judges would use analogy I and if one set of behaviors had been found to be criminal and these behaviors were similar to the ones complained of in the indictment, then criminal behavior could be discovered and the defendant punished.

  12. Kent however decided that where no statute from his own legislature existed to guide him, he was free to follow English Common law. After all there was a provision in his constitution which had adopted English common law (except such alterations as the legislature might make, and excluding all part of the common law "as may be construed to establish or maintain any particular denomination of Christians). That was his out from being bound by English Common Law had he really wanted an out, because making it a crime to denounce one religion (in this case Christianity) while not declaring it a crime against any and all religions did in fact establish Christianity, perhaps not any particular denomination, but rather Christianity as a whole, in an official and legal sense. His decision in Ruggles could accurately be said to violate the New York State Constitution.

  13. Ruggles' lawyer probably did not try to argue that blasphemy if part of the common Law adopted from English common law should be excluded because it tended to establish a denomination of Christians for several reasons. 1) Reverence of English common law - American lawyers depended heavily on the training they received in the Blackstone tradition. 2) The act of blasphemy did not attack a particular denomination of Christianity, and therefore, a law punishing blasphemy could be found not to establish a Christian sect.

  14. Kent decided that the defendant's actions violated common law and cited English cases. And Kent found that the offense of blasphemy existed independently of England's establishment of the Anglican church; (an important point that he had to declare, although since English Common Law developed under and within the framework of union of civil/religious it is hard to imagine that his opinion is correct) therefore, the offense works in America which did not have an established church.

  15. Rationale: promotes virtuousness, decency and good order and protected the acknowledged religion of the community. (notice avoidance of the word "state" or "country")

  16. Kent found that only Christianity could be "reviled", and that other religions were not protected by the blasphemy statute. He was favoring Christianity over all other religions by allowing that the blasphemy only protected Christianity

  17. Ohio had a similar state constitutional guarantee of religious liberty, (the Ohio Constitution of that period of time was very similar to that of New York) and its high court decided that
    Christianity is a part of the common law of England, but, under the provisions of our constitution, neither Christianity nor any other system of religion is a part of the law of this state. (Bloom v Cornelius; December Term, 1853; Ohio Supreme Court)
    This also tends to show that there were other motives at stake when Kent wrote his opinion, especially in light of the fact that there appeared to be a recognizable Jewish community in New York.

  18. People v. Ruggles did not cause prosecutors to seek out and prosecute blasphemers. But as evidenced in the 1821 constitutional convention, Kent's views were not accepted without controversy. Erastus Root moved for an amendment to eliminate the law created by the Ruggles case. AND KENT VOTED FOR IT! The amendment allowed that "It shall not be declared or adjudged that any particular religion to be the law of the land." Hence, if religion could not be declared a part of the common law, then blasphemy would cease to be a punishable offense.

  19. Then twelve days later, Ambrose Spencer (the chief justice) moved to have Root's clause deleted, backed by RUFUS KING (one of the framers of the U.S. Constitution). Kent offered that his opinion did not declare Christianity to be the legal religion of the state. While on the surface this may have been true, in fact, it was the only religion that triggered the offense of blasphemy. Kent then changed his vote - and put in with Rufus King and Spencer and killed Root's amendment.

  20. The case continued to cause controversy, but few convictions for blasphemy.

From: Jon Moseley [mailto:ruthercap@earthlink.net]
Sent: Monday, April 16, 2007 10:24 AM
To: Jacob Israel; 'Virginia F. Raines'; 'x-915552'
Cc: 'Jon Moseley'; 'Kannan Devan'; 'EVE DEMIAN'; 'Peter Marshall'; 'Henri the Celt'; 'Visharad Sharma'; 'Gavin Oughton'; 'Angel'; 'German Vilella Coll'; beddome@commspeed.net; borg23us@yahoo.com; 'Foppe Dykstra'; 'Hugh Caddess'; 'Holland Holland'; 'Kid Kid'; 'rodger davis'; Alihasan222@aol.com; FRANFirKKJV@aol.com; 'abidhusein hemraj'; ahvenkitesh@gmail.com; alexjamesnews2@gmail.com; 'Ardeshir Mehta'; jk@christianparty.net; jk@jacobisrael.us; 'Asif Iqbal'; 'YAYA'; Mnaquvi@yahoo.com; 'Dick Eastman'; pk4318@yahoo.com; 'Richard Niemela'; 'Rishi Dwivedi'; shaikh_hyder@yahoo.com; 'Shariq Mirza'
Subject: Re: see People vs Ruggle, Hansen DID lie again: TALMUD does NOT SAY THAT

Yes it is OVER-RULED  by    New York Times  vs. Sullivan.   It is obsolete.  Any such statute CANNOT be enforced today.

I have personally seen a judge refuse to enforce a law restricting speech, saying that the law on the books is unconstitutional.

DENYING THE HOLOCAUST WOULD BE A CRIME IN THE UNITED STATES, EXCEPT THAT  NEW YORK TIMES V. SULLIVAN MAKES IT UNCONSTITUTIONAL TO RESTRICT  FREEDOM OF SPEECH.

If it were possible to prosecute blasphemy   IT WOULD ALSO BE A CRIME TO DENY THE HOLOCAUST IN THE UNITED STATES.

THE ONLY REASON IT IS NOT A CRIME TO DENY THE HOLOCAUST IN THE USA, IS THAT THE CONSTITUTION DOES NOT ALLOW RESTRICTIONS ON FREE SPEECH.

ALL OF YOU CLOWNS  would be in jail if it were possible to restrict free speech.

 

However,   People v. Ruggles   HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH THE TALMUD.

THIS IS MORE EVIDENCE OF THE SLOPPY THINKING OF ANTI-SEMITES.

 

As this reply is so far over the line, this author will no longer communicate with the kike calling itself “jon Moseley”, so this reply is written in the third person.

First of all this evil scumbag slut must get its slurs straight.  According to Scripture, AND jew writings, WE ARE Semites and jews are NOT.  How can a Semite be an “anti-Semite”?  He can’t be.

Second of all, NO JUDGE can over-rule GOD’S LAW, nor the US Constitution’s FIRST AMENDMENT RIGHT TO FREE EXERCISE OF RELIGION for the 93% of Americans who CLAIM to be Christians.

Third of all, there is NOTHING in God’s Law that says we must honor the 1.9% of the population who are evil scumbag edomite kikes who brutally murdered Jesus with a law that says that “denying the holocaust” is blasphemy but, calling Jesus the illegitimate offspring of the Roman soldier Pandira who raped Mary who was hanged on a stake for blasphemy, thrown on a dung heap, and is now boiling in hot excrement, is NOT blasphemy.

Fourth of all, by considering this EVIL form of blasphemy of Our LORD and Savior Jesus Christ to be even CLOSE in severity to “denying the holocaust”, this kike has elevated JEWS to a position higher than GOD, a blasphemy of the NAME of the LORD for which He will and MUST punish it SEVERELY:

And he that blasphemeth the name of the LORD, he shall surely be put to death, and all the congregation shall certainly stone him: as well the stranger, as he that is born in the land, when he blasphemeth the name of the LORD, shall be put to death.

Leviticus 24:16

 

 

Lastly, the ONLY reason a kike would do what Ruggles did is because of the TALMUD.  There’s NO OTHER WAY for a human being [and I use that term loosely in reference to these kikes] to have deduced such a SICK AND HATEFUL campaign against Jesus [and thus AGAINST THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA] without it.

 

 

It’s almost incomprehensible to this author that this kike would even TRY to put “holocaust denial” on the same level as blasphemy of the NAME of the LORD, and blasphemy of Our LORD and Savior  Jesus Christ.  Almost-- but not quite.

 

 

http://www.biblebb.com/files/HERITAGE.HTM

SUPREME COURT - 1811 - PEOPLE VS RUGGLES

 

There was a man who made attacks on Jesus in such a blasphemous way that it made it to the Supreme Court and the court ruled: "Whatever strikes at the root of Christianity tends manifestly to the dissolution of civil government." They reasoned that if you attack Jesus, you have attacked Christianity, & if you have attacked Christianity, you have attacked the foundation of the U.S., therefore an attack on Jesus or Christianity was equivalent to an attack on the foundation of the U.S.

 

 

http://www.historians.org/info/AHA_History/jjay.htm

"The State of New York," Dr. Schaff reminds us, "had virtually dis-established the Episcopal Church in 1777, one year after the declaration of independence, by repealing in its constitution all statutes and acts which 'might be construed to establish or maintain any particular denomination of Christians and their ministers'; and it ordained that 'the free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship without discrimination or preference shall forever hereafter be allowed within this State to all mankind.'" In the leading case in New York, of The People vs. Ruggles, quoted by Dr. Schaff--when Chancellor Kent delivered the opinion of the court, with the approval of a full bench, including the eminent names of Smith Thompson, Ambrose Spencer, William Van Ness, and Joseph C. Yates--the court held that by the common law now in force here as in England, and wholly irrespective of any question of church establishment, contemptuous words uttered maliciously against Christ or the Holy Scriptures are an offence affecting the essential interests of civil society, where Christianity is recognized as a part of the law and the religion of the people.

 

 

 

http://www.worthynews.com/america.html

 

SUPREME COURT - 1811 - PEOPLE VS RUGGLES

There was a man who made attacks on Jesus in such a blasphemous way that it made it to the Supreme Court and the court ruled: "Whatever strikes at the root of Christianity tends manifestly to the dissolution of civil government." They reasoned that if you attack Jesus, you have attacked Christianity, & if you have attacked Christianity, you have attacked the foundation of the U.S., therefore an attack on Jesus or Christianity was equivalent to an attack on the foundation of the U.S.

 

 

http://www.renewamerica.us/columns/thompson/050914

In 1811 a case (People vs. Ruggles) came to the Court which dealt with a man who had gone into a fit of profanity. It was not a moment of anger or temporary loss of control, for he had taken the time to write it out and distribute it. It maliciously and capriciously attacked Jesus Christ in the vilest of terms. The Court explained the problems with his writings: an attack on Jesus Christ was an attack on Christianity; and an attack on Christianity was an attack on the foundation of the country; therefore, an attack on Jesus Christ was an equivalent to an attack on the country! The man was sentenced to 3 months in prison and a fine of $500.00 (a princely sum in those days) for attacking the country by attacking Jesus Christ.

The question begs then, did the Supreme Court recognize the United States as a Christian nation? Well, in 1892 the US Supreme Court made this ruling in a case. (Church of The Holy Trinity vs. The United States.) "No purpose of action against religion can be imputed to any legislation, state or national, because this is a religious people. This is a Christian nation."

What are We the People to do?

It's no big secret. True patriots need to unite and start brushfires of freedom wherever we live, throughout the country.

We need to attend our city council and county board meetings and speak out.

We need to car and bus pool to our state capitols to put great pressure on our state legislators.

We need to call, write, email and visit our U.S. representatives and senators and demand that they impeach and throw out any and all judges who dare undermine the principles of the Constitution.

If we make such efforts often and consistently our elected officials and the elites of our society will eventually get the message that they need to take very seriously their oath to uphold, at all levels of government, the Constitution of the United Sates of America.

 

 

http://userpages.aug.com/bbarnes/Lessons/AGHeritage1.htm

People vs. Ruggles, 1811: "Whatever strikes at the root of Christianity tends manifestly to the dissolution of civil government."

What did "free speech" used to mean?

What does the First Amendment say?

 

 

http://www.three-peaks.net/annette/Godly.htm

1811 – People vs. Ruggles: “Whatever strikes at the root of Christianity tends manifestly to the dissolution of civil government.”   In this case a man became profane about Jesus Christ and the bible both written and spoken.  The courts said it was blasphemy and the man was fined $500.00 and jailed for 3 months.  The court said if you’ve attacked Jesus Christ you have attacked Christianity.  If you attack Christianity, you have attacked the foundation of the US.  Therefore, it is an attack on the US.

 

http://www.lawandliberty.org/founders.htm

 

It is more than just interesting to note that whenever the founding fathers wrote about "religion", they almost always were referring to "Christianity". Nearly a hundred years later, in the U.S. Supreme Court case of Church of the Holy Trinity vs. U.S.(1892) cited 87 historical precedents in its conclusion that, "Our laws and institutions must necessarily be based upon and embody the teachings of the Redeemer of mankind. It is impossible that it should be otherwise. In this sense and to this extent, our civilization and our institutions are emphatically Christian." (italics mine) Although we hear much today about "the separation of church and state" , you will not find that phrase or that intent in the U.S. constitution. In fact, in an 1811 U.S. Supreme Court case (People vs.Ruggles) the court declared against a man for profaning Jesus Christ and the Bible, ruling that "whatever strikes at the root of Christianity tends manifestly to the dissolution of civil government."

 

http://incolor.inebraska.com/stuart/court.htm

There was a man who made attacks on Jesus in such a blasphemous way that it made it to the Supreme Court and the court ruled:
Whatever strikes at the root of Christianity tends manifestly to the dissolution of civil government.
People vs Ruggles, 1811

A Philadelphia school wanted to teach morals without using the Bible. The Court said :
Why may not the Bible, and especially the New Testament, be read and taught as a divine revelation in the schools? Where can the purest principals of morality be learned so clearly or perfectly as from the N.T.
Vidal vs Girard, 1844

 

http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1175441/posts

1811 – People vs. Ruggles

The Supreme Court Stated:

“Whatever strikes at the root of Christianity tends to manifestly to the dissolution of civil government.”

In this particular case, the person responsible for the suit in a written statement had committed blasphemy against Jesus Christ. In the eyes of the Court, they interpreted the blasphemy as an attack on the United States and thus rewarded the person a $500.00 fine plus 3 months in prison.

 

 

http://www.missiontoisrael.org/gods-covenant-people/chapter8.php

For stating: "Jesus Christ was a bastard and his mother was a whore," the Jewish defendant was convicted of the common-law crime of blasphemy in the 18 11 New York case People vs. Ruggles. The following is part of Chancellor James Kent's opinion:

The people of this State [New York] in common with the people of this country, profess the general doctrines of Christianity ... to scandalize the author [Yhshua the Christ] of these doctrines is not only in a religious point of view, extremely impious, but even in respect of the obligations due to society, in gross violation of decency and good order....

The free, equal and undisturbed enjoyment of religious opinion, whatever it may be, and free and decent discussion on any religious subject, is granted and secured; but to revile with malicious and blasphemous contempt the [Christian] religion professed by almost the whole community, is an abuse of that right. Nor are we bound, by any expressions in the constitution, as some have strangely supposed, either not to punish at all, or to punish indiscriminately the like attacks upon the religion of Mahomet or of the Grand Lama, and for this plain reason, that the case assumes that we [Americans] are a Christian people, and the morality of the country is deeply ingrafted upon Christianity and not upon the doctrines or worship of those [Jewish, Muslim and other] imposters.72

In a nearly identical case regarding blasphemy, the 1837 decision handed down by Chief Justice John Middleton Clayton in The State [of Delaware] vs. Thomas Jefferson Chandler declared:

The christian religion is and has ever been the prevailing religion among the people of this state [Delaware], and the malicious blasphemy of the popular religion [Christianity] or its founder [Yhshua], has a direct tendency to produce breaches of the peace." 73

The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania in Updegraph vs. The Commonwealth (11 Serg. & Rawle, 400-1) ... have declared that, "from the time of [Henry del Bracton, christianity was part of the common law of England. 74

In England christianity ... has been the prevailing religion of its [Celto-Saxon] people for a time beyond that of legal memory.... 75

... since the settlement of Delaware of the Swedes and Fins, which was one of the earliest settlements on this continent, down to the present day, christianity has been that religion which the people as a body have constantly professed and preferred. The Swedes who were ever zealous christians, were succeeded by the Dutch, who equally professed and practised the same religious faith; and the English, who afterwards took possession of the province, also professed the same belief in Jesus Christ .... 76

... by this [Pennsylvania] charter, liberty of conscience was thus far secured to all who professed to believe in a God, none but those who professed to believe in Jesus Christ ... could serve the government under this charter of William Penn, in any official capacity whatever.

Seventy-five years after the date of this charter, on the 11th September, 1776, the "declaration of rights and fundamental rules of the Delaware State, (1 De. Laws. App. 79) was adopted, the second and third sections of which are in these words: ... See. 3. That all persons professing the christian religion ought forever to enjoy equal rights and privileges in this state ...... "

Thus we see that at the breaking out of that struggle for civil and religious liberty ... equality of religious rights and privileges was still expressly restricted to persons professing the christian religion.

On the 20th September, 1776, the first constitution of the Delaware State was adopted, the 22d article of which provided, that "every person who shall be chosen a member of either house, or appointed to any office or place of trust, before taking his seat or entering upon the execution of his office, shall take the following oath ... to wit: I ... do profess of faith in God, the father, and Jesus Christ his only son, and in the Holy Ghost, on God blessed for evermore; and I do acknowledge the holy scriptures of the old and new testaments to be given by divine inspiration. 77

... in the year 1824, by the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania also, in the case of Updegraph vs. The Commonwealth.... Judge [Thomas] Duncan, delivering the opinion of the court in that case said, "even if christianity was no part of the [civil] law of the land, it is the popular religion of the country [America and her Celto-Saxon people] . "78