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Sexual Assault in 1995 in The US 
http://web.archive.org/web/20030703045036/http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/ascii/soo.txt 
  1. ONE QUARTER of those convicted were CHILDREN!
  2. There were 485,290 reports.
  3. Law enforcement was involved in 113,000 cases.
  4. There were 129,150 arrests.
  5. There were 64,575 convictions, half of those arrested.
  6. The average time served was 5 years.
  7. There were 234,000 sex offenders under correctional supervision.
  8. Nine percent of victims experienced a loss.
  9. The average value of that loss was $200 each.
  10. Each prison inmate costs taxpayers $300,000 per year.
  11. The number of Americans behind bars increased 30% since 1995.
  12. The conviction RATE was 266 times higher than Japan's.
  13. The RATE of children convicted was 62 times higher than Japan's total conviction rate.
  14. The RATE of convictions in 2000 is between 345 & 1,222 times higher than Japan's.

 

Even though many of the children in the US under the age of 18, and all of them between the ages of 18 and 21, are prosecuted as adults when they commit serious crimes, the fact that they can't legally drink alcohol before the age of 21 is proof that they are still considered as "children" by society.  Yet, as the following graph reveals, 25% of those arrested for rape, and 23% of those arrested for sexual assault, are under the age of 20, and 29% and 25% respectively are under the age of 21.

To hold children who have no legal rights and who still don't have the maturity to interact responsibly with society, legally responsible for their actions, is absurd.    They should be punished early on for their misconduct, through corporal punishment and parental discipline, but to arrest, try, convict, and imprison children is a futile travesty of justice.

Furthermore, such treatment by immoral justice system employees, who care less about children and think only of their own paychecks,  may explain the extraordinarily high suicide rate of American youths.

 

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1995 Rape and Sexual Assault reports

US

Japan per UN Data

Per Japan's Justice Statistics

Total Rape & SA Reports

485,290

9,276

1,500

Victim Over Age 12

355,300

9,276

1,500

Victim Under Age 12

129,990

0

0

Reported to Law Enforcement

113,000

1,548

1,500

Total Arrests

129,150

1,160

Rape

34,650

1,160

SA

94,500

Total Convictions

64,575

594

242

Rape

17,325

242

SA

47,250

0

Children Who Are Convicted Of Rape

16,144

0

0

Avg. Time Served For Rape In Years

5

3

3

Avg. Time Served For SA In Years

3

0

0

Total In Prison

228,375

1035

726

In Prison for Rape

86,625

1035

726

In Prison for SA

141,750

0

0

Reports:Police Involved

4.3

6.0

1.0

Reports:Arrests

3.8

Reports:Convictions

7.5

15.6

6.2

Reports:Prison

2.1

9.0

2.1

Police Involved:Arrests

0.9

Police Involved:Convictions

1.7

2.6

6.2

Police Involved:Prison

0.5

1.5

2.1

Arrests:Convictions

2.0

0.0

4.8

Arrests:Prison

0.6

0.0

1.6

Ratio of Sexual Assaults and Rapes in US to Japan

US

Japan

Ratio US:Japan 1995

Linear Projection of Ratio

Calculated Projection of Ratio

1.29349

4.579792

1995 Population, Millions

260.0

126

Total Rape & SA Reports

186.7

0.6

323.5

418.5

1481.7

Victim Over Age 12

136.7

0.6

236.9

306.4

1084.8

Victim Under Age 12

50.0

0.0

~

~

~

Reported to Law Enforcement

43.5

0.6

75.3

97.4

345.0

Total Arrests

49.7

0.4

111.3

144.0

509.9

Rape

13.3

0.4

29.9

38.6

136.8

SA

36.3

0.0

~

~

~

Total Convictions

24.8

0.1

266.8

345.2

1222.1

Rape

6.7

0.1

71.6

92.6

327.9

SA

18.2

0.0

~

~

~

Children Who Are Convicted Of Sexual Assault

6.2

0.0

~

~

~

Total In Prison

87.8

0.3

314.6

406.9

1440.6

In Prison for Rape

33.3

0.3

119.3

154.3

546.5

In Prison for SA

54.5

0.0

~

~

~

 

U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
Bureau of Justice Statistics
Sex Offenses and Offenders:
An Analysis of Data on Rape 
and Sexual Assault
By Lawrence A. Greenfeld
BJS Statistician
February 1997,  NCJ-163392
(revised 2/7/97)
The full text of this report is available through:
*  The BJS Clearinghouse, 1-800-732-3277
*  on the Internet at: //www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/
*  on the BJS gopher: 
gopher://www.ojp.usdoj.gov:70/11/bjs
*  on the National Criminal Justice Reference Service Electronic
Bulletin Board (set at 8-N-1, call 301-738-8895, select BJS).
    
      * * *
Jan M. Chaiken, Ph.D.
Director
This report was written by Lawrence A. Greenfeld, Deputy
Director, Bureau of Justice Statistics.  Deborah Dworanczyk
assisted with verification.  Tom Hester and Yvonne Boston edited
and produced the report, assisted by Jayne Robinson and
Priscilla Middleton.  Marilyn Marbrook supervised publication.
Data analyzed for this report can be obtained from the National 
Archive of Criminal Justice Data, Box 1248, Ann Arbor, MI 48106
(800-999-0690).
An electronic version of this report and the data analyzed in it
can be found on the Internet 
at--
http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/
    * * *
Contents
Foreword
Highlights
Measuring the extent of sex offending
Characteristics of rape/sexual assault incidents
Characteristics of rape/sexual assault offenders
Consequences of the rape/sexual assault victimization
The law enforcement response to rape and other sex offenses
Arrests for forcible rape and other sex offenses
National Incident-Based Reporting System
Pretrial release and adjudication of rape offenders
Processing of rape defendants before disposition of their case
Sentencing of convicted rape defendants   
Corrections and the convicted sex offender
Characteristics of imprisoned rape and sexual assault offenders 
The victims of imprisoned rape and sexual assault offenders
Recidivism of violent sex offenders
Sex offending and murder
Glossary
Data points and sources for the graphical figures
Foreword
This report draws on more than two dozen statistical datasets
maintained by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and the Uniform
Crime Reporting program of the FBI to provide a comprehensive
overview of current knowledge about the incidence and prevalence
of violent victimization by sexual assault, the response of the
justice system to such crimes, and the characteristics of those
who prey on victims of all ages by committing sexual assault or
rape.  
This report reinforces a striking observation in recent studies
about crimes involving rape and sexual assault: In a high
percentage of cases, the victims are children.  In self-reported
victimization surveys of the public age 12 and older, teenagers
report the highest per capita rates of exposure to rape and
sexual assault.  Data drawn from police-recorded incidents of
rape in three States revealed that 44% of rape victims were
under the age of 18.  The self-reports of convicted rape and
sexual assault offenders serving time in State prisons indicate
that two-thirds of such offenders had victims under the age of
18, and 58% of those--or nearly 4 in 10 imprisoned violent sex
offenders--said their victims were age 12 or younger.
Though the vast majority of violent sex offending involves males
assaulting female victims, females account for a small
percentage of known offenders, and males account for a small
percentage of victims.  In a very small fraction of sexual
assaults, victim and offender are of the same sex.  
Victim and offender are likely to have had a prior relationship
as family members, intimates, or acquaintances.  Victims of rape
and sexual assault report that in nearly 3 out of 4 incidents,
the offender was not a stranger.  Based on police-recorded
incident data, in 90% of the rapes of children younger than 12,
the child knew the offender; two-thirds of the victims 18 to 29
years old had a prior relationship with the rapist.  The FBI's
UCR arrest data, as well as court conviction data and prison
admissions data, all point to a sex offender who is older than
other violent offenders, generally in his early thirties, and
more likely to be white than other violent offenders--
characteristics that match the information obtained from victims
who describe the offender to interviewers in the National Crime
Victimization Survey.
This report was prepared as background information for the
Assistant Attorney General's 1996 National Summit Promoting
Public Safety Through the Effective Management  of Sex Offenders
in the Community. It presents a thorough analysis and
compilation of the currently available national data, but we
anticipate that even more will be learned in the coming years as
BJS assembles data on rape and sexual assault from the
redesigned National Crime Victimization Survey and surveys of
felony probationers, local jail inmates, and  State and Federal
prison inmates.
Jan M. Chaiken, Ph.D.
Director, Bureau of Justice Statistics
Laurie Robinson
Assistant Attorney General
Office of Justice Programs 
     * * *
Highlights
Measuring the extent of sex offending
The reports from victims
In 1995 persons age 12 or older reported experiencing an
estimated 260,300 attempted or completed rapes and nearly
95,000 threatened or completed sexual assaults other 
than rape.
* The number reported by victims age 12 or older in 1995
declined significantly from 1993:  
1993 -- 1 violent sex offense for every 435 residents 
1995 -- 1 violent sex offense for every 625 residents. 
* In 1994 and 1995 a third of the victims said that the
rape/sexual assault victimization was reported to a law
enforcement agency. 
The law enforcement response
In 1995 the number of forcible rapes reported to the police
nationwide was 97,460, the lowest total since 1989.
* The highest rate of forcible rape recorded by law enforcement
agencies since 1976 was in 1992--84 per 100,000 women, or
about 1 forcible rape for every 1,200 women.  By 1995 the rate
had decreased over 14%.  
* In 1995 law enforcement agencies reported that about half of
all reported forcible rapes were cleared by an arrest--an
estimated 34,650 arrests for forcible rape.  There were 94,500
arrests for other sex offenses.
The per capita rate of arrest for forcible rape or sexual
assault in 1995, 50.3 per 100,000 residents, was the same as
that in 1983. 
 
Federal statistical series obtaining data on arrested or
convicted persons--Uniform Crime Reports, National Judicial
Reporting Program, and National Corrections Reporting Program--show
a remarkable similarity in the characteristics of those categorized
as rapists:  99 in 100 are male, 6 in 10 are white, and the average
age is the early thirties.
Pretrial release and adjudication of rape offenders
About half of rape defendants are released prior to trial. 
Among those released, half had to post a financial bond.  
The median bond amount was $23,500.  
* About 1 in 20 filings for a violent felony in the 75 largest
counties in 1992 was for rape.  
*  In 1992 an estimated 21,655 felony defendants nationwide were
convicted of rape; 8 in 10 had pleaded guilty. 
* Over two-thirds of convicted rape defendants received a prison
sentence.   
*For rape defendants sentenced to prison, the average term
imposed was just under 14 years.  About 2% of convicted rapists
received life sentences. 
Corrections and the convicted sex offender
On a given day about 234,000 offenders convicted of rape or
sexual assault are under the care, custody, or control of
corrections agencies.  About 60% of these sex offenders are
under conditional supervision in the community.
Rape and sexual assault offenders account for just under 5% of
the total correctional population in the United States:
* Among 906,000 offenders confined in State prisons in 1994,
88,000, or 9.7%, were violent sex offenders.
* Since 1980 the average annual growth in the number of
prisoners has been about 7.6%.  The number of prisoners
sentenced for violent sexual assault other than rape increased
by an annual average of nearly 15%--faster than any other
category of violent crime and faster than all other categories
except drug trafficking.
* While the average sentence of convicted rapists released from
State prisons has remained stable at about 10 years, the average
time served has increased from about 3� years to about 5 years;
for those released after serving time for sexual assault, the
sentence has been a stable 6� years, and the average time served
grew about 6 months to just under 3 years.
* Rapists and sexual assaulters serving time in State prisons
were less likely to have had a prior conviction history or a
history of violence than other incarcerated violent offenders,
though they were substantially more likely to have had a history
of convictions for violent sex offenses.
* Sexual assault offenders were substantially more likely than
any other category of offenders to report having experienced
physical or sexual abuse while growing up. 
* Violent sex offenders were substantially less likely than
other violent offenders to have committed their crime with a
weapon; however, rapists were about as likely as all violent
offenders to report having used a knife.
* In two 3-year BJS followups of samples of felons placed on
probation and of felons released from prison, rapists had a
lower rate of rearrest for a new violent felony than most other
categories of offenders convicted of violence.  Yet, rapists
were more likely than others to be re-arrested for a new rape.
Sex offenses and murder
After the latter half of the 1980's, the percentage of all
murders with known circumstances in which investigators
identified rape or another sex offense as the principal
circumstance of the murder has declined from about 2% of murders
to less than 1%.   
* Between 1976 and 1994 there were an estimated 405,089 murders
in the United States.  Of these, the circumstances surrounding
the murder are known in 317,925, or 78.5%.  Among the cases with
known circumstances, an estimated 4,807, or 1.5%, were
classified as involving rape or another sex offense.
* Offenders in sexual assault murders are about 6 years younger
on average than other murderers.  Youth under 18 have accounted
for about 10% of the sexual assault murders since 1976.
     * * * 
How the extent of sex offending is measured
Preliminary estimates for 1995 indicate that the public age 12
or older experienced 260,300 rapes and attempted rapes and
nearly 95,000 other sexual assaults and threats of sexual
assault.
(Note:  In the National Crime Victimization Survey, rape is
defined as forced sexual intercourse where the victim may be
either male or female and the offender may be of the same sex or
a different sex from the victim.  Sexual assault includes a wide
range of victimizations involving attacks in which unwanted
sexual contact occurs between the victim and the offender. 
Threats and attempts to commit such offenses are included in the
counts.)
The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) is one of two
statistical  series maintained by the Department of Justice to 
learn about the incidence and prevalence of crime.  The NCVS, 
begun in 1972, was designed to complement what is known 
about crimes reported to local law enforcement agencies under
the FBI's annual compilation known as the Uniform Crime 
Reports (UCR). 
The NCVS gathers information about crime and its consequences
from a nationally representative sample of U.S. residents age 12
or older about any crimes they may have experienced--whether
or not the crime was reported to a law enforcement agency. 
The national sample of households, 50,000 households and more
than 100,000 individual respondents, is the second largest
ongoing household survey sponsored by the Federal Government.
In the latter half of the 1980's, the Bureau of Justice
Statistics (BJS), together with the Committee on Law and Justice
of the American Statistical Association, sought to improve the
survey components to enhance the measurement of rape, sexual
assault, and domestic violence.  The new NCVS questions
broadened the scope of covered sexual incidents beyond the
categories of rape and attempted rape to include sexual assaults
and other unwanted sexual contacts.  
The new questions and revised procedures were phased in from
January 1992 through June 1993 in half the sampled households. 
Since July 1993, the redesigned methods have been used for the
entire national sample.  Based upon the half-sample, BJS was
able to determine that the new questionnaire would produce
estimated rates of rape and sexual assault that were about 4
times higher than previously measured.
* The nearly 355,000 rapes and sexual assaults reported by
victims in the preliminary estimates for 1995 were significantly
below the number of such offenses estimated for 1993 (figure 1).
In a comparison of the two years, the number of offenses
experienced by victims is estimated to have dropped by a quarter
and the per capita rate of rape and sexual assault to have
dropped 30%.  The 1993 rate translates into about 1 rape/sexual
assault victimization for every 435 persons age 12 or older, and
the 1995 preliminary rate equals 1 offense for every 625
residents at least 12 years old.
Figure 1.  Estimated number of rape/sexual assault
victimizations among residents age 12 or order and the number
reported to law enforcement authorities, 1993-95
         
            Number of victimizations-- 
                                Reported 
 Year       Experienced         to law enforcement
 1993       485,000             140,000
 1994       433,000             137,000
 1995       355,000             113,000
Source:  BJS, National Crime Victimization Survey. (rev. 2/7/97)
* For both 1994 and 1995 the percentage of rape/sexual assault
victimizations reported to a law enforcement agency was 32%. 
The most common reason given by victims of rape/sexual assault
for reporting the crime to the police was to prevent further
crimes by the offender against them.  The most common reason
cited by the victim for not reporting the crime to the police
was that it was considered a personal matter.
* In 1994 victims reported about 1 rape/sexual assault
victimization of a female victim for every 270 females in the
general population; for males, the rate was substantially lower,
with about 1 rape/sexual assault of a male victim for every
5,000 male residents age 12 or older.
* Per capita rates of rape/sexual assault were found to be
highest among residents age 16 to 19, low-income residents, and
urban residents.  There were no significant differences in the
rate of rape/sexual assault among racial groups.
* Overall, an estimated 91% of the victims of rape and sexual
assault were female.  Nearly 99% of the offenders they described
in single-victim incidents were male.
Characteristics of rape/sexual assault incidents
* About two-thirds of rapes/sexual assaults were found to occur
during the 12 hours from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m. (figure 2).
Figure 2.  Victims' report of time of rapes and sexual assaults,
1993
6 p.m.-midnight                    43.4%
Daytime (6 a.m.-6 p.m.             33.0%
Midnight-6 a.m.                    23.6%
*Nearly 6 out of 10 rape/sexual assault incidents were reported
by victims to have occurred in their own home or at the home of
a friend, relative, or neighbor (figure 3).
Victims' reports of where rapes and sexual assault took place,
1993
At victim's home                                      37.4%
At friend's, neighbor's, or relative's home           19.2
On street away from home                              10.0
Parking lot/garage                                     7.3
All other locations                                   26.1
*More than half of rape/sexual assault incidents were reported
by victims to have occurred within 1 mile of their home or at
their home.
*About 1 of every 16 rape/sexual assault victims reported that a
firearm was present during the commission of the offense.  Most
victims (84%), however, reported that no weapon was used by the
offender.
Characteristics of rape/sexual assault offenders 
as described by victims
*About 9 out of 10 rape/sexual assault victimizations involved a
single offender, according to victims' reports (figure 4).  
Figure 4. Rapes and sexual assaults, by number of offenders and
victim-offender relationship, 1993
Violent victimizations                   10,848,090
Rapes and sexual assaults                   485,290
Single offenders                              91.1%
   Involving--
     Strangers                          17.6% 
     Nonstrangers                       73.5%
Multiple offenders                             8.9%
    Involving--
      Strangers                          6.8%
      Nonstrangers                       2.1%
*Three out of four rape/sexual assault victimizations involved
offenders (both single- and multiple-offender incidents) with
whom the victim had a prior relationship as a family member,
intimate, or acquaintance.  Strangers accounted for nearly 20% 
of the victimizations involving a single offender but 76% of the
victimizations involving multiple offenders.  About 7% of all 
rape/sexual assault victimizations involved multiple offenders 
who were strangers to the victim.
*About 4 in 10 rape/sexual assault incidents involved offenders
who were age 30 or older, according to victims (figure 5). 
About a quarter of the incidents involved offenders under age 21.
Figure 5. Rapes and sexual assaults, by number 
of offenders and the age of the offenders, 1993
Violent victimizations             10,848,090
Rapes and sexual assaults             485,290
Single offenders                         91.1%
    Younger than 18             10.9%
    18-20                        8.0%
    21-29                       31.2%
    30 or older                 40.9%
Multiple offenders                        8.9%
    Younger than 18              4.4%
    18-20                        2.5%
    21-29                         .7%
    30 or older                  1.3%
Consequences of the rape/sexual assault victimization 
*About 7 out of 10 victims of rape/ sexual assault reported that
they took some form of self-protective action during the crime
(figure 6).  The most common form of self-defense was to resist
by struggling or to chase and try to hold the offender.
Figure 6. Self-protective measures taken by victims of rape 
or sexual assault, 1993
Rape/sexual assault victims               485,290
Victim took self-protective action           71.7%
Victim took no self-protective action        28.3%
Resisted or captured offender                19.3%
Scared or warned offender                    11.5%
Persuaded or appeased offender               10.8%
Ran away or hid                               6.9%
Attacked offender without weapon              6.1%
Screamed from pain or fear                    3.7%
Got help or gave alarm                        3.6%
Other measures                                9.8%
*Among victims who took a self-protective action, just over half
felt that their actions helped the situation.  About 1 in 5
victims felt that their actions either made the situation worse
or simultaneously helped and worsened the situation. 
*Victims of rape/sexual assault accounted for about 4% of the
victims of violence in 1993 but about 6% of the incidents in
which some form of medical assistance was obtained.  
*About 1 in 11 rape/sexual assault victims reported that they
suffered some economic loss as a consequence of the crime.  The
average economic loss was about $200, and nearly 7% of victims
reported losing time from work.
     * * *
The law enforcement response to rape 
and other sex offenses
In 1995, based on crimes recorded by law enforcement agencies
nationwide, the number of forcible rapes per capita among women
of all ages reported to law enforcement agencies was the lowest
since 1985 (figure 7).
Figure 7. Rate of forcible rape recorder by law enforcement
agencies, 1976-95
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Number of forcible rapes of female victims per 100,000 females
in the population
   Year             Rate
----------------------------------------------------------
    1976             52
    1977             57
    1978             60
    1979             67
    1980             71
    1981             69
    1982             65
    1983             66
    1984             69
    1985             71
    1986             73
    1987             73
    1988             73
    1989             75
    1990             80
    1991             83
    1992             84
    1993             79
    1994             77
    1995             72
-------------------------------------------------------------
Source:  FBI, Uniform Crime Reports, 1995. (rev. 2/7/97)

In addition to the NCVS, the Department of Justice obtains data
on selected crimes reported to law enforcement authorities under
the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) program of the FBI.  Begun in
1929, this program obtains annual counts of crime from more than
16,000 local, county, and State law enforcement agencies.  The
UCR selected offenses include murder and nonnegligent
manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault,
burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft, and arson.  
Forcible rape in the UCR program is limited to incidents
involving female victims.  The UCR also obtains information from
participating agencies on arrests for 21 additional categories
of crime.  The arrest tallies count arrests for sex offenses,
including statutory rape and offenses against chastity, common
decency, and morals.  Commercialized vice and prostitution are
excluded from this crime category.  Forcible rape and sex
offenses include attempts.
*Compared to 1990, the rate of rape among women in 1995 was 10%
lower (80 per 100,000 women versus 72 per 100,000 women).  In
1990 law enforcement agencies recorded about 1 rape for every
1,250 women, and in 1995, about 1 forcible rape for every 1,400
women.
*The highest rate of forcible rape recorded by law enforcement
agencies since 1976 was in 1992--84 per 100,000 women or about
1 forcible rape for every 1,200 women--and by 1995 the rate
had decreased more than 14%.  
*In 1992 police agencies recorded 109,060 forcible rapes
nationwide; in 1995 the number of forcible rapes reported to the
police was 97,460, the lowest total since 1989.
*Rates of forcible rape in 1995 range from 76 per 100,000
females in metropolitan areas to a rate of 49 per 100,000 female
residents in rural counties.  Over the last 10 years,
substantial declines have occurred in the rate of forcible rape
in metropolitan areas, while other areas, such as cities outside
metropolitan areas (up 70%) and rural counties (up 40%), have
experienced substantial growth in the per capita number of rapes
brought to the attention of law enforcement authorities.
*In 1995, 87% of recorded forcible rapes were completed crimes
and the remainder were classified as attempts.  Law enforcement
agencies indicated that about 8% of forcible rapes reported to
them were determined to be unfounded and were excluded from the
count of crimes. 
*Law enforcement data indicate that the highest volume of rape
reports in 1995 (9.9% of the annual total) were recorded in
August and the fewest (6.8%) were recorded in December.
*In 1995 law enforcement agencies reported to the FBI that about
half of all reported forcible rapes were cleared by an arrest. 
Jurisdictions of varying size had little difference in the
clearance rate.
Arrests for forcible rape and other sex offenses 
*Law enforcement agencies in 1995 made an estimated 34,650
arrests for forcible rape and 94,500 arrests for other sex
offenses (figure 8).  The volume of arrests for rape and sex
offenses peaked in 1991 at 148,120.   
Figure 8. Estimated number of arrests for forcible rape 
and other sex offenses, 1980-95
                        Other                                     
           Forcible     sex            Total               
  Year     rape         offenses       U.S. population           
  
  1980     31,380       67,400         227,726,463
  1981     31,710       72,000         229,966,237
  1982     33,600       78,800         232,187,835
  1983     34,080       87,000         234,307,207
  1984     36,700       97,800         236,348,292
  1985     36,970      100,600         238,466,283
  1986     37,140      100,600         240,650,755
  1987     36,310      100,100         242,803,533
  1988     38,310      106,300         245,021,414
  1989     39,110      104,800         247,341,697
  1990     39,160      107,600         249,912,527
  1991     40,120      108,000         252,649,535
  1992     39,100      108,400         255,418,704
  1993     38,420      104,100         250,137,251
  1994     36,610      100,700         260,659,690
  1995     34,650       94,500         263,033,968
Source: FBI Uniform Crime Reports, 1995
*The per capita number of arrests for rape and other sex
offenses in 1995 was the lowest recorded by law enforcement
authorities since 1983.  The per capita rate of arrest in 1995,
50.3 per 100,000 residents, is the same as the arrest rate in
1983.
*In 1995, per capita arrest rates for rape were highest in
States in the Midwest and lowest in Western States (figure 9).  
Figure 9. Number of arrests per 100,000 for forcible rape
and other sex offenses, by region, 1995
Region         Forcible rape       Other sex offenses
   U.S. total      13.5                   36.8
Northeast          13.0                   32.8
Midwest            15.7                   37.3
South              14.6                   32.0
West               10.7                   46.6
Source:  FBI, Uniform Crime Reports, 1995. (rev. 2/7/97)
*By contrast, Western States had a substantially higher rate of
arrest for other sex offenses.  In the aggregate, the rate of
arrest for sex offending (forcible rape + other sex offenses)
translates into about 1 arrest for every 2,000 residents.  In
Western States, the region with the highest per capita number of
arrests, the arrest rate equals about 1 arrest for every 1,745
residents. 
*As with other types of violent crime, the size and type of
jurisdiction are related to the rates of arrest for forcible rape
and other sex offenses (figure 10).  In 1995 cities with a
population of 250,000 or more had aggregate arrest rates for
rape and other sex offenses of about 80 per 100,000--about 1
arrest for every 1,250 residents--59% higher than the national
average.  By contrast, the lowest rates of arrest were recorded
by law enforcement agencies in cities of 10,000 to 24,999
population--a rate of 36.9 per 100,000 residents or 1 arrest
for every 2,700 residents.  Rural and suburban counties and
cities of less than 50,000 all had similar rates of arrest for
rape and other sex offenses in 1995.
Figure 10. Number of arrests per 100,000 population for forcible
rape and other sex offenses, by size of jurisdiction, 1995
                                                Other
                             Forcible           sexual
 Jurisdiction                rape               offenses
     U.S. total              13.5               36.8
250,000 or more              22.0               58.0
249,999 - 100,000            15.8               40.9
99,999 - 50,000              12.0               35.0
49,999 - 25,000               9.9               29.3
24,999 - 10,000              10.6               26.3
9,999 or fewer               10.5               30.0
Suburban counties            10.5               29.8
Rural counties               11.4               30.6
Source:  FBI, Uniform Crime Reports, 1995.
*Nearly all arrestees for forcible rape in 1995 were male (99%),
while about 8% of arrestees for other sex offenses were female.  
*The racial distribution of arrestees for rape is similar to the
racial distribution for all violent UCR arrests--56% of
arrestees for rape in 1995 were white, 42% were black, and 2%
were of other races.  White arrestees accounted for a
substantially larger share of those arrested for other sex
offenses, composing 75% of those arrested for these types of
offenses in 1995.
*Juveniles accounted for about 16% of forcible rape arrestees in
1995 and 17% of those arrested for other sex offenses (figure
11).  Age and the type of sex offense for which an arrest
occurred were related, with arrestees for rape concentrated in
younger age groups while arrestees for other sex offenses more
prevalent among older arrestees.  Persons at least 50 years old,
for example, accounted for 5% of rape arrestees but 10% of those
arrested for other sex offenses.  About a third of those
arrested for rape and a quarter of those arrested for other sex
offenses were in their twenties.
Figure 11.  Age of persons arrested for forcible rape 
and for other sex offenses, 1995
Age of arrestees      Forcible     Other sex 
                        rape       offenses
Less than 18           15.7            16.9
18-19                   8.5             5.6
20-24                  17.3            12.9
25-29                  15.4            12.9
30-34                  15.0            14.7
35-39                  12.0            12.6
40-44                   6.9             8.8
45-49                   4.0             5.7
50-54                   2.2             3.6
55-59                   1.2             2.3
60 or older             1.7             3.7
Source:  FBI, Uniform Crime Reports, 1995
Pretrial release and adjudication of rape offenders
About 5 out of 10 rape defendants are released prior to trial,
and 8 out of 10 convicted rape defendants had entered a guilty
plea to the offense.
Every other year BJS obtains longitudinal case processing data
on a sample of felony defendants representing the Nation's 75
most populous counties.  The defendants' cases are tracked for 1
year following the filing  of felony charges by the prosecutor. 
The counties account for about a third of the U.S. population
but about half of all reported crime and about half of all
felony convictions nationwide. 
The most recently published survey findings are drawn from
information collected on 13,206 felony cases filed in May 1992
across these counties representing more than 55,000 felony cases
filed that month.  An estimated 1.4% of the felony filings were
for rape.
Data on the sentencing of convicted felons are also collected
biennially under the BJS National Judicial Reporting Program
(NJRP).  This data collection program, also a survey, obtains
information from a nationally representative sample of counties
about the sentences that felons receive in State courts, the
methods by which convictions were obtained, and the types and
duration of sentences imposed, as well as any contingent
requirements associated with sentences.  
The most recently available data are drawn from the 1992 annual
collection, which covered 300 counties and detailed data on
105,657 felony defendants.  An estimated 2.4% of the convicted
felons had been convicted of rape.
In both collection programs, rape is the only sex offense
category for which data are separately reported.  Also in both
series, rape victims can include males and females.
Processing of rape defendants before 
disposition of their case
*About 1 in 20 filings for a violent felony (or 1.4% of all
felony filings) in the 75 largest counties in 1992 were for
rape.  That same year, there were about 6 times as many felony
filings for robbery, 9 times as many felony filings for assault,
and 21 times as many filings for felony drug offenses.
*An estimated 48% of rape defendants were released from
detention prior to the disposition of their case (table 1).  The
rate of release pending disposition of a rape charge was lower
than that for other violent felonies:  Only defendants charged
with murder had a lower rate of release (24%) than those for
whom rape charges were pending.  An estimated 3% of all rape
defendants had no bail amount set and were not eligible for
release pending the outcome of their case.  An estimated 49% of
rape defendants had bail set but were unable to post sufficient
collateral to secure release.
Table 1. Pretrial release of rape defendants 
in large urban counties
                                                               
                                  Defendants
                           ---------------------      
                           All violent 
                           offenses         Rape
     Total                    100%          100%
Released prior to trial        58            48
     Financial release         25            24
     Nonfinancial release      33            24
Detained until disposition     42            52
Median bail amount set      $10,000       $23,500
Figure 12.   Based on data from 6 States in 1990, 
about half of those arrested for rape were convicted.  
For 4 in 10 arrestees, the conviction was for a felony.
Arrestees for rape                   100%
Rape arrestees for whom felony
   prosecution was sought             80%
     Convicted                    48% 
         Felony             40%
         Misdemeanor         6%
         Other               2%
     Not convicted                32%
         Dismissed          29%
         Acquitted           2%
         Other               1%
This analysis retrospectively tracked case-processing of rape
defendants following disposition in 1990. The analysis utilized
more than 527,000 felony arrests, of which 4,175 were for rape.
*****************************************************************
*About half of felony rape defendants who secured release posted
financial collateral, and the other half obtained release through
nonfinancial means.  
*The most common methods used by those charged with rape for
securing financial release were obtaining a surety bond (12% of
all defendants) that involved a promissory note from a bail
bondsman, posting a deposit bond that is a percentage of the set
bail (6% of all defendants), paying the full cash bail amount
required (4%), or posting property as collateral (1%).
*The most commonly used method of nonfinancial release was
release on personal recognizance (11% of all rape defendants),
which is a promise to appear as required by the court.  An
estimated 9% of all rape defendants were released on some form
of conditional release or supervised release pending disposition
of their case, a method that normally entails supervision by a
pretrial services agency under special conditions set by the
court.  Small percentages of rape defendants were also released
by an unsecured bond or due to a crowding emergency in the jail.
*The court set bail for an estimated 73% of rape defendants. 
The median bail for rape defendants was $23,500, about $50,000
less than the median bail set for murder defendants and $13,500
more than the median bail accorded robbery defendants.  Among
rape defendants securing release, the median bail was $10,000;
among rape defendants failing to secure release, the median bail
was $25,000.
-------------------------------------------
National Incident-Based Reporting System
-------------------------------------------
*****************************************************************
The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) represents
the next generation of crime data from law enforcement agencies.
It is designed to replace the nearly 70-year-old UCR program
that compiles aggregate data on eight crimes.  Rather than
relying on a narrow group of eight Index offenses, which are 
meant to convey the overall crime situation, NIBRS collects
information on 57 types of crimes: 46 Group A crimes and 11
Group B crimes. 
BJS received data tapes from the first NIBRS-participating
States for calendar year 1991--Alabama, North Dakota, and South
Carolina.  These three States account for about 3.3% of the U.S.
population and 3.4% of rapes reported nationwide.
Sex of victim
---------------------
About 10% of the rapes in the three States did not conform to
the UCR definition of forcible rape--the victims were male
(8.7% of rapes), the victim and offender were both female
(0.8%), or the victim was male and the offender was female
(0.2%).  
Race of victim
---------------------
Victims of rape were about evenly divided between whites and
blacks; in about 88% of forcible rapes, the victim and offender 
were of the same race.
Age of victim
-----------------------
About 80% of rape victims were under age 30--about half of
these were under age 18. Victims younger than 12 accounted for
15% of those raped, and another 29% of rape victims were between
12 and 17.  
Victim-offender relationship
---------------------------------------
For nearly 90% of the youngest victims of rape, those younger
than 12, the offender was someone known to them.  Law
enforcement agencies reported that family members victimized 43%
of these young victims--about 4 times the proportion found
among victims age 30 or older (11%).  Older victims (age 30 or
above) were about 12 times as likely as the youngest victims to
have been raped by a stranger (36% versus 3%).  
About two-thirds of the victims age 18-29, the largest age group
of rape victims, had a prior relationship with the rapist, but
they were 7 times as likely to have been acquaintances (57%) as
family members (8%).  
Age of rapist
----------------
Just over 40% of the rapists were age 30 or older, about twice
the percentage of victims of this age (20%).  About 1 in 8 rapists 
was under 18.  In 9 out of 10 rapes in which the offender was under
18, so was the victim.
Where rape occurred
-------------------
Just over 60% of the rapes took place in a residence--about 1
in 3 rapes by a stranger and 9 in 10 rapes by a family member.  
When rape occurred
--------------------
Across the 3 States, an average of 8 rapes a day took place,
ranging from 11 on Saturdays to 6 on Wednesdays.  Nearly a 
third of the rapes took place between midnight and 4 a.m., 
with little variation in time of day by victim-offender
relationship or by location of occurrence.  The period from 8 p.m.
Friday to 8 a.m. Saturday held the largest number of rapes in a
12-hour block reported by the NIBRS participants.
Weapons
----------
About 12% of rapes involved the use of a gun (5%) or knife (7%),
and 80% involved the use of physical force only.  
Offenders were 5 times more likely to use a gun in the rape of a
stranger (10%) than in the rape of a family member (2%).  About
8% of rapes by ex-spouses involved a gun, and another 12%, a
knife. 
Rapes with black offenders and black victims were about twice as
likely as white-on-white rapes to involve the use of a gun or
knife (14% versus 7%), but interracial rapes, black-on-white or
white-on-black, were equally likely to involve the use of a gun
or knife (about 22%). Roadways or alleys were the most likely
places where a rapist used a gun (13%).
Injuries
---------
About 40% of rape victims suffered a collateral injury--5%
suffered a major injury such as severe lacerations, fractures,
internal injuries, or unconsciousness.  
More than half of spousal rapes, rapes by ex-spouses, and
stranger rapes resulted in victim injury, while about a quarter
of parent-child rapes resulted in major injury.  Injuries were
most common among victims age 30 or older and victims of rapists
armed with a knife.  Nearly 6 in 10 rapes involving a knife
resulted in victim injury.
Sentencing of convicted rape defendants
*In 1992 an estimated 21,655 felony defendants nationwide were
convicted of rape (figure 12).  For about 14%, the conviction
followed a jury trial, but for most defendants (82%), conviction
followed a guilty plea.  The remainder, 4%, were convicted
following a bench trial. 
*Overall, just over two-thirds of convicted rape defendants
received a prison sentence.  An additional 19% of convicted rape
defendants were sentenced to a term in a local jail, and about
13% received a sentence to probation supervision in the
community.
*For rape defendants sentenced to prison, the average term
imposed was 164 months, or just under 14 years.  The average
jail term for an offender convicted of rape was 8 months, and
the average probation term was just under 6 years.  An estimated
2% of convicted rapists received a term of life imprisonment.
*About a third of rape defendants had one or more additional
felony convictions collateral to the conviction for rape. 
Collateral convictions were associated with an increased
probability of receiving a prison sentence.
*Sentences of convicted rape defendants also carried additional
penalties, which included a fine (13% of convicted defendants),
victim restitution (12%), required treatment (10%), community
service (2%), and other penalties (10%).
*The method of conviction affected both the probability of
receiving a prison sentence and the term of imprisonment for
rape.  Defendants convicted by a jury were substantially more
likely to receive a prison term than those convicted in bench
trials or by plea, and the term was substantially longer.  The
average prison term for rape following a jury conviction was
nearly 13 years longer than the average sentence received by
those pleading guilty to rape (figure 13).
Figure 13.  Method of conviction and prison sentences
for convicted rape defendants, 1992
            -----------------------------
            Felony rape convictions, 1992
                       21,655
            -----------------------------
                       Jury         Bench        Guilty
                       trial        trial        plea
                    
Prison sentence        89%          71%          63%
Average sentence       292 months   173 months   139 months
Sentences to probation and jail not shown.
     
      * * *
Corrections and the convicted sex offender
On a given day there are approximately 234,000 offenders
convicted of rape or sexual assault under the care, custody, or
control of corrections agencies; nearly 60% of these sex
offenders are under conditional supervision in the community.
Data on sentenced sex offenders are obtained under a wide
variety of BJS statistical programs covering both
community-based and institutional corrections. 
BJS has conducted annual counts of the probation and parole
populations since 1978, collecting the number entering and leaving,
population characteristics, and the end-of-year counts.  Probation
and parole agencies supervise about three-quarters of the
correctional population in the United States.
In 1991 BJS carried out the first full census since 1976 of the
nearly 5,000 probation and parole agencies and offices.  The
census obtained detailed information on the population under
supervision and the resources available to manage the
correctional populations in the community.  This effort also
provided the first-ever national information on the offense
composition of community supervision populations.  
In 1995 BJS conducted the first national survey of offenders on
probation, gathering detailed demographic data as well as
information on prior record, drug use history, use of weapons,
and victim attributes.  BJS expects to publish the results of
the survey in early 1997. 
Populations confined in local jails and State and Federal
prisons account for about a quarter of the total population
under correctional sanction.  As with probation and parole,
annual collection programs on institutional corrections detail a
variety of characteristics associated with the confined
population, including admissions and releases, demographic
composition, and the count on a specified day.
Since the early 1970's, BJS has carried out facility censuses of
both prisons and jails.  In addition, periodic BJS self-report
surveys of nationally representative samples of prison and jail
confines provide data on offender characteristics not normally
available in official institutional records, such as drug and
alcohol use patterns, family, background, and the
characteristics of victims.  BJS also collects individual-level
information from prison and parole authorities on those admitted
to and released from their custody, providing important national
information on sentence lengths and time served prior to
discharge. 
*Based upon the most recent data available from these series, it
is estimated that rape and sexual assault offenders account for
nearly 4% of those on probation, about 3% of convicted offenders
in local jails, about 10% of those serving time in State
prisons, about 1% of those serving time in Federal prisons, and
about 4% of those on parole supervision in the community.  
*Rape and sexual assault offenders account for about 6% of those
entering State prisons, less than 5% of those discharged from
State prisons, just over 4% of admissions to parole supervision,
and less than 4% of those discharged from parole supervision. 
In the aggregate, rape and sexual assault offenders account for
just under 5% of the entire population under correctional
sanction on a given day (figure 14).
                                  
                  Convicted offenders estimated, 1994
                  -----------------------------------
                                  Sex offenders  
                  Total           -------------------
                  population      Number      Percent 
Probation         2,964,171       106,710       3.6%
Jail                304,274        10,345       3.4%
State prisons       906,112        88,100       9.7%  
Federal prisons      87,515           875       1.0%
Parole              690,159        27,606       4.0%
   Total          4,952,231       233,636       4.7%
Figure 14. Offenders convicted of rape or sexual 
assault and under the care, custody, or control 
of correctional authorities, 1994 estimate
                  ------------------------
                  Convicted persons under 
                  correctional supervision          
                         50 million              
                  ------------------------
                  Violent offenders under 
                  correctional supervision          
                        1.2  million                 
------------------------------------------------------------
Under supervision               Under sentence
in the community     707,000    to confinement       491,000     
------------------------------------------------------------
  Convicted of rape               Convicted of rape
  or sexual assault  134,300      or sexual assault   99,300
------------------------------------------------------------
*For each convicted offender in a prison or jail, there are
nearly 3 offenders under probation or parole supervision in the
community (figure 15).  For those convicted of rape or sexual
assault, the ratio of those on conditional release to those
incarcerated is 1.4 to 1.
Figure 15.  Number of offenders serving a sentence 
under supervision in the community 
per offender incarcerated 
in a prison or jail
Type of offense                 Number of offenders
    All offenses                       2.8%
DWI/DUI                               11.9
Fraud                                  6.3
Public-order offenses                  5.7
Larceny                                5.3
Property offenses                      3.6
Assault                                3.2
Drug possession                         .3
Weapons offenses                       2.9
Drug offenses                          2.6
Burglary                               2.1
Drug trafficking                       2.1
Motor vehicle theft                    1.8
Violent offenses                       1.4
Sexual assault                         1.4
Robbery                                0.9
Homicide                               0.4
Sources:  BJS, corrections statistical series.
*In 1980 State prisons held 295,819 persons in their custody, of
which an estimated 20,500, or 6.9%, had been convicted of rape
or sexual assault.  (Note:  "Sexual assault" includes
convictions for statutory rape, forcible sodomy, lewd acts with
children, and other conviction offenses related to fondling,
molestation, or indecent practices.  The term "sex offender"
describes those offenders convicted of rape or sexual assault.) 
By 1994, the State prison population had increased to 906,112,
of which 88,000, or 9.7%, were sex offenders.  While the prison
population increased 206% over the period, the number of
imprisoned sex offenders grew 330% (figure 16).
Figure 16.  Estimated number of rape and sexual assault
offenders in State correctional institutions, 1980-94
                              Other
                              sexual
Year           Rape           assault
1980          13,200           7,300
1981          15,000           9,400
1982          16,500          11.400
1983          17,000          12,000
1984          18,400          14,200
1985          19,400          20,300
1986          19,800          25,500
1987          21,000           9,700
1988          22,100           2,500
1989          22,600          35,400
1990          24,500          39,100
1991          25,500          43,000
1992          29,500          46,400
1993          32,600          48,800
1994          33,800          54,300
Source:  BJS, Correctional Populations in the United States, 
1993 (NCJ-156241).
*From 1980 to 1994 the average annual growth in the number of
prisoners was 7.6% (figure 17).  Inmates serving time for drug
offenses experienced the highest annual rate of increase with an
average of about 18% per year after 1980.  However, inmates
imprisoned for sexual assaults other than rape experienced the
second fastest rise, increasing by an annual average of more
than 15%--a more rapid rate of change than for any other
category of violent crime.  
Figure 17.  Average annual percent change in the number 
of State prisoners, by type of offense, 1980-94
                              Average annual percent
                              change, 1990-94
       All crimes                7.6
Violent offenses                 6.7
     Murder                      7.6
     Robbery                      .4
     Assault                     9.2
     Forcible rape               6.9
     Other sexual assault       15.4
Property offenses                6.3
Drugs offenses                  18.4
Source:  BJS, Correctional Populations 
in the United States, 
1993 (NCJ-156241).
*The number of imprisoned rapists grew at a yearly average of
about 7% over the 14 years.  
*Even with the comparatively higher growth rate of prisoners
serving time for sexual assault, the absolute increase in their
numbers between 1980 and 1994 was from 7,300 to 54,300,
accounting for just under 8% of the total increase in the State
prison population over the period.
*In 1994 there were an estimated 88,100 sex offenders
incarcerated in State prisons nationwide, accounting for about
9.7% of the inmate population (figure 18).  Sex offenders
accounted for about 1 in 5 violent offenders housed in State
prisons in 1994.  About 6 out of 10 sex offenders had been
convicted of sexual assault, and 4 in 10 had been convicted of
forcible rape.  The largest category of sex offenders was
composed of those serving time for molestation, fondling, or
other related kinds of sexual assault.
 
Figure 18.  The percentage of state prisoners 
serving a sentence for rape or sexual assault, 
1994 estimate
        Total State prison population
                   906,112
     ----------------------------------
       Convicted of a violent offense                      
                    47.4%                                         
     -----------------------------------
     Convicted of rape or sexual assault                
                     9.7%
     -----------------------------------
Forcible rape   3.7%    Other sexual assault   6.0%
--------------------    --------------------------------
                           Lewd acts
                           with children       1.5%
                           Statutory rape       .2%
                           Forcible sodomy      .3% 
                           Fondling,
                           molestation,
                           and other 
                           sexual assaults     4.1%
*Over the period from 1985 to 1993, there has been only slight
variation in the average sentence received for rape and sexual
assault by those entering State prisons (figure 19).  Entering
prisoners convicted of rape have received sentences averaging
between 12 and 13 years, while those convicted of sexual assault
have been admitted to prison with sentences averaging between 8
and 9 years.  There is no evidence from national data on those
admitted to State prisons that the average sentence for either
category of crime has been lengthening.
Figure 19.  Average sentence received 
for rape and sexual assault, 
State prison admissions, 1985-93
                       Other
                       sexual
Year        Rape       assault
1985        147        105
1986        152        105
1987        157        105
1988        156        97
1989        148        98
1990        149        97
1991        140        99
1992        144        99
1993        141       108
Source: BJS, National Corrections Reporting Program. 
*National data on sex offenders discharged from State prisons
between 1985 and 1993 reveal two distinct trends:
   --an increase in the average length of stay
   --an increase in the percentage of the sentence 
     served in confinement prior to release.  
*While the average sentence of convicted rapists discharged from
State prisons has remained stable at approximately 10 years, the
average time served has increased from about 3 1/2 years to
about 5 years, raising the percentage of sentence served from
about 38% to about 50% (figure 20).
Figure 20. Average prison sentence received for rape 
and time served in State prison 
prior to first release, 1985-93
               Average        Average
               sentence       time served
Year           in months      in months
1985            105            41
1986            121            45
1987            122            47
1988            117            45
1989            115            51
1990            123            55
1991            117            56
1992            117            59
1993            117            57
Source: BJS, National Corrections Reporting Program.
 
*For those exiting prison after serving time for convictions for
sexual assault, the average sentence they had received remained
stable at about 6 1/2 years, while the average time served grew
by about 6 months, from just over 2 years to just under 3 years.
Released sexual assaulters in 1985 had served about 34% of their
sentences prior to discharge; sexual assaulters released in 1993
had served just over 41% of their sentences (figure 21).
Figure 21. Average prison sentence and time served
for sexual assault (excluding rape), 
State prison releases, 1985-93
               Average        Average
               sentence       time served
Year           in months      in months*
1985             77             26
1986             77             27
1987             77             29
1988             75             27
1989             76             29
1990             77             30
1991             76             31
1992             75             30
1993             80             33
Note:  The averages are for prisoners released 
for the first time on a sentence.
*Excluding credited jail time of about 5 months
Source: BJS, National Corrections Reporting Program. 
Characteristics of imprisoned rape and sexual assault offenders
*Imprisoned violent sex offenders were more likely to have been
male and white than other violent offenders (table 2). 
Offenders serving time for sexual assault, in contrast to those
incarcerated for rape, were substantially more likely to be
white, and they were nearly 3 years older, on average, at the
time of their arrest for the offense.  While about half of
incarcerated rapists were white, about 3 out of 4 prisoners
serving time for sexual assault were white.  
Table 2.  Characteristics of imprisoned rape 
and sexual assault offenders
                       Offenders in State prison
                       ---------------------------
                       All                 Sexual
Characteristic         violent    Rape     assault
Estimated number
of offenders, 1994     429,400    33,800    54,300
Sex
  Male                   96.2%      99.6%     98.8%
  Female                  3.8        0.4       1.2
Race
  White                  48.1%      52.2%     73.9%
  Black                  48.2       43.7      22.8
  Other                   3.7        4.1       3.3
Age at arrest 
for current offense
  Less than 18            3.1%        .6%      1.1%
  18-24                  38.1       33.7      23.6
  25-29                  22.1       20.9      17.0
  30-34                  15.0       17.7      16.3
  35-39                   8.8       10.9      13.4
  40-44                   5.0        4.1      10.2
  45-49                   3.4        4.8       6.6
  50-54                   1.7        2.9       4.4
  55-59                   1.5        3.2       4.2
  60 or older             1.4        1.3       3.2
    Average at arrest   29 yrs     31 yrs    34 yrs
Marital status
  Married                17.1%      22.1%     21.8%
  Widowed                 2.6        1.2       1.7
  Divorced               21.4       28.5      35.0
  Separated               5.6        6.2       4.9
  Never married          53.3       42.0      36.6
*Age differences were particularly striking--less than 5% of
incarcerated violent offenders are at least age 50, but about 7%
of rapists and 12% of sexual assaulters are 50 or older.  The
average age at arrest of violent offenders serving time in State
prisons was 29 years, compared to rapists, 31 years, and sexual
assaulters, 34 years.
*The relationship between age at arrest and the likelihood of
having been imprisoned for a violent sex offense is also shown
by the percentage of each age group serving time for such
offenses.  While about 1 in 7 inmates arrested between the ages
of 18 and 24 had been incarcerated for rape or sexual assault,
half of those between the ages of 55 and 59 at the time of their
arrest were serving time for a violent sex crime (figure 22).   
Figure 22.  State prison inmates serving time 
for rape or sexual assault, by age at arrest
Age at arrest      Percent of inmates
Younger than 18            5.9%
18-24                     13.9
25-29                     16.3
30-34                     21.9
35-39                     28.1
40-44                     31.8
45-49                     34.8
50-54                     45.4
55-59                     50.6
60 or older               36.2
Source:  BJS, 1991 Survey of Inmates in State Correctional
Facilities. (rev. 2/7/97)
*In addition to race and age differences between sex offenders
and other violent offenders, substantial differences in marital
status backgrounds are also evident.  Less than half (47%) of
prisoners serving time for violence report ever having been
married. About 6 in 10 rapists and more than 6 in 10 sexual
assaulters reported having ever been married.  Similar to other
violent offenders, however, about a third of those who reported
that they had ever married indicated that they were married at
the time of their imprisonment.
*Overall, an estimated 61% of violent sex offenders in State
prisons have a prior conviction history that resulted in a
sentence to probation or incarceration (figure 23).  An
estimated 1 in 4 imprisoned rape and sexual assault offenders
has a prior history of convictions for violent crimes, and 1 in
7 had been previously convicted of a violent sex crime.  
Figure 23.  Conviction histories of offenders serving time 
in State prisons for rape or sexual assault, 1994 estimates
                In 1994, in the custody of State 
                     correction authorities 
                        906,112 offenders
            -----------------------------------------------
                  Serving time in State prisons 
                      for a violent offense 
                        429,000 offenders
            -----------------------------------------------
            Serving time for rape and sexual assault  
                         88,100 offenders
            -----------------------------------------------
                                Lewd
                       Statu-   acts                Other
             Forcible  tory     with      Forcible  sexual
             rape      rape     children  sodomy    assault
Number of
inmates      33,800    1,450    13,400    2,500     36,900
-----------------------------------------------------------
Prior
convictions     64%      56%       55%      70%        59%
Prior
convictions
for violence    26%      31%       22%      32%        26%
Prior convic-
tions for rape
or sexual 
assault         10%      26%       17%       20%       12%
*Rapists and sexual assaulters serving time in State prisons
were less likely to have had a prior conviction history or a
history of violence than other incarcerated violent offenders. 
However, they were substantially more likely to have had a
history of convictions for violent sex offenses--imprisoned
sex offenders, while accounting for about 20% of all violent
offenders, accounted for about 66% of all violent offenders with
a prior history of sex offenses.
               Offenders in State prison    
               ----------------------------
Prior           All                Sexual
convictions    violent    Rape     assault     
Any felony       71%       64%       58%
Violence         31%       26%       25%
Sex offenses      4%       10%       15%
*Sexual assault offenders were substantially more likely than
any other category of offenders to report having experienced
physical or sexual abuse while growing up (figure 24). However,
two-thirds of sexual assault offenders reported that they had
never been physically or sexually abused as a child.
Figure 24. State inmates reporting physical or sexual abuse
occurring before prison and inmates reporting abuse 
as children, by selected offenses
Current           Physically/        Abused as
offense*          sexually abused    children         
-----------------------------------------------------------------
   All inmates        13.7%            11.8%
    Murder             17.3             14.2
    Rape               20.8             19.3
    Other sexual 
     assault           34.9             34.0
    Robbery            10.8              9.4
    Assault            14.0             11.7
    Burglary           12.6             11.0
    Larceny            11.3              8.9
*Most serious offense for which inmates 
were sentenced to prison
Source:  BJS, 1991 Survey of Inmates 
in State Correctional Facilities
*About 14% of imprisoned sex offenders reported that their
sentence included a special court condition that they receive
psychological or specialized sex-offender treatment.  Overall,
about 4% of the sentences of confined violent offenders had a
similar requirement.
The victims of imprisoned rape 
and sexual assault offenders
*Imprisoned rape offenders were more likely than those convicted
of sexual assault to report having had a single victim for the
offense for which they were serving time.
                  Offenders in State prison   
                  ------------------------------ 
Number            All                   Sexual
of victims        violent     Rape      assault
1                 76.1%       85.9%      78.8%
2 or more         23.9%       14.1%      21.2%
*Sexual assault offenders were about 3 times as likely as those
serving time for rape to have had a male victim (table 3).  Both
categories of violent sex offenders, however, reported that the
vast majority of their victims had been female.
Table 3.  Victims of imprisoned rape and sexual assault offenders
                      Violent offenders in State 
                      prison reporting single
                      victims
                      --------------------------
                                        Sexual
    Characteristic    All      Rape     assault
    -------------------------------------------
Sex of victim
  Male               55.8%      5.5%      15.2%
  Female             44.2      94.5       84.8
Race of victim
  White              64.5%     67.8%      76.4%
  Black              29.8      27.6       20.1
  Other               5.7       4.6        3.5
Age of victim
  12 or younger       9.9%     15.2%      44.7%
  13 to 17            8.8      21.8       33.0
  18 to 24           17.5      25.1        9.4
  25 to 34           31.1      25.4        7.7
  35 to 54           26.5      10.2        4.3
  55 or older         6.3       2.3        0.9
    Median age      29 yrs    22 yrs     13 yrs
Relationship to offender
  Family             12.9%     20.3%      37.7%
    Spouse            2.5       1.2        0.6
    Child/stepchild   6.1      14.0       25.9
    Other relative    4.3       5.1       11.2
  Intimate            5.5       9.1        6.2
    Boyfriend/
      girlfriend      5.0       8.8        5.4
    Ex-spouse         0.5       0.3        0.8
  Acquaintance     34.7      40.8       41.2
  Stranger           46.9      29.8       14.9
*The victims of sexual assault, like the offenders, were more
likely to have been white than was the case among victims and
offenders in rape and other violent crimes.
*Violent sex offenders with single victims reported that two-thirds
of their victims had been under the age of 18 (figures 25 and 26). 
About 4 in 10 rapists reported their victim had been a child,
and 8 out of 10 sexual assaulters said their victim had been
less than 18 years old.  Victims of sexual assault were the
youngest victims among those persons described by incarcerated
violent State prisoners.  The median age of the victims of
imprisoned sexual assaulters was less than 13 years old; the
median age of rape victims was about 22 years.  
Figure 25.  Age of single victims of rape offenders 
in State prison
      12 or younger        15.2%
      13 to 17             21.8%
      18 or older          63.0%
(rev. 2/7/97)
Figure 26.  Age of victims of sexual assault offenders 
in State prison
      12 or younger        44.7%
      13 to 17             33.0
      18 or older          22.3
(rev. 2/7/97)
*While nearly half of all violent offenders committed the crime
for which they had been imprisoned against a stranger, about 30%
of  rapists and less than 15% of sexual assaulters reported
their victim had been a stranger to them.  Sexual assaulters
were about 3 times as likely as all violent offenders and twice
as likely as rapists to report that the victim had been a member
of their family.  For 1 in 4 imprisoned sexual assaulters, the
victim had been their own child or stepchild.
*Violent sex offenders convicted of rape or sexual assault were
substantially less likely than other violent offenders to have
used a weapon during the commission of the crime (table 4). 
This difference is especially evident for firearms:  About 30%
of all violent offenders reported having used a firearm, while
about 5% of rapists and 2% of sexual assaulters used a firearm
during the crime.  However, rapists were about as likely as all
violent offenders to report having used a knife while committing
the crime.
Table 4.  Inmate reports of their weapon use 
                      Violent offenders 
                      in State prison 
                    ------------------------
                                     Sexual 
                    All      Rape    assault
     Total          100%     100%     100%
Any weapon         45.7%    16.6%     5.6%
   Handgun         24.2      4.7      1.5
   Other firearm    5.8      0.7      0.5
   Knife           11.1      9.6      3.1
   Other weapon     4.7      1.6      0.5
No weapon          54.3     83.4     94.4
Recidivism of violent sex offenders
*About 45% of State prisoners participating in the 1991 survey
had committed the crime for which they were serving a sentence
while in the community on probation or parole.  These offenders
were convicted of about 13,000 rapes out of nearly 91,000
convictions for violence during the period preceding imprisonment 
when they had been under supervision in the community.
*Violent sex offenders in State prisons were less likely than
violent offenders overall to have been on probation or parole
prior to prison admission.  As a group, about 1 in 5 sex
offenders reported that they had been under conditional
supervision in the community prior to entering prison. 
*An estimated 24% of those serving time for rape and 19% of
those serving time for sexual assault had been on probation or
parole at the time of the offense for which they were in State
prison in 1991.  
*A 3-year BJS followup of a sample of felony offenders placed on
probation found that rapists had a lower rate of re-arrest for a
new felony and a lower rate of re-arrest for a violent felony
than most categories of probationers with convictions for
violence.  While about 41% of violent probationers were
re-arrested within 3 years of placement on probation for a new
felony offense, an estimated 19.5% of rapists were re-arrested
for a new felony within 3 years.  
*Rapists on probation were more likely than other felons,
however, to be re-arrested for a new rape.  While about 1.5% of
violent felony probationers were rearrested for a new rape
within 3 years, about 3% of probationers under conditional
supervision after conviction for rape were re-arrested for a new
rape within 3 years.
*BJS also carried out a 3-year followup of a sample drawn to
represent 109,000 prisoners released in 1983 from prisons in 11
States.  During the followup period, this group of releasees
acquired about 50,000 arrests for new violent crimes, including
nearly 4,000 arrests for rape and sexual assault.  Prior to
their imprisonment, fingerprint records for this group of
offenders evidenced more than 19,000 prior arrests for rape and
sexual assault.
*Offenders convicted of rape and sexual assault composed just
over 4% of those discharged from prisons in the 11 States in
1983.  Over the 3-year period following prison release, an
estimated 52% of discharged rapists and 48% of discharged sexual
assaulters were re-arrested for a new crime.  Their criminal
history records also evidenced a lower percentage of sex
offenders who were reconvicted and reimprisoned during the
followup period than was the case for all violent offenders
discharged from prison.
                     Percent of all inmates
                ---------------------------------------
Offenders       Rearrested  Reconvicted  Reincarcerated
All violent        60%          42%          37%
Rape               52%          36%          32%
Sexual assault     48%          33%          24%
*During the followup period, which began in 1983, the prison
release cohort accounted for 3.8% of all the rape arrests that
took place in the 11 States in 1983, 2.4% of all the rape
arrests in the 11 States in 1984, and about 1% of the arrests
for rape in the 11 States in 1985 and 1986.
*Nearly 28% of released rapists were re-arrested for a new
violent crime within 3 years (figure 27).  For nearly 8% of
released rapists, the new arrest for a violent crime was another
charge for rape.  During the followup period  about 1% of
murderers, robbers, and assaulters were rearrested for a new
rape.  Released rapists were found to be 10.5 times as likely as
nonrapists to be re-arrested for rape, and those who had served
time for sexual assault were 7.5 times as likely as those
convicted of other crimes to be re-arrested for a new sexual
assault.  
Figure 27.  Re-arrest of convicted rapists released 
from prison and followed for 3 years
       Convicted rapists released from 
       prison and followed for 3 years
                    2,214
---------------------------------------------
         Re-arrested for a new crime                        
                    51.5%
                    
     Re-arrested for a new violent crime                
                    27.5%
---------------------------------------------
Murder       Rape       Robbery       Assault
 2.8%         7.7%         8.5%         10.7%
This BJS study tracked a sample of offenders in 11 States drawn
to respresent those released from prisons in those States in
1983.  Each offender was tracked through both State and Federal
criminal history records.  Offenders may have been arrested more
than once during the followup period.
     * * *
Sex offending and murder
Since the latter half of the 1980's, the percentage of all
murders with known circumstances in which rape or other sex
offenses have been identified by investigators as the principal
circumstance underlying the murder has been declining from about
2% of murders to less than 1%.
Data on murder and murder victims and circumstances are obtained
from the annual Supplemental Homicide Reporting (SHR) program of
the FBI.  
In the SHR, local law enforcement agencies report monthly a wide
variety of information on each reported criminal homicide,
differentiating murders and nonnegligent manslaughters from
negligent manslaughters. Included are incident-based data on --
   *the number of victims and offenders
   *age, race, sex, and ethnic origin for victims and offender 
   *type of weapon used
   *victim-offender relationship
   *a narrative statement about the circumstances 
    of the homicide.
The narrative statements of circumstances are classified into 32
categories, including rape and other sex offenses. "Other sex
offenses" includes sexual assaults such as statutory rape,
sodomy, and incest and attempts to commit these crimes. 
Excluded from both of these categories of circumstances are
commercial sex offenses such as prostitution or commercial vice.
*Between 1976 and  1994 there were an estimated 405,089 murders
in the United States.  Of these, the circumstances surrounding
the murder are known in 317,925, or 78.5%.  Among the cases with
known circumstances, an estimated 4,807, or 1.5%, were
classified as involving rape or another sex offense.  (Note: 
Murders classified as involving rape or other sex offenses will
be referred to as "sexual assault murders.")
*In 1986 sexual assault murders accounted for 1.8% of murders
with known circumstances; in 1994, an estimated 0.7% of murders
involved sexual assault, the lowest percentage in the 19 years
for which SHR data are available (figure 28).
Figure 28.  Murders involving rape or other sexual assault, 
as a percentage of murders with known circumstances, 
1976-94
                 Percent of murders involving 
   Year          rape or other sexual assault
   1976                      1.9%
   1977                      1.9
   1978                      1.5
   1979                      1.8
   1980                      1.6
   1981                      1.6
   1982                      1.6
   1983                      1.8
   1984                      1.8
   1985                      1.8
   1986                      1.8
   1987                      1.7
   1988                      1.5
   1989                      1.3
   1990                      1.3
   1991                      1.1
   1992                      1.1
   1993                       .8
   1994                       .7
Source: FBI, Supplementary Homicide Reports.
*Known offenders in sexual assault murders are more likely to
have been male than is true for murders in general (table 5). 
Sexual assault murders are also more likely than all murders to
involve a white offender (58% versus 48%).
Table 5.  Characteristics of known offenders 
in murders involving sexual assault,  1976-94
                                                         
                              Murders
                      -----------------------
Offender
characteristic        All      Sexual assault  
Sex
   Male               86.6%        95.0%
   Female             13.4          5.0
Race
  White               47.8%        58.0%
  Black               50.3         39.9
  Other                1.9          2.1
Age
  12 or younger         .2%           .1%
  13 to 17             8.1           9.9
  18 to 24            30.1          39.1
  25 to 29            18.0          22.5
  30 to 39            23.1          21.1
  40 to 49            11.1           5.4
  50 to 59             5.4           1.5
  60 or older          3.9            .4
     Average         31 yrs        26 yrs
(rev. 2/7/97)
*Offenders in sexual assault murders are on average about 5
years younger than all murderers.  More than 60% of sexual
assault murderers, but less than 50% of all murderers, are
between ages 18 and 29 (figure 29).   At age 60 or older,
murderers in the aggregate are 10 times as likely to be found in
this age group as those classified as sexual assault murderers. 
Youth under age 18 have accounted for about 10% of the sexual
assault murders that have taken place since 1976.
Figure 29.  Age of known offenders in all murders 
and in murders involving sexual assault, 1976-94
Age                 All          Murders involving
at arrest           murders      sexual assault
-----------------------------------------------------------------
12 or younger          .2%              .1%
13-17                 8.1              9.9
18-24                30.1             39.1
25-29                18.0             22.5
30-39                23.1             21.1
40-49                11.1              5.4
50-59                 5.4              1.5
60 or older           3.9               .4
Source: FBI, Supplementary Homicide Reports.
*Sexual assault murder victims differ markedly from other murder
victims.  Compared to all murder victims, those who died as a
consequence of a sexual assault were substantially more likely
to be female and white.  Sexual assault murder victims were both
younger and older than the aggregate of all murder victims. 
More than 25% of sexual assault murder victims were under age
18, compared to about 15% of all murder victims.  In addition,
nearly 1 in 7 sexual assault murder victims were 60 or older,
compared to 1 in 14 murder victims.  Among victims, those age 13
to 17 (3.3% of whom died from a sexual assault murder) and those
age 60 or older (2.6% died from a sexual assault murder)
reflected the highest percentages killed under these
circumstances (figure 30).
Figure 30.  Percent of murder victims in each age group
killed in a sexual assault murder, 1976-94
Age              Percent of 
of victims       murder victims
12 or younger          2.0%
13-17                   3.3
18-24                   1.6
25-29                   1.2
30-39                   1.0
40-49                   1.1
50-59                   1.1
60 or older             2.6
Source: FBI, Supplementary Homicide Reports.
                               Murders
                        ---------------------
Victim                              Sexual   
characteristic          All         assault 
----------------      --------     ----------
Sex of victim
     Male              76.4%          18.0%
     Female            23.6           82.0
Race of victim
     White             51.7%          68.4%
     Black             46.3           28.9
     Other              2.0            2.7
Age of victim
     12 or younger     10.1%         14.8% 
     13 to 17           4.6           9.7
     18 to 24          21.3          21.7
     25 to 29          15.7          12.3
     30 to 39          22.0          14.2
     40 to 49          11.7           8.3
     50 to 59           6.9           5.3
     60 or older        7.7          13.7
     Average age       32 yrs        32 yrs
***************************************************************
*About 8 out of 10 sexual assault murders were intraracial. 
White victims and white offenders accounted for 55% of sexual
assault murders, black victims and black offenders accounted for
24% of all murders involving sexual assault, 2% involved black
victims and white offenders, 15% involved white victims and
black offenders, and the remainder involved victims and
offenders of other races.
*Sexual assault murders were about twice as likely as all
murders (39.2% versus 20.9%) to involve victims and offenders
who were strangers (figure 31).  Sexual assault murders and all
murders were equally likely to have involved acquaintances, but
family murders were far less likely to have involved sexual
assault.
*****************************************************************
Figure 31. Victim-offender relationship in murders involving
sexual assault and in all murders,  1976-94
                           Percent of murders
                 --------------------------------------
                 All murders         Murders involving 
                                     sexual assault
-----------------------------------------------------------------
  Family            22.9%                  6.7%
  Intimate           6.3                   3.5
  Acquaintance      50.0                  50.6
  Stranger          20.9                  39.2
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Source: FBI, Supplementary Homicide Reports.
*****************************************************************
*The most commonly used weapon in sexual assault murders was a
knife (figure 32).  About 2.2% of murders in which a knife was
used involved sexual assault.  Less than 0.4% of firearm murders
involved sexual assault.
*****************************************************************
Figure 32.  Weapon or method used in murders involving sexual
assault, 1976-94
      Knife                     28.5%
      Firearm                   17.0
      Blunt object              12.6
      Hands, feet               20.2
      All other methods         21.7
*****************************************************************
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Glossary for U.S. statistical series: Defining sex offenses
-----------------------------------------------------------------
As noted throughout the report, the statistical series differ in
the types of offenses covered.  The following series and their
definitions of covered sex offenses are included:
-----------------------------------------------------------------
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
-------------------------------------------------------------
"Rape" is defined as forced sexual intercourse in which the
victim may be either male or female and the offender may be of a
different sex or the same sex as the victim.  Victims must be at
least 12 years old; victims less than age 12 are excluded from
all estimates.  Includes attempts and threats to commit rape.  
"Sexual assault" includes a wide range of victimizations
involving attacks in which unwanted sexual contact occurs
between the victim and offender.  Includes threats and attempts
to commit sexual assault
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and Supplementary Homicide Reports
(SHR) 
-----------------------------------------------------------------
"Forcible rape" is the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and
against her will.  Assaults or attempts to commit rape by force
or threat of force are also included; however, statutory rape
(without force) and other sex offenses are excluded.  Forcible
rape is included as a Part I offense.
"Sex offenses" are limited to arrests only and exclude forcible
rape, prostitution, and commercial vice; no data on sex offenses
are included in the enumeration of Part I offenses.  Sex
offenses include sodomy, statutory rape, and offenses against
chastity, decency, morals, and the like. Attempts are included.
-----------------------------------------------------------------
National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)
-----------------------------------------------------------------
"Forcible rape" is the carnal knowledge of a person forcibly
and/or against  the person's will; or not forcibly or against
the person's will where the victim is incapable of giving
consent because of his/her youth or because of his/her temporary
or permanent mental or physical capacity.  This offense includes
both male and female victims and threats and attempts.
"Statutory rape" is the carnal knowledge of a person without
force or the threat of force when that person is below the
statutory age of consent.  The ability of the victim to give
consent is a determination by the law enforcement agency.
"Forcible sodomy" is oral or anal sexual intercourse with
another person, forcibly and/or against that person's will; or
not forcibly or against that person's will where the victim is
incapable of giving consent because of his/her youth or because
of his/her temporary or permanent mental or physical incapacity.
"Sexual assault with an object" is to use an instrument or
object to unlawfully penetrate the genital or anal opening of
the body of another person, forcibly and/or against that
person's will.  The same characteristics apply in this offense
as in forcible rape and sodomy regarding the ability of the
victim to give consent.
"Forcible fondling" is the touching of the private body parts of
another person for the purpose of sexual gratification, forcibly
and/or against that person's will.  The same limitations apply
with respect to consent that are described for forcible rape and
sodomy.  Forcible fondling also includes indecent liberties and
child molesting.
"Incest" is nonforcible sexual intercourse between persons who
are related to each other within the degrees wherein marriage is
prohibited by law.
---------------------------------------------------------------
National Pretrial Reporting Program (NPRP)
---------------------------------------------------------------
"Rape" includes forcible intercourse, sodomy, or penetration
with a foreign object.  Does not include statutory rape or
nonforcible acts with a minor or someone unable to give legal
consent, nonviolent sexual offenses, or commercialized sex
offenses.  Includes attempts.
--------------------------------------------------------------
National Judicial Reporting Program (NJRP)
"Rape" is forcible intercourse (vaginal, anal, or oral) with a
female or male.  Includes forcible sodomy or penetration with a
foreign object.  Does not include statutory rape or any other
nonforcible sexual acts with a minor or with someone unable to
give legal consent.  Includes attempts.
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities (SISCF) and
National Corrections Reporting Program (NCRP)
-----------------------------------------------------------------
"Forcible rape" is forcible intercourse with a male or female. 
Includes attempts and conspiracies to commit rape.
"Statutory rape" is the carnal knowledge of a child without
force.  Includes attempts.
"Lewd acts with children" includes fondling, indecent liberties,
immoral practices, molestation, and other indecent behaviors
with children.  Includes attempts.
"Forcible sodomy" includes deviate sexual intercourse, buggery,
and oral or anal intercourse by force.  Includes attempts.
"Other sexual assault" includes gross sexual imposition, sexual
abuse, aggravated sexual abuse, and other acts such as fondling,
molestation, or indecent liberties where the victim is not a
child.  Include attempts.
-------------------------
Basic sources
-------------------------
The following publications and other materials about criminal
justice issues may be found by requesting them from the BJS
Clearinghouse,  Box 179, Annapolis Junction, MD 20701-0179 
or by calling 1-800-732-3277.  
Most reports are also available at the BJS World Wide Web site:
         http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/
National Crime Victimization Survey
Criminal Victimization in the United States, 1993, BJS, May
1996, NCJ-151657.
-----------------------------------------------------------------
National Prisoner Statistics, Probation and Parole Data Surveys,
and Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Child Victimizers:  Violent Offenders and Their Victims, BJS,
March 1996, NCJ-161132.
BJS, Correctional Populations in the United States, selected
years.
BJS, National Corrections Reporting Program, selected years.
Prisoners and Jail Inmates, 1995, August 1996, NCJ-161132.
Prisoners in 1994, BJS, August 1995, NCJ-151654.
-----------------------------------------------------
National Judicial Reporting Program
----------------------------------------------------------
State Court Sentencing of Convicted Felons, 1992, BJS, May 1996,
NCJ-152696.
-----------------------------------------------------------------
National Pretrial Reporting Program (State Court Processing
Statistics)
-----------------------------------------------------------------
Felony Defendants in Large Urban Counties, 1992, BJS, July 1995,
NCJ-148826.
-----------------------------------------------------
Offender-Based Tracking Survey
-----------------------------------------------------
Tracking Offenders, 1990, BJS, June 1994, NCJ-148200.
---------------------------------------------------------------
National Incident-Based Reporting System
---------------------------------------------------------------
Using NIBRS Data to Analyze Violent Crime, BJS, October 1993,
NCJ-144785.
-----------------------------------------------
Supplementary Homicide Reports
-----------------------------------------------
FBI, National Archive of Criminal Justice Data, accessible
through-- 
         http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/NACJD/home.html
         search for data (DA):  6754
------------------------------------
Uniform Crime Reports
------------------------------------
FBI, Crime in the United States, selected years.
*****************************************************************
Cover figure.  About 234,000 convicted sex offenders are under
the care, custody, or control of corrections agencies on an
average day.  Nearly 60% are under conditional supervision in
the community.
         Total                233,636
   Probation                  106,710
   Local jails                 10,345
   State and Federal prisons   88,975
   Parole                      27,606
*****************************************************************
END OF FILE.