Paul, the Roman CitizenAnd I became as a Jew to the Jews, that I might gain Jews; to those under Law as under Law, that I might gain those under Law; to those without Law as without Law (not being without Law of God, but under the law of Christ), that I might gain those without Law.I became to the weak as weak, that I might gain the weak. To all I have become all things, that in any and every way I might save some.And I do this for the gospel, that I might become a fellow partaker of it, 1Corinthians 9:20-23for ye did hear of my behaviour once in Judaism, that exceedingly I was persecuting the assembly of God, and wasting it, Galatians 1:13
Is there a conflict in St. Paul's writing?:
Paul didn't have to buy his Roman citizenship as the commander had to because he was born in Cilicia as a Roman citizen. Jews, on the other hand, were not Roman citizens and were being expelled from Rome by Claudius. Paul was also an Israelite, so we know that his citizenship was Roman and he was a descendant of Jacob, which all demonstrates that he was not born as a jew and was not a citizen of Judaea. Had he been a citizen of Judaea, he would have been a Judaean, sometimes referred to as a "jew".
Further evidence of this is that he "became as a jew". Had he been born as a jew, he would not have had to become one, or more exactly, to become "as" one, because he would have already been a jew. He didn't even claim to become a jew in reality, because he said he "became *as* a jew", which means that he became like or similar to a jew. How can someone become like a jew without becoming a jew?
Obviously he didn't change his citizenship, nor residence, so this could only mean that he considered himself to be "as a jew" by virtue of his studies under the Pharisee Gamaliel. This means that he "became as a jew" by religious preference rather than as a race or citizenship.
The jews, however, saw it differently and Paul complains that "the jews tried to kill me" more than 30 different times throughout the Holy Bible. The reason they tried to kill him (and possibly did finally succeed in killing him while in prison) is that they didn't accept his claim that he "became as a jew". And certainly his conversion to Christianity was a good reason for them to think that.
So it's odd today that jews would claim that Paul was a jew when their entire argument against him, and their reason for wanting to kill him, was that his conversion to Judaism wasn't, to say the least, a success.
"MY GOSPEL"?Rom 2:16 In the day when God shall judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ according to my gospel. Rom 16:25 Now to him that is of power to establish you according to my gospel, and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery, which was kept secret since the world began, 2Ti 2:8 Remember that Jesus Christ of the seed of David was raised from the dead according to my gospel:
PAUL WROTE 30 TIMES: "THE JEWS TRIED TO KILL ME"
Throughout the Holy Bible, St. Paul describes how "the jews" tried to kill him 30 different times, and how they stoned him once and left him for dead.
(John 5:15-16) The man went away and told the Jews that Jesus is the One making him well. And because of this, the Jews persecuted Jesus and lusted to kill Him, because He did these things on a sabbath.(John 5:18) Because of this, therefore, the Jews lusted the more to kill Him, for not only did He break the sabbath, but also called God His own Father, making Himself equal to God.
(John 7:1) And after these things Jesus was walking in Galilee; for He did not desire to walk in Judea, because the Jews were lusting to kill Him.(John7:13) However, no one publicly spoke about Him, because of the fear of the Jews.John 8:37 I know that you are descendants of Abraham; yet you seek to kill me, because my word finds no place in you. (John8:57-59) Then the Jews said to Him, You do not yet have fifty years, and have You seen Abraham? Jesus said to them, Truly, truly, I say to you, Before Abraham came to be, I AM! Because of this, they took up stones that they might throw them on Him. But Jesus was hidden, and went forth out of the temple, going through the midst of them, and so passed by.(John9:22) His parents said these things because they feared the Jews; for the Jews had already agreed that if anyone should confess Him as Christ, he would be expelled from the synagogue.(John10:19-20) Then a division occurred again among the Jews, because of these words. And many of them said, He has a demon and is insane. Why do you hear Him?(John10:24-27) Then the Jews encircled Him, and said to Him, Until when do You lift up our soul? If You are the Christ, tell us publicly. Jesus answered them, I told you, and you did not believe. The works which I do in the name of My Father, these bear witness about Me. But you do not believe for you are not of My sheep, as I said to you. My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, and they follow Me.(John10:31) Then again the Jews took up stones, that they might stone Him.(John10:33) The Jews answered Him, saying, We do not stone You concerning a good work, but concerning blasphemy; and because You, being a man, make Yourself God.(John11:8) The disciples said to Him, Rabbi, just now the Jews were seeking to stone You, and do You go there again?Act 9:23 And when many days were fulfilled, the Jews took counsel together to kill him, Act 14:5 and when there was a purpose both of the nations and of the Jews with their rulers to use them despitefully, and to stone them, Act 14:19 And there came thither, from Antioch and Iconium, Jews, and they having persuaded the multitudes, and having stoned Paul, drew him outside of the city, having supposed him to be dead; (Acts23:2) But Ananias the high priest ordered those standing by him to strike his mouth.(Acts23:10) And discord having arisen, fearing lest Paul should be torn by them, the chiliarch commanded the soldiers to go down to snatch him out of their midst, and to bring him into the fortress.(Acts23:12) And it becoming day, some of the Jews making a conspiracy cursed themselves, saying neither to eat nor to drink until they should kill Paul.(Acts23:14) who, having come near to the chief priests and to the elders, said, With a curse we have cursed ourselves to taste of nothing until we shall kill Paul.(Acts23:15) Now, then, you with the sanhedrin inform the chiliarch, so that tomorrow he may bring him down to you, as intending more accurately to find out about him. And before his drawing near, we are ready to kill him.(Acts23:20) And he said, The Jews agreed to ask you that tomorrow you bring down Paul into the sanhedrin, as intending to more accurately inquire concerning him.(Acts23:21) Therefore, you must not be persuaded by them, for more than forty men of them lie in wait for him who put themselves under a curse neither to eat nor to drink until they kill him. And now they are ready, awaiting the promise from you.(Acts23:27) This man being seized by the Jews, and being about to be killed by them, coming on with the soldiers I rescued him, learning that he was a Roman.(Acts23:30) And it being revealed to me that a plot against the man was about to be executed by the Jews, I at once sent him to you, also commanding the accusers to say the things against him before you. Farewell.(Acts26:21) Because of these things, having seized me in the temple, the Jews tried to kill me.(2Co 11:24) Five times I received forty stripes minus one from the Jews.(2Co 11:25) I was flogged three times; I was stoned once; I was shipwrecked three times; I have spent a night and a day in the deep.(Est 9:16) But the rest of the Jews in the king's provinces gathered and stood for their lives, and a rest from their enemies, and to kill seventy five thousand of their foes. But they did not lay their hands on the spoil.
PAUL THE ROMAN CITIZEN
(Acts16:37-39) But Paul said to them, Having beaten us publicly, being Romans and uncondemned men, they threw us into prison. And now do they throw us out secretly? No, indeed! But coming themselves, let them bring us out. And the floggers reported these words to the magistrates. And hearing that they were Romans, they were afraid. And coming, they begged them. And bringing them out, they asked them to go out of the city.(Acts18:2) And finding a certain Jew by name Aquila, of Pontus by race, having recently come from Italy with his wife Priscilla, because Claudius had ordered all the Jews to leave Rome, he came to them.(Acts22:28) And the chiliarch answered, I bought this citizenship with a great sum. And Paul said, But I even was born free.(Acts22:29) Then at once those being about to examine him stood away from him. And the chiliarch also feared, fully knowing that he was a Roman, and that he had bound him.
THE LOST CHAPTERS OF ACTS
OF THE APOSTLES
With Commentary by
E. Raymond Capt
The Bible gives a fairly complete account of the life of St. Paul; his conversion, his missionary journeys, and his martyrdom in Rome. But there is a period of time, approximately six years, of which the Bible remains silent. This would be the period after his trial and acquittal in Rome and before his return to Rome to cast his fate with his many converts. These were his Christian brethren who were being put to death by the thousands during the reign of Emperor Nero.
It would be reasonable to assume that during this period, Paul visited Spain as he had planned (Rom. 15:28) and perhaps re-visited some of the churches in Asia Minor. But, Paul had expressed a desire to preach the Gospel to those to whom the name of Christ was not known. There can be no question that Paul had heard of the "Tin Islands" because the Romans had already conquered the greater part of Britain. The Apostle could have met many in Rome and elsewhere who had been there, either as traders or with the Roman army. Having journeyed so near to Britain as Spain and Gaul, it is altogether reasonable to suppose that Paul would have made the short voyage across the English Channel.
The Sonnini Manuscript, better known as the "Long Lost Chapter of the Acts of the Apostles" contains the account of Pauls journey in Spain and Britain. The document, purporting to be the concluding portion of the "Acts of the Apostles", covers a portion of the period after Pauls two years enforced residence in Rome, in his own hired house. It is written in-the style of the Acts and reads like a continuation.
It was found interleaved in a copy of "Sonninis Travels in Turkey and Greece", and was purchased at the sale of the library and effects of the late Right Honourable Sir John Newport, Bart, in Ireland. Sir Johns family arms were engraved on the cover of the book. It had been in his possession for over thirty years. With the book was a document from the Sultan of Turkey, granting toC.S. Sonnini permission to travel in all parts of the Ottoman dominions. The document was translated by C.S. Sonnini from the original Greek manuscript found in the Archives at Constantinople, and presented to him by the Sultan Abdoul Achmet.
Points in favour of the authenticity of the manuscript are:
5. Its Scriptural brevity and conception of the Divine purpose and plan.
And the Book of James are the only two New Testament Books not
Ending in "amen". This has lead some Bible scholars to believe they
Are incomplete in their present form).
The following is the contents of the title page of Sonninis work, in which the English translation of the document was found: "Travels in Turkey and Greece undertaken by order of Louis XVI, and with the authority of the Ottoman Court, by Sonnini, member of several scientific or literary societies of the Society of Agriculture of Paris, and of the Observers of Men. "Mores multorum videt et ubes." -Hor., London: Printed for T.N. Longman and 0. Rees, Paternoster Row, 1801."
The following is the English translation of the Manuscript, the authenticity of which cannot be vouched for.
Copy of the Sonnini Manuscript
Verse 1.And Paul, full of the blessings of Christ, and abounding in the spirit, departed out of Rome, determining to go into Spain, for he had a long time proposed to journey thitherward, and was minded also to go from thence to Britain.
Verse 2.For he had heard in Phoenicia that certain of the children of Israel, about the time of the Assyrian captivity, had escaped by sea to "the Isles afar off"as spoken by the Prophet [Esdra], and called by the Romans - Britain.
Verse 3.And the Lord commanded the gospel to be preached far hence to the Gentiles [nations 1, and to the lost sheep of the House of Israel [Acts9:15, 22:21].
Verse4. And no man hindered Paul; for he testified boldly of Jesus before the tribunes and among the people; and he took with him certain of the brethren which abode with him at Rome, and they took shipping at Ostrium and having the winds fair, were brought safely into a haven of Spain.
Verse 5.And much people were gathered together from the towns and villages, and the hill country; for they had heard of the conversion of the Apostles, and the many miracles which he had wrought.
Verse6. And Paul preached mightily in Spain, and great multitudes believed and were converted, for they perceived he was an apostle sent from God.
Verse7. And they departed out of Spain, and Paul and his company finding a ship in Armorica sailing unto Britain, they were therein, and passing along the South Coast, they reached a port called Raphinus. (This is the Roman name for Sandwich, in Kent. In Saxon times there was, still standing in Sandwich, an old house called the "House of the Apostles" and tradition has it that Paul was one of the Apostles).
Verse 8.Now when it was voiced abroad that the Apostle had landed on their coast, great multitudes of the inhabitants met him, and they treated Paul courteously and he entered in at the east gate of their city, and lodged in the house of a Hebrew and one of his own nation.
Verse9. And on the morrow he came and stood upon Mount Lud
(Ludgate Hill and Broadway where St. Pauls Cathedral stands in
London, England)and the people thronged at the gate, and
assembled in the Broadway, and he preached Christ unto them, and they believed the Word and the testimony of Jesus.
Verse 10. And at even the Holy Ghost fell upon Paul, and he prophesied, saying, Behold in the last days the God of Peace shall dwell in the cities, and the inhabitants thereof shall be numbered:
and in the seventh numbering of the people, their eyes shall be opened, and the glory of their inheritance shine forth before them. And nations shall come up to worship on the mount that testfieth of the patience and long suffering of a servant of the Lord.
Verse 11. And in the latter days new tidings of the Gospel shall issue forth out of Jerusalem, and the hearts of the people shall rejoice, and behold, fountains shall be opened, and there shall be no more plague.
Verse 12. In those days there shall be wars and rumours of wars; and a king shall rise up, and his sword, shall be for the healing of the nations, and his peacemaking shall abide, and the glory of his kingdom a wonder among princes.
Verse 13. And it came to pass that certain of the Druids came unto Paul privately, and showed by their rites and ceremonies they were descended from the Jews [Jadeites] which escaped from bondage in the land of Egypt, and the Apostle believed these things, and he gave them the kiss of peace.
Verse 14. And Paul abode in his lodgings three months confirming in the faith and preaching Christ continually.
Verse 15. And after these things Paul and his brethren departed from Raphines and sailed unto Atium in Gaul.
Verse 16. And Paul preached in the Roman garrison and among the people, exhorting all men to repent and confess their sins.
Verse 17. And there came to him certain of the Belgae to enquire of him of the new doctrine, and of the man Jesus; and Paul opened his heart unto them and told them all things that had befallen him, howbeit, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners; and they departed pondering among themselves upon the things which they had heard.
Verse 18. And after much preaching and toil, Paul and his fellow labourers passed into Helvetia, and came to Mount Pontius Pilate, where he who condemned the Lord Jesus dashed himself down headlong, and so miserably perished.
Verse 19. And immediately a torrent gushed out of the mountain and washed his body, broken in pieces, into a lake.
Verse 20. And Paul stretched forth his hands upon the water, and prayed unto the Lord, saying, 0 Lord God, give a sign unto all nations that here Pontius Pilate which condemned thine only begotten Son, plunged down headlong into the pit.
Verse 21. And while Paul was yet speaking, behold, there came a great earthquake, and the face of the waters was changed, and the form of the lake like unto the Son of Man hanging in an agony upon the Cross.
Verse 22. And a voice came out of heaven saying, Even Pilate hath escaped the wrath to come (Second death- Rev. 21:8) for he washed his hands before the multitude at the blood-shedding of the Lord Jesus (Matt. 27:24).
Verse 23. When, therefore, Paul and those that were with him saw the earthquake, and heard the voice of the angel, they glorified God, and were mightly strengthened in the spirit.
Verse 24. And they journeyed and came to Mount Julius where stood two pillars, one on the right hand and one on the left hand, erected by Caesar Augustus.
Verse 25. And Paul, filled with the Holy Ghost, stood up between the two pillars, saying, Men and brethren these stones which ye see this day shall testify of my journey hence; and verily I say, they shall remain until the outpouring of the spirit upon all nations, neither shall the way be hindered throughout all generations.
Verse 26. And they went forth and came unto Illtricum, intending to go by Macedonia into Asia, and grace was found in all the churches, and they prospered and had peace. Amen!
COMMENTARY BY E. RAYMOND CAPT (Part I)
Verse 9 speaks of St. Paul speaking on Mount Lud. It is noteworthy that one of the earliest of the Pauline British traditions tells of Paul preaching to the Druids on the same mount. Verse 10 contains a remarkable prediction that"...nations shall come to worship on the Mount that testifieth of the patience and long-suffering of a servant of the Lord." One cannot fail to see that this prediction has had striking fulfillment in the magnificent edifice (St. Pauls Cathedral) which stands on the site of Mount Lud. It bears the Apostles own name, and has been the meeting place for men of other nations who have come to worship before the Lord.
While it may seem incredible to some Bible scholars that Paul preached in Britain, there is Biblical justification for such a mission. This would have been but a continuance of the commission Christ gave the original Apostles;"... ye shall be witnesses unto me both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea, and in Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth" (Acts 1:8). Note that the expression is "part", singular - not parts, which indicates it must have been a particular geographic location like the others listed - Judea, Samaria. But does the phrase... "The uttermost part of the earth" refers to the British Isles"?
One clue is given us by Agricola, the Roman governor of Britain (A.D. 37-93). He declared that he sailed up the east side of Britain and discovered "Ultima Thule", an expression well known in the Roman world, and applied to the remotest parts of the north and west of Europe. Galgacus, one of the chieftains of Caledonia, or Scotland, renowned for his valour in resisting the Romans, in rallying his people said: "the extremity of the earth is ours. Defined by our situation we have this day preserved our honour and the rights of men. But we are no longer safe in our obscurity. Our retreat is laid open.. ....This is the end of the habitable world, and rocks and brawling waves fill all the space behind."
Further evidence that "the uttermost part of the earth" is intended to refer to Britain is found in the Scottish Declaration of Independence, which was drawn up in 1320 in protest against the attempt by Edward Ito conquer Scotland with the help of the Pope. The document is deposited in the National Registry at Edinburgh, and states: "The nation of the Scots.. .Passing from the greater Scythia through the Mediterranean Sea and the Pillars of Hercules, and sojourning in Spain among the most savage tribes through a long course of time, could nowhere be subjugated by any people, however
barbarous; and coming thence one-thousand-two-hundred years after the outgoing of the people of Israel.. .acquired for themselves the possessions of the West. In this kingdom, one hundred and thirteen kings or their own royal stock, no strangers intervening, have reigned, whose nobility and merits. .shine out plainly enough from this, that the King of kings, even our Lord Jesus Christ, after His passion and resurrection, called them, though situated at the uttermost part of the earth, almost the first, to His most holy faith."
In this document, the Scots not only refer to themselves as situated in "the uttermost part of the earth" but also that they are of Israel, and date their history from the Exodus, here termed "the outgoing of the people of Israel". This furnishes a reasonable explanation for the Apostles carrying the Gospel to Britain. Their ministry was to be an extension of His own, and must lie within the scope of old-time prophecy. "Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not: But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel" (Matt. 10:5,6). "1am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel"(Matt. 15:24). Without doubt, their ministry was to Israel, and not some mysterious, foreign land and people. This agrees with the vision given to Esdras of "the most High" leading escaped Israel from Assyria. For three and a half years the Gospel was preached in and around Jerusalem, and then the teaching began to spread far and wide. Paul looked after the churches in Asia Minor, and we can find no record of any of the Twelve assisting him. After Pentecost, we are not told any more concerning the activities of eight of the Twelve. The one who had betrayed Jesus was replaced by Matthias, and his name is not mentioned again. This leaves only Peter and John about whom we hear nothing more, apart from the Epistles and the Book of Revelation, which they wrote. Paul acknowledges that these were ministers of the circumcision, and yet when he went to Jerusalem for a 15 day visit, he saw only James, the Lords brother and Peter:".but other of the apostles saw I none" (Gal. 1:19). Where could they possibly be if they were ministering to "the circumcision" but not in Jerusalem, Judea or Samaria? Circumcision was the outward sign of the Kingdom Covenant, which God made with Israel through Abraham, and therefore we must conclude that they had followed Israel to the "appointed place"- the coastlands and islands of the northwest.
Generally overlooked by Bible scholars is the fact that Israel was "appointed" a place outside of Palestine. In the Second Book of Samuel, Chapter 7, we read how God would establish Davids house, kingdom and throne forever in safety, but not in the Holy Land, which had once been occupied by others who now surrounded them as enemies. For he says, in verse 10: Moreover, I will appoint a place for my people Israel, and will plant them, that they may dwell in a place of their own, and move no more; neither shall the children of wickedness afflict them any more, as before time." Since they were then in Palestine it follows that the appointed place had to be somewhere else.
Although the Bible does not tell us of the migrations of Israel all the way from Palestine to western Europe and the islands in the northwest, it does say how and when they started. This is not an occasion for a detailed study of this subject. (For books covering this subject write Artisan Sales- listed last page)
It should be pointed out that when Paul entered Britain, he was not the first to carry the Gospel of Jesus Christ to Britain. Joseph of Arimathea, the great uncle of Jesus, together with other of the disciples of Christ, had already laid the foundation of the Christian faith in the Isles of the West. King Arviragus, cousin of the great Caradoc, accepted the new faith, as did Bran (the Blessed), the father of Caradoc. It was Bran, as King of Siluria who acclaimed Britain to be a Christian nation before the Roman invasion. Caradoc is given official credit as being the first general to lead a Christian army in battle in defense of the faith. With this knowledge in mind, let us examine Pauls Epistle to the Romans (so-called). In chapter 1:7 and 8 he starts out as follows: "To all those that be in Rome beloved of God called saints... "Then he goes on in verse 8: "First I thank my God through Jesus Christ for you all that your faith is spoken of throughout the whole world". Speaking with such assurance could only mean that Paul was speaking from first hand information; speaking as an eye witness so to speak.
One remaining question should be raised. If Paul preached in Britain-has any portion of his doctrine or teachings in Britain come down to us? Any such doctrine would surely be transmitted in a British form, and most probably in that triadic form in which the Druids (the religious teachers of Britain) delivered their teachings. Such triads do exist. Written in the ancient British language, these triads have always been known as "the Triads of Paul the Apostle". While they are not found, either whole of fragmentally, in his Epistles, the morality expressed is in complete agreement with the rest of his Gospel preachin.
TRIADS OF PAUL THE APOSTLE
"There are three sorts of men: The man of God, who renders good for evil; the man of men, who renders good for good and evil for evil; the man of the devil, who renders evil for good."
"Three kinds of men are the delights of God: the meek; the lovers of peace; the lovers of mercy."
"There are three marks of children of God: Gentle deportment; a pure conscience; patient suffering of injuries."
"There are three chief duties demanded by God: Justice to every man; love; humility."
"In three places will be found the most of God: Where He is mostly sought: where He is mostly loved; where there is least of self."
"There are three things following faith in God: A conscience at peace; union with heaven; what is necessary for life."
"Three ways a Christian punishes an enemy: By forgiving him; by not divulging his wickedness; by doing him all the good in his power.
"The three chief considerations of a Christian: Lest he should displease God: lest he should be stumbling-block to man; lest his love to all that is good should wax cold."
"The three luxuries of a Christian feast: What God has prepared; what can be obtained with justice to all; what love to all may venture to use.
"Three persons have the claims and privileges of brothers and sisters: the widow; the orphan; the stranger."
COMMENTARY BY E. RAYMOND CAPT (PART II)
To further our study of Pauls interest in Britain we should turn to his Epistle of the Romans. "To all that be in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ" (Rom. 1:7). In the closing chapter (Chap. 16) we find a very interesting list of names of individuals that Paul had in mind at the time of writing and with whom he was closely associated. These people and their kinship with Paul are generally overlooked by Bible scholars; however, they deserve special notice from us. A little analysis here will help us to understand why Paul was not only desirous of visiting Rome on his way to Spain but also Britain.
In the third verse of chapter sixteen we find the names, "Priscella and Aquila". They were the owners of the home where Paul was a guest and where the members of the Christian Church in Rome assembled. Verses five and six mention other friends and co-workers. In verse seven, in the same chapter, we find the names of Andronicus and Junia who are noted as "kinsmen" and implied as having become Christians before Pauls conversion. In verse 10, we read the following: "Salute them of Aristobulus household". Among the names listed in the following verses we find other kinsmen (relatives) mentioned; "Herodian" (v. 11); "Rufus" (v. 13); "Lucius", "Jason", and "Sosipater" (v. 21). Evidently, the Apostle knew all these persons quite well before going to Rome and was seeking to renew old acquaintances.
Timotheus, who is known generally by the name "Timothy" is also mentioned in chapter sixteen of Romans. In a later letter to Timothy, Paul again mentions Prisca (Priscilla) and Aquila, her husband (Tim. II 4:19). In verse 21, Paul mentions one "Eubulus", before referred to as "Aristobulus" (Rom. 16:10). At the time of the writing of "Timothy" Aristobulus was present with Paul in Rome. Other names that Paul mentions are "Pudens" and "Linus" and still another "Claudia". It is certain from Pauls own letters to the Romans and to Timothy, that he was on the most intimate and affectionate terms with the mother of Rufus Pudens, with Rufus Pudens himself, with Claudia, his wife, and Linus.
Before going into these details it is important to examine some historical events prior to Pauls actual arrival in Rome (generally conceded between the years 58 A.D. to 60 A.D.).Rome had been at war with Britain for several years, ending just before Paul reached Rome. In her desire to be recognized as the conquerors of the world, Rome began, in the year 43 A.D. to subjugate the Britains. These wars continued relentlessly until 54 A.D., when the great British
General Caradoc, King of Siluria, was betrayed by one of his Icene countrymen into the hands of his enemies. Five of the greatest generals mentioned in Roman history were, at one time or another, singly or in joint action, pitted against this noble Briton. As a strategist, Rome never met Caradocs equal. He successfully prevailed against Palatius, Geta, Vespasian, Titus and Augustus. As a result of his betrayal, Caradoc was taken hostage to Rome. Among the captives were the wife of Caradoc, his three sons, two daughters, his father, Bran (the Blessed) by name and a brother who remained on the field of battle to receive the terms of the victors. In the same company of hostages we have the record of a sister named Gladys. These formed the nucleus of the British exiles household in Rome.
Tacitus (Roman historian 55 to 120 A.D.) in his Annals (BK. XII Chap. 36) records the jubilation of the Roman people at the arrival of the famed British warrior. Even in chains, the people feared and yet respected this "barbarous Christian" British leader. Roman conquerors were never noted for their clemency. They delighted in humiliating their adversaries in the most savage forms of torture. The greater the renown of their unfortunate victim, the less chance he had of escaping the horrors of the Tarpeian dungeons.
Caradoc was tried before the Roman Senate. Although it was against the Roman law for a woman to enter the Senate, Tacitus tells us that the younger daughter of Caradoc (named "Gladys" after her aunt) refused to be separated from her father, and stood by his side during the trial. Standing, calmly, defiant, unconquered in spirit, the Briton faced the Emperor Claudius and the great Queen Agrippira. Speaking in a clear voice, vibrant with the courageous conviction of a free man, the captive replied to his prosecutors with words that will be remembered by free men the world over. In the words of Tacitus, Caradoc addressed the Senate.
"Had my government in Britain been directed solely with a view to the preservation of my hereditary domains, or the aggrandizement of my own family, I might long since have entered this city an ally, not a prisoner: nor would you have disdained for a friend a king descended from illustrious ancestors, and the dictator of many nations. My present condition, stripped of its former majesty, is as adverse to myself as it is a cause of triumph to you. What then? I was lord of men, horses, arms, wealth; what wonder if at your dictation I refuse to resign them? Does it follow, that because the Romans aspire to universal domination, every nation is to accept the vassalage they would impose? I am now in your power betrayed, not conquered. Had I, like others, yielded, without resistance, where would have been the name of Caradoc? Where your glory? Oblivion would have buried both in the same tomb. Bid me live. I shall survive forever in history one example at least of Roman clemency" (Annals 12:37).
By the order of the Claudian Tribunal, Caradoc, with all the members of the royal Silurian family, were immediately set free. Only one restriction was imposed in the pardon of the British King. He must remain in Rome, on parole for seven years and neither he nor any member of his family, were ever to bear arms against Rome. The Romans changed the name of Caradoc to Caractacus, and he is generally know by this name in history. Later in appreciation of her courage and royal bearing, Gladys was adopted by the Roman Emperor. By royal decree she was renamed Claudia after himself and she is likewise known in history by that name. Of her, Martial wrote: "Our Claudia, named Rufina, sprung we know from blue-eyed Britons; yet behold, she vies in grace with all that Greece or Rome can show. As bred and born beneath their glowing skies." Rufina was the feminine vernacular for her husbands first name.
The Emperor was well aware of the strong Christian convictions of Claudia. She, along with her sister Eurgain, her aunt Gladys and her brother Linus, had earlier been converted by Joseph of Arimathea, the Apostle of Britain (The Drama of the Lost Disciples Jowett). Claudia was betrothed and married in Rome. In the year A.D. 53, she became the wife of Rufus Pudens Pudentius. Pudens, as he is most commonly referred to, was a Roman Senator and former personal aide to the Roman Commander-in-Chief, Aulus Platius. Perhaps their attachment had begun in Britain, during the six months truce period of A.D. 45 when Aulus Platius married Gladys, the sister of Caractacus.
These extraordinary marriages have been a source of wonderment to history students. What could be a stranger circumstance than that of the British King Caractacus permitting his favourite daughter and his sister to be married to the leaders he had opposed in battle for nine long years, Plautius and Pudens. Such British-Roman marriages cannot be considered as political alliances since the conflict between Briton and Roman continued with rare interludes, for over three hundred years.
Rufus Pudens and Claudia had four children; two boys and two girls. Timotheus the eldest (named after Timothy, Bishop of Ephesus) and Novatus the youngest, were boys. Pudentiana and Praxedes, born in between, were girls. Startling as it may appear at first, facts will prove that living with the Pudens family was the mother of St. Paul. Paul writing in his Epistles to those at Rome prior
12 to his coming says, "Salute Rufus, chosen in the Lord, and his mother and mine" (Rom. 16:13).
Some Biblical scholars have sought to suggest that the woman was Pauls "spiritual mother". But a spiritual mother, or father, was one who had converted another, and it is well known that Paul was converted by Christ Himself on the road to Damascus. Since Pudens father was a Roman Senator, of a long illustrious ancestry and Paul described himself as being an Israelite of the tribe of Benjamin (Rom. 11:1), it is obvious that his mother was probably married a second time. Rufus Pudens was born of this second marriage. From all this we realize that St. Paul and Rufus Pudens Pudentius were half-brothers; each having the same mother. This in turn would make the British Princess Gladys, now known as Claudia Britannic Rufus Pudens Pudentius the sister-in-law to the Apostle of the Gentiles. This further explains why the ancient writers affirm that Paul spent most of his time while in Rome with the Pudens at the Palatium Britannicum. The "Roman Martyrologies" state that "The children of Claudia were brought up at the knee of St. Paul".
When Paul came to Rome there remained three years of parole for Caractacus to complete. Linus the son of Caractacus, who had long before been baptized and confirmed by St. Joseph of Arimathea in Britain, was chosen by Paul to lead the church at Rome. Paul, personally, consecrated Linus to be the First Bishop of the Christian Church at Rome. A Prince of the royal blood of Briton, he is the same Linus whom St. Paul addressed in his Epistles.
Further corroboration is given to Linus and his appointment to be the First Bishop of the Christian Church at Rome in the writings of St. Peter, preserved in the "Apostolic Constitutions" (Bk I Ch. 46):
"Concerning those Bishops who have been ordained in our lifetime, we make known to you that they are these; Of Antioch Eudius, ordained by me, Peter, of the Church of Rome, Linus, brother of Claudia, was first ordained by Paul, and after Linuss death, Clemens, the second ordained by me, Peter". In another statement Peter affirms that Linus was a Briton, son of a royal king.
Of Pauls life after quitting Britain no particulars have descended to us. After visiting Asia, we find him back with the royal family in Rome. In a farewell charge to Timothy, he sends him the greetings of Pudens, Linus, and Claudia. These, with that of Eubulus, the cousin of Claudia, are the only names of the brethren mentioned by him.
Paul was beheaded at Aquae Salviae, a little way out of Rome and the royal family consigned his remains with their own hands to the Pudentinian family tomb on the Ostian Road. In the old cemetery
13 by the Via Ostiensis lie the mortal remains of the friends of St. Paul, who also suffered martyrdom: Linus in A.D. 90; Pudens in A.D. 96; Pudentiana who suffered on the anniversary of the fathers martyrdom; Novatus in A.D. 139; Timotheus and his sister Praxedes, who received their "crowns" some years later, and Claudia, who alone died a natural death (A.D. 97) near Samnium and before any of her children, also lie in the same plot with the remains of the Apostle to the Gentiles.
From the preceding accounts we can believe that Paul did take the Gospel to Britain. In view of his kinship with the British Royal family, we would regard it much more extraordinary if the Apostle had not made a missionary journey to Britain in preference to any other land of the West. Britain was the great isle of the Gentiles (nations) and through his royal converts, a "mighty door and an effectual" (I Cor. 16:9) for its conversion was opened to him. Only after he had taken the Light of the Gospel to all the lands in his province could he have truly said, 7 am now ready to be offered up and the day of my departure is at hand. I have fought a good fight. I have finished my course. I have kept the faith. Henceforth, there is laid up for me a Crown of Righteousness which the Lord, the Righteous Judge, will give me in that day and not to me only, but to all those who love His appearing" (II Tim. 4:7, 8).
"PAULO, APOSTOLO MARTYRI"
1. St. Clement of Rome (A.D. 30-100) wrote: "Saint Paul, also having seven times worn chains, and been hunted and stoned, received the prize of such endurance. For he was the herald of the Gospel to the West, as well as in the East, and enjoyed the illustrious reputation of the faith in teaching the whole world to be righteous. And after he had been to the extremity of the West, he suffered martyrdom before the sovereigns of mankind; and thus delivered from this world, he went to his holy place, the most brilliant example of steadfastness that we possess (Epistle to the Corinthians, C. 5).
St. Clement belonged to the first century, knew St. Paul personally, and was the third Bishop of Rome. St. Paul speaks of him in his Epistle to the Philippians, 4:3, thus: "With Clement also and other my fellow labourers whose names are in the book of life". Irenaeus (born about A.D. 130) himself the pupil of Polycarp (the friend of St. John) thus speaks of him: "Clement, who had seen the blessed Apostles and conversed with them; who had the preaching of the Apostles still sounding in his ears, and their traditions before his eyes
2. Theodoret the Blessed, Bishop of Cyrus near Antioch in Syria
(born about A.D. 390), noted as an accomplished man of letters and
learned Church historian, writing about A.D. 435 said of St. Paul
a. "Our fishermen and tax gatherers and the leather-worker have brought to all men the laws of the Gospel, and they persuaded not only Romans and their tributaries, but also the Scythians and Sauromatian nations (or Cimrians), and Germans, to accept the laws of the Crucified (Graed. aff. cur. Sermo. IX).
b. "St. Paul reached Spain and brought salvation to the Islands of the Sea" (Bishop Edwards of St. Asaphs Landmarks in the History of the Welsh Church, p. 4). This fits in with St. Jerones statement that, besides visiting Spain, St. Paul went "from ocean to ocean", and St. Chrysostums writings that Paul went "from Illyricum to the very ends of the earth".
3. Sophronius, Patriarch of Jerusalem (A.D. 633-637) wrote:
.the unwearied champion of the orthodox faith against the monotheistic heresy, not unworthy to be ranked with Athanasius and Cyril among the defenders of the truth against successive depravations" (Smith and Wace, Dic. Christ. Biog., Vol. IV, p. 719). Robert Parsons in his "Three Conversions of England (p. 22) cites Sophronius as saying, in his sermon "The Nativity of the
15 Apostles", that St. Paul came to Britain. Parsons also cites-
4. Venantius Fortunatus, Bishop of Poitiers (born about A.D.
530), well-known Christian hymn-writer, author of "Vexilla Regis" (The Royal Banners forward go), speaks of St. Paul, "crossing the ocean and visiting "Britain and the extreme West". Although a Frenchman, this cultivated literary man must have met many of the refugee Britons who had fled to France before the Saxon invader and would have learned many traditions from them.
5. A very ancient tradition assigns the foundation of Bangor Abbey (in Britain) to St. Paul. Its rule was known as the "Rule of Paul". The Abbots claimed to be his successors. Over every gate of the Abbey was Pauls command, "If any will not work, neither shall he eat" (a paraphrase from II Thess. 3:10).
6. The correspondence of Paul and Seneca (mentioned by Jerome in the fourth century A.D.). This ancient manuscript in Merton College, Oxford, which purports to contain a series of letters between St. Paul and Seneca, makes more than one allusion to St. Pauls residence in Siluria, Britain.
These early documentary statements cannot lightly be dismissed. When considered together with the Biblical account of Pauls life and teachings, and the archaeological evidence of the early Britons relationship with the so-called Lost Tribes of Israel (see King Solomons Temple - Capt) they afford convincing proof of St. Pauls sojourn in Britain and support the authenticity of the Long Lost Chapter of the Acts of the Apostles.
israeliteknight: ask him how that compares to Matthew 15:24?
israeliteknight: ask him where Paul gets such authority, to over-ride Jesus?
israeliteknight: But he answered and said, I was sent only unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel, Matthew 15:24
outofhere1: yes israeliteknight - He sees that Jesus Christ called Paul later and gave him NEW commandments that is called the mystery that was kept secret since before the foundation of the World and not revealed untill it was revealed to the Apost. Paul. Now we know God Choose the first 12, - Judas the Methious(SP) took Judas's place. IsrealiteKnight - If God by way of Jesus Christ choose Paul then he would be numbered with the Twelve and the revelation Paul Got would be received this way: Acts 1: 1 The former treatise have I made, O Theophilus, of all that Jesus began both to do and teach, & Acts 1: 2 Until the day in which he was taken up, after that he through the Holy Ghost had given commandments unto the apostles whom he had chosen: so the question would always be DID GOD choose Paul or not? So it is the question: Did God send Paul to another group other than the Isrealities??? That is the Question???
israeliteknight: sorry, was in PMs
israeliteknight: just got yours about Paul
israeliteknight: in my mind, there's no question that Paul would not change what Jesus commanded, what the Torah commands, nor what God commanded
israeliteknight: it's not Paul who's making mistakes here, and it may not even be the KJV translators, or even many of the churches
israeliteknight: the problem is how putative Christians like Jim "interpret" what Paul wrote in Aramaic, what was translated into Greek, then into Old English, then into modern English
outofhere1: yes that IS the question getting The Word of God correct and how it applies to all men.