**TIMSS Scores of G-7 Countries**

**Comparison to Divorce Rates & Percent of Teachers Who Are Females**

The relationship of TIMSS Scores to family breakdown and to the number of students being taught by male teachers is illustrated by the following graphs for the G-7 Countries. TIMSS scores increase 2 points for each 1% increase in the percent of teachers who are females, and 50 points for each 1 less divorce per 1,000 population. Neither graph shows a linear relationship but viewed together this non-linearity, and the reason US 8th graders score so much lower than other G-7 countries (105 points lower than Japan), are better understood.

These two factors are not the only factors responsible for the poor showing of US 8th graders, but it is suspected that they are responsible for more than half of the problem. This assertion is supported by the 98 point drop in SAT scores in the US as the percent of children living in fatherless households quadrupled, and as the percent of US teachers who are males decreased 8%.

- ITALY: Graph One shows Italy scores 22 points higher than the US even though Italy has the same percentage of female teachers. Graph Two suggests a lower rate of family breakdown--reflected by a divorce rate one tenth the US--is responsible.
- ENGLAND: Graph One shows England has the same percentage of female teachers as France but scores 32 points lower. Graph Two suggests a 50% higher divorce rate is responsible.
- CANADA: Graph One shows Canada scores 20 points lower than the curve predicts, and Graph Two shows a 20% higher than predicted divorce rate is responsible.
- JAPAN: Graph One shows that Japan scores 35 points higher than predicted, and Graph Two suggests a divorce rate one eighth the US is responsible.

GRAPH ONE

GRAPH TWO