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UNICEF

 

Basic Indicators

to the top

Under-5 mortality rank

149

Under-5 mortality rate, 1990

11

Under-5 mortality rate, 2009

8

Infant mortality rate (under 1), 1990

9

Infant mortality rate (under 1), 2009

7

Neonatal mortality rate, 2009

4

Total population (thousands), 2009

314659

Annual no. of births (thousands), 2009

4413

Annual no. of under-5 deaths (thousands), 2009

35

GNI per capita (US$), 2009

47240

Life expectancy at birth (years), 2009

79

Total adult literacy rate (%), 2005-2008*

-

Primary school net enrolment/attendance (%), 2005-2009*

92

% share of household income 2000-2009*, lowest 40%

16

% share of household income 2000-2009*, highest 20%

46

Definitions and data sources

Nutrition

to the top

% of infants with low birthweight, 2005-2009*

8

Early initiation of breastfeeding (%), 2005-2009*

-

% of children (2005-2009*) who are: exclusively breastfed (<6 months)

-

% of children (2005-2009*) who are: breastfed with complementary food (6-9 months)

-

% of children (2005-2009*) who are: still breastfeeding (20-23 months)

-

% of under-fives (2003 -2009*) suffering from: underweight (NCHS/WHO), moderate & severe

2

% of under-fives (2003 -2009*) suffering from: underweight (WHO), moderate & severe

1

% of under-fives (2003 -2009*) suffering from: underweight (WHO), severe

0

% of under-fives (2003 -2009*) suffering from: wasting (WHO), moderate & severe

0

% of under-fives (2003 -2009*) suffering from: stunting (WHO), moderate & severe

3

Vitamin A supplementation coverage rate (6-59 months) 2009, Full coverage (%)

-

% of households consuming iodized salt, 2003-2009*

-

Definitions and data sources

Health

to the top

% of population using improved drinking-water sources 2008, total

99

% of population using improved drinking-water sources 2008, urban

100

% of population using improved drinking-water sources 2008, rural

94

% of population using improved sanitation facilities 2008, total

100

% of population using improved sanitation facilities 2008, urban

100

% of population using improved sanitation facilities 2008, rural

99

% of routine EPI vaccines financed by government 2009, total

-

Immunization 2009, 1-year-old children immunized against: TB, corresponding vaccines: BCG

-

Immunization 2009, 1-year-old children immunized against: DPT, corresponding vaccines: DPT1ß

98

Immunization 2009, 1-year-old children immunized against: DPT, corresponding vaccines: DPT3ß

95

Immunization 2009, 1-year-old children immunized against: Polio, corresponding vaccines: polio3

93

Immunization 2009, 1-year-old children immunized against: Measles, corresponding vaccines: measles

92

Immunization 2009, 1-year-old children immunized against: HepB, corresponding vaccines: HepB3

92

Immunization 2009, 1-year-old children immunized against: Hib, corresponding vaccines: Hib3

93

Immunization 2009, % newborns protected against tetanus

-

% under-fives with suspected pneumonia taken to an appropriate health-care provider, 2005-2009*

-

% under-fives with suspected pneumonia receiving antibiotics, 2005-2009*

-

% under-fives with diarrhoea receiving oral rehydration and continued feeding, 2005-2009*

-

Malaria 2006-2009*, % households owning at least one ITN

-

Malaria 2006-2009*, % under-fives sleeping under ITNs

-

Malaria 2006-2009*, % under-fives with fever receiving anti-malarial drugs

-

Definitions and data sources

HIV/AIDS

to the top

Estimated adult HIV prevalence rate (aged 15-49), 2009

0.6

Estimated number of people (all ages) living with HIV, 2009

1200

Estimated number of people (all ages) living with HIV, 2009 (thousands), low estimate

930

Estimated number of people (all ages) living with HIV, 2009 (thousands), high estimate

1700

Mother-to-child transmission, Estimated number of women (aged 15+) living with HIV, 2009 (thousands)

310

Paediatric infections, Estimated number of children (aged 0-14) living with HIV, 2009 (thousands)

-

Prevention among young people, HIV prevalence among young people (aged 15-24), 2009, total

0.2

Prevention among young people, HIV prevalence among young people (aged 15-24), 2009, male

0.3

Prevention among young people, HIV prevalence among young people (aged 15-24), 2009, female

0.2

Prevention among young people, % who have comprehensive knowledge of HIV, 2005-2009*, male

-

Prevention among young people, % who have comprehensive knowledge of HIV, 2005-2009*, female

-

Prevention among young people, % who used condom at last higher-risk sex, 2005-2009*, male

-

Prevention among young people, % who used condom at last higher-risk sex, 2005-2009*, female

-

Orphans, Children (aged 0-17) orphaned by AIDS, 2009, estimate (thousands)

-

Orphans, Children (aged 0-17) orphaned due to all causes, 2009, estimate (thousands)

2100

Orphan school attendance ratio, 2005-2009*

-

Definitions and data sources

Education

to the top

Youth (15-24 years) literacy rate, 2004-2008*, male

-

Youth (15-24 years) literacy rate, 2004-2008*, female

-

Number per 100 population , 2008, phones

87

Number per 100 population , 2008, Internet users

74

Primary school enrolment ratio 2005-2009*, gross, male

98

Primary school enrolment ratio 2005-2009*, gross, female

99

Primary school enrolment ratio 2005-2009*, net, male

91

Primary school enrolment ratio 2005-2009*, net, female

93

Primary school attendance ratio 2005-2009*, net, male

-

Primary school attendance ratio 2005-2009*, net, female

-

Survival rate to last primary grade (%) 2005-2009*, admin data

95

Survival rate to last primary grade (%) 2005-2009*, survey data

-

Secondary school enrolment ratio 2005-2009*, gross, male

94

Secondary school enrolment ratio 2005-2009*, gross, female

94

Secondary school enrolment ratio 2005-2009*, net, male

88

Secondary school enrolment ratio 2005-2009*, net, female

89

Secondary school attendance ratio 2005-2009*, net, male

-

Secondary school attendance ratio 2005-2009*, net, female

-

Definitions and data sources

Demographic Indicators

to the top

Population (thousands), 2009, under 18

77319

Population (thousands), 2009, under 5

21823

Population annual growth rate (%), 1970-1990

1

Population annual growth rate (%), 1990-2000

1.2

Population annual growth rate (%), 2000-2009

1.1

Crude death rate, 1970

9

Crude death rate, 1990

9

Crude death rate, 2009

8

Crude birth rate, 1970

16

Crude birth rate, 1990

16

Crude birth rate, 2009

14

Life expectancy, 1970

71

Life expectancy, 1990

75

Life expectancy, 2009

79

Total fertility rate, 2009

2.1

% of population urbanized, 2009

82

Average annual growth rate of urban population (%), 1970-1990

1.1

Average annual growth rate of urban population (%), 1990-2000

1.7

Average annual growth rate of urban population (%), 2000-2009

1.4

Definitions and data sources

Economic indicators

to the top

GNI per capita (US$), 2009

47240

GDP per capita average annual growth rate (%), 1970-1990

2.2

GDP per capita average annual growth rate (%), 1990-2009

1.8

Average annual rate of inflation (%), 1990-2009

2

% of population below international poverty line of US$1.25 per day, 1994-2008*

-

% of central government expenditure (1998-2008*) allocated to:, health

24

% of central government expenditure (1998-2008*) allocated to:, education

2

% of central government expenditure (1998-2008*) allocated to:, defence

20

ODA inflow in millions US$, 2008

-

ODA inflow as a % of recipient GNI, 2008

-

Debt service as a % of exports of goods and services, 1990

-

Debt service as a % of exports of goods and services, 2008

-

Definitions and data sources

Women

to the top

Life expectancy: females as a % of males, 2009

106

Adult literacy rate: females as a % of males, 2005-2008*

-

Enrolment and attendance ratios: , Net primary school 2005-2009*, enrolled

101

Enrolment and attendance ratios: , Net primary school 2005-2009*, attending

-

Enrolment and attendance ratios: , Net secondary school 2005-2009*, enrolled

101

Enrolment and attendance ratios: , Net secondary school 2005-2009*, attending

-

Contraceptive prevalence (%), 2005-2009*

73

Antenatal care coverage (%), At least once, 2005-2009*

-

Antenatal care coverage (%), At least four times, 2005-2009*

-

Delivery care coverage (%), Skilled attendant at birth, 2005-2009*

99

Delivery care coverage (%), Institutional delivery, 2005-2009*

-

Delivery care coverage (%), C-section, 2005-2009*

31

Maternal mortality ratio†, 2005-2009*, reported

13

Maternal mortality ratio†, 2008, adjusted

24

Maternal mortality ratio†, 2008, Lifetime risk of maternal death: 1 in:

2100

Definitions and data sources

Child Protection

to the top

Child labour 2000-2009*, total

-

Child labour 2000-2009*, male

-

Child labour 2000-2009*, female

-

Child marriage 2000-2009*, total

-

Child marriage 2000-2009*, urban

-

Child marriage 2000-2009*, rural

-

Birth registration 2000-2009*, total

-

Birth registration 2000-2009*, urban

-

Birth registration 2000-2009*, rural

-

Female genital mutilation/cutting, womena 1997-2009*, total

-

Female genital mutilation/cutting, daughtersb 1997-2008*, total

-

Attitudes towards domestic violence, 2002-2009*, total

-

Child disciplineà, 2005-2008*, total

-

Definitions and data sources

The Rate of Progress

to the top

Under-5 mortality rank

149

Under-5 mortality rate, 1970

23

Under-5 mortality rate, 1990

11

Under-5 mortality rate, 2000

8

Under-5 mortality rate, 2009

8

Average annual rate of reduction (%)T, 1970-1990

3.7

Average annual rate of reduction (%)T, 1990-2000

3.2

Average annual rate of reduction (%)T, 2000-2009

0

Average annual rate of reduction (%)T, 1990-2009

1.7

Reduction since 1990 (%)T

27

Reduction since 2000 (%)T

0

GDP per capita average annual growth rate (%), 1970-1990

2.2

GDP per capita average annual growth rate (%), 1990-2009

1.8

Total fertility rate, 1970

2.2

Total fertility rate, 1990

2

Total fertility rate, 2009

2.1

Average annual rate of reduction (%), 1970-1990

0.6

Average annual rate of reduction (%), 1990-2009

-0.2

Definitions and data sources

Adolescents

to the top

Adolescents Population (aged 10-19), Total, 2009

43532

Adolescents Population (aged 10-19), as a proportion of total population (%), 2009

14

Marital status, Girls aged 15-19 who are currently married/in union (%), 2000-2009*

-

Age at first birth, Women aged 20-24 who gave birth before age 18 (%), 2000-2009*

-

Adolescent birth rate, Number of births per 1,000 girls aged 15-19, 2000-2008*

41

Attitudes towards domestic violence, Adolescents aged 15-19 who think that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife under certain circumstances (2002-2009*) (%) , male

-

Attitudes towards domestic violence, Adolescents aged 15-19 who think that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife under certain circumstances (2002-2009*) (%), female

-

Secondary education (2005-2009*), Net enrolment ratio, total

88

Secondary education (2005-2009*), Net enrolment ratio, male

88

Secondary education (2005-2009*), Net enrolment ratio, female

89

Secondary education (2005-2009*), Net attendance ratio, total

-

Secondary education (2005-2009*), Net attendance ratio, male

-

Secondary education (2005-2009*), Net attendance ratio, female

-

HIV knowledge, Adolescents aged 15-19 who have comprehensive knowledge of HIV (2005-2009*) (%), male

-

HIV knowledge, Adolescents aged 15-19 who have comprehensive knowledge of HIV (2005-2009*) (%), female

-

Definitions and data sources

Equity

to the top

Birth registration (%) 2000-2009, Poorest 20%

-

Birth registration (%) 2000-2009, Richest 20%

-

Birth registration (%) 2000-2009, Ratio of richest to poorest

-

Skilled attendant at birth (%) 2000-2009, Poorest 20%

-

Skilled attendant at birth (%) 2000-2009, Richest 20%

-

Skilled attendant at birth (%) 2000-2009, Ratio of richest to poorest

-

Underweight prevalence in children under five (%) 2003-2009, Poorest 20%

-

Underweight prevalence in children under five (%) 2003-2009, Richest 20%

-

Underweight prevalence in children under five (%) 2003-2009, Ratio of poorest to richest

-

Immunization - Measles coverage (%) 2000-2008, Poorest 20%

-

Immunization - Measles coverage (%) 2000-2008, Richest 20%

-

Immunization - Measles coverage (%) 2000-2008 , Ratio of richest to poorest

-

Use of improved sanitation facilities (%) 2008, Urban

100

Use of improved sanitation facilities (%) 2008, Rural

99

Use of improved sanitation facilities (%) 2008, Ratio of urban to rural

1

Definitions and data sources

Under-five mortality rankings

to the top

Under-5 mortality rate (2009), Value

8

Under-5 mortality rate (2009), Rank

149

Definitions and data sources

 

 

UN Profile - United States of America

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.0. GENERAL BACKGROUND
 
 
The beginning of the American criminal justice system was influenced by the
cultural and legal heritage of the colonists.  Primarily, the American method of
crime control and crime sanctions resembled those of England, France and
Holland.  The colonists were selective in borrowing certain aspects of the
criminal justice system, leaving behind those traditions that they deemed
unsuitable in the best interests of their colony.
 
Systematic attempts to reform the criminal justice system were first initiated
in the 1920s.  The Wickersham Commission's findings helped to identify problems
with the existing criminal justice system as well as helped to establish the
philosophy of "treating" offenders.  In 1967, the President's Commissions on Law
Enforcement and Administration of Justice published a report entitled "The
Challenge of Crime in a Free Society."  The outcome of this  report was the
enactment of the "Safe Streets and Crime Control Act of 1968" and the
establishment of the "Law Enforcement Assistance Administration" (LEAA).
Together they were responsible for funnelling millions of dollars into
programmes aimed at restructuring various institutions of the criminal justice
system. In addition, funds were made available to develop programmes for
improving the efficiency of policing, courts and corrections.
 
The American criminal law has its roots in English common law. In addition,
contemporary criminal law reflects constitutional law, federal and state
statutes, and administrative law.  The U.S. Constitution which was signed in
1787 has a preamble, seven articles, and twentysix amendments.  Though very few
parts of the Constitution relate directly to matters pertaining to criminal
justice, the Supreme Court and lower court interpretations of its articles and
amendments influence criminal law and criminal procedure.  Federal statutes
framed within the confines of the Constitution apply to all fifty states of the
Union.  In addition each of the fifty states is governed by its own statutes.
The roots of modern American policing can be traced to the efforts of Englishmen
Patrick Colquhoun and Sir Robert Peel.  The first modern police organization was
established in New York City in 1845.  Today, there are more than 40 000
professional public sector police agencies serving city, county, state and
national interests.  Federal law enforcement agencies include the Federal Bureau
of Investigation (FBI), the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), the
Immigration and Naturalization Service (NIS), the U.S. Marshal Service, the
Organized Crime and Racketeering Section (OCR), the Intelligence Division of the
Internal Revenue Service (IRS), the Secret Service, the Bureau of Alcohol,
Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF), the Customs Service, the Postal Inspection Service,
and the U.S. Coast Guard.  In addition to public law enforcement agencies there
are numerous private police agencies whose personnel far outnumber those in the
public sector.
 
The function of law enforcement and peace keeping is primarily vested with the
local city/municipal police departments.  However, in larger cities the
situation is complicated by the presence of various policing agencies whose
jurisdiction and authority cross local as well as state boundaries.  For
example, New York City has five boroughs with law enforcement agencies which
include the new York City Police Department, the transit system police, the
public housing authority police, and the New York/New Jersey Port Authority
Police.  In addition, there are also the New York State  Police, private police,
and the federal enforcement agencies operating in the city.
 
Once a suspect is arrested the police are required to issue him or her a warning
about selfincrimination, generally referred to as Miranda Warning.  This
provision is made available to the suspect under the Fifth Amendment (Miranda v.
Arizona) to be free from selfincrimination prior to any questioning by the
police.  An arrest is followed by the booking process which includes recording
date and time of arrest, making arrangements for bail in advance of the first
court hearing, and the fingerprinting and photographing of the suspect.
 
There are two separate court systems, federal and state.  Federal courts are
responsible for enforcing federal laws.  Local codes such as those in the Virgin
Islands, Guam, and the Panama Canal Zone have a threetiered system.  In a
descending order the court system consists of the U.S. Supreme Court (1), U.S.
Court of Appeals or circuit courts (12), and the U.S. District courts (94).
 
The states maintain their own court system and no two systems are identical.
Generally, state courts can be classified in a descending order  state appellate
courts or state supreme courts, courts of general jurisdiction (approximately 3
650), and lower courts (approximately 13 000).  In 1983, state courts processed
approximately 81 million civil, criminal and traffic cases while federal courts
heard approximately 250 000 civil and criminal cases.
 
The prosecutor generally makes one of the four following decisions before an
accused comes up for trial:
(a)whether to charge or not to charge a defendant, and if so with what offence;
(b)if a defendant should receive pretrial release or detention;
(c) if a defendant should receive a pretrial diversion (i.e. pretrial release of
an accused person on his own recognizance and /or participate in a treatment
program); and
(d) if a defendant's case will be plea bargained or go to trial (plea bargaining
is a process by which a defendant in a criminal case gives up the right to go to
trial in exchange for a reduction in charge and/or sentence).
 
Though a right to trial is guaranteed by the Constitution and all indigents have
a  constitutional right to counsel, the number of cases which eventually result
in a trial is a very small (approximately 5 %).
 
Trial by grand jury, an English common law tradition, is incorporated into the
Fifth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, which states that "no person shall be
held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on presentment
or indictment of a grand jury."  A grand jury is employed in the federal system
and about half the states.
 
Among the ideas borrowed from Europe in to the American colonies were
punishments such as branding, flogging, and the ducking stool.  However, reform
measures arising from the humanitarian movement of the 18th century (initiated
by such reformers as Beccaria, Bentham, Penn, Rush and others) paved the way for
the modern penitentiary. As with court systems, there are two separate
corrections systems in the U.S., the Federal Bureau of Prisons (established
1930) and the state systems.  Before federal prisons came into existence,
federal prisoners were housed in state prisons.   The states have their own
prisons (for felony offences), jails (temporary detention, misdemeanour offences
etc.), prisons for women, and juvenile institutions.  In 1986 there were
approximately 520 000 prisoners (of whom approximately 20 000 were women) in
about 700 state and federal prisons: 260 000 in 3 500 jails; and 49 000 juvenile
offenders in 1 000 juvenile institutions.  Also, in 1986 there were 1 968 712
and 300 203 adult offenders under probation and parole supervision respectively.
In addition, there were thousands of other offenders restrained in various other
diversion and treatment programmes.
 
 
II. Statistics
 
The FBI has been publishing annual official crime data best known as the Uniform
Crime Report (UCR) since 1930.  The FBI compiles data provided by various local
and state law enforcement agencies on various crime categories such as the
amount of crime reported, the number of property crimes, violent crimes,
classification of offenders by age, sex and race.  Violent crimes include
murder, forcible rape, robbery and aggravated assault while property crimes
include offences such as burglary, larceny theft, and motor vehicle theft.
These crimes along with the offence of arson constitute Part I offences.
Violent and property crime together constitute the "crime index" per 100 000
population.  However, this crime index does not include data on arson as the
figures are not accurate.  Other minor offences such as fraud, embezzlement,
prostitution and gambling are referred to as part II offences.  Offences not
included in the UCR reports are computer crime, organized crime and whitecollar
crime.
 
 
 
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.1. STATISTICS --BACKGROUND
 
Selected Offences
 
Intentional homicide.  This category includes:
a) murder and nonnegligent manslaughter.  Deaths caused by negligence, attempts
to kill, assaults to kill, suicides, accidental deaths, and justifiable homicide
are excluded. Justifiable homicides are limited to (1) the killing of a felon by
a law enforcement officer in the line of duty; and (2) the killing of a felon by
a private citizen.
 
b) manslaughter by negligence: the killing of another person through gross
negligence. It excludes traffic fatalities.
 
While manslaughter by negligence is a Part I crime, it is not included in the
Crime Index.
 
The figures in Table 29 from 198086 indicate total number and the rate per 100
000 population for murders reported to the police.  The data suggest that there
has been a slight increase in the last couple of years but overall the rates
seem to be fairly stable in this category over the last seven years. 19 190
people were arrested for murder in 1986.
 
Table 29.          Murders Reported to the Police (USA)
 
Year                    Number               Rate/100 000
                                                  Population
1980                    23 040                    10,2
1981                    22 520                    9,8
1982                    21 010                    9,1
1983                    19 310                    8,3
1984                    18 960                    7,9
1985                    18 980                    7,9
1986                    20 610                    8,6
 
 
Other violent crime.  Crime categories which are included in this category are
rape, robbery, and aggravated assault.  The rape category includes rape by force
and attempts or assaults to rape. However, statutory rape, i.e. where the victim
is under the age of consent, are excluded.  Robbery includes attempts to take
from another person anything of value by force or threat of violence.
Aggravated assault includes attack by one person on another causing severe
bodily injury.  Simple assaults are excluded.  In Table 30 figures in
parenthesis indicate rates per 100 000 population.  Data for the categories rape
and aggravated assault suggest that though the rates have decreased in 1982 and
1983, there has been a gradual increase thereafter.  Robbery rates decreased
gradually since 1981 but the trend was reversed in 1986.  The data of Table 30
are for offences.  In 1986, the estimated number of arrests for the crimes of
rape, robbery and aggravated assault were 37 140, 145 800, and 351 770
respectively.
 
Table 30.          Violent Crimes Reported to the Police (USA).
 
                                         Crime
               Rape               Robbery                    Agg.Assault
Year
1980          82 990 (37)          565,840 (251)          672 650 (299)
1981          82 500 (36)          592 910 (259)          663 900 (299)
1982          78 770 (34)          553 130 (239)          669 480 (289)
1983          78 920 (34)          506 570 (217)          653 290 (279)
1984          84 230 (36)          485 010 (205)          685 350 (290)
1985          87 340 (37)          497 870 (209)          723 250 (303)
1986          90 430 (38)          542 780 (225)          834 320 (346)
 
 
Property offences.  Property offences include categories such as burglary,
larceny theft and motor vehicle theft.  Burglary is an unlawful entry or attempt
forcible entry of a structure to commit a felony or a theft.  Larceny theft is
an unlawful taking away of property from another, or an attempt to do so.
Examples include thefts of bicycles, shoplifting, pocketpicking.  Figures for
Table 31 indicate number of offences (in millions) reported to police while
those in parenthesis indicate rates per 100 000 population.  The rate for all
three categories suggest that there has been no increase in the years 198087.
However, all three categories also displayed a gradual decease up to the year
1983 and since then a steady increase.  The data in Table 31 represent offences.
In contrast, the estimated total arrests (i.e., offenders) in 1986 for the crime
of burglary, larceny theft and motor vehicle theft were 450 600, 1 400 200, and
153 600 respectively.
 
 
Table 31.      Property Offences Reported to the Police (USA)
Crime in Millions and (Rate/100 000 pop.)
 
            Burglary            Larcenytheft          Motor Vehicle theft
 
1980        3,8 (1 684)          7,1 (3 167)               1,1 (502)
1981        3,8 (1 650)          7,2 (3 140)               1,1 (475)
1982        3,4 (1 489)          7,1 (3 085)               1,1 (459)
1983        3,1 (1 338)          6,7 (2 869)               1,0 (431)
1984        3,0 (1 264)          6,6 (2 791)               1,0 (437)
1985        3,1 (1 287)          6,9 (2 901)               1,1 (462)
1986        3,2 (1 345)          7,3 (3 010)               1,2 (508)
 
 
Substance abuse.  The UCR indicate that approximately 30 % of all arrests made
in 1986 were alcohol or drug related. The breakdown of such arrests is as
follows:
 
Drug abuse violations     666 132
Driving under the influence     1 390 597
Liquor law violations     469 317
Public drunkennes     750 887
All arrests (including the above)     9 944 411
 
 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.2. CRIMINAL JUSTICE STATISTICS 1970 -1980
 
A. The following reported offences are based on estimated United States offense
totals 1) assualt; 2)sexual offences; 3) kidnapping; 4)Robbery; 5) theft, including
burglary and housebreaking..
B.  "Fraud and other types of white collar crimes" and Substance abuse offences" are
based on estimated United States arrest totals.
C.  "assault" aggravated assault only.
D.  "Sexual Offenses" only includes forcible rape, arres for sex offences are listed
separately.
E.  "^Theft" - Property crimes total; includes burglary, larceny-theft, and motor
vehicle theft.  Added prior to rounding.
F.  "Fraud and other white collar crimes" includes fraud and embezzlement arrest.
G.  "Substance abuse" offences includes arrests for driving under the influence,
liquor laws, and drunkenness.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.3. Offenses Reported To The Police
 
Crime      Years                      Total Numbers
 
MURDER     70-75    15980     17806     18587     19568     20767     20506
MURDER     75-80    20505     18785     19121     19555     21460     23044
ASSAULT    70-75   333946    368549    392623    420808    455604    484881
ASSAULT    75-80   484713    490850    522509    558102    614213    654957
SEX CRIME  70-75    36878     41410     45945     50497     55096     55537
RAPE       75-80    56093     56730     63022     67131     75989     82088
ROBBERY    70-75   349927    387598    376333    384198    442466    465016
ROBBERY    75-80   464973    420214    404847    417038    466881    548809
THEFT      70-75  7359110   7772657   7413891   7841757   9279495  10229496
THEFT      75-80 10230300  10318200   9926278  10079508  10974171  11986502
FRAUD      70-75   114730    138724    144101    155699    161051    183699
FRAUD      75-80   183500    209300    255400    270600    270500    269672
KIDNAPING  70-75
KIDNAPING  75-80      590       225       150       149        48       103
TOTAL CRIMES
           70-75
           75-80 11256566  11304788  10935777  11141334  12152730  13295400
DRUG USE   70-75   415691    491951    527326    628898    642084    601295
DRUG CRIMES
           75-80   601400    609700    642700    628700    558600    533010
DRUG TRAFFIC
           70-75
           75-80
BRIBERY    70-75
BRIBERY    75-80      300       410       295       159         M       300
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.4. Offenders apprehended or arrested
 
OFFENDERS  70-75  4910854   5170039   5218962   4782483   4496709   5936055
OFFENDERS  75-80  8013545   7912348   9029335   9775087   9506347   9703181
JUVENILES  70-75  1661536   1797194   1793953   1716897   1682557   2078367
JUVENILES  75-80
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2.5. Offenders Convicted
 
 
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2.6. Sanctions - Background
 
 
Capital punishment.  This punishment, reserved for the crime of murder, was
suspended for a period of 10 years (196777).  In 1972, opinion polls indicated
that 52 % of the public favoured the death penalty while in the mid1980s the
figure was about 75 %. About forty states and the federal government have
adopted the death penalty for murder and serious crimes.  In 1986, seven states
executed a total of eighteen prisoners by various methods which included
hanging, electrocution, gas, and the injection of lethal drugs.  Also, in 1986,
297 prisoners received the sentence of death and 32 states reported a total of 1
781 prisoners under sentence of death.
 
Table 3.2 indicates the total number of prisoners in federal and state prisons
for the period 198086.  Figures in parenthesis indicate rate per 100 000
population.  These figures represent an overall increase of approximately 57 %,
54 %, and 82 % increases in rates of imprisonment for total, male and female
imprisonment rates respectively over the seven year period.
 
Table 3.2.      Prisoners in State and Federal Prisons.
 
Year               Total                 Male                  Female
1980             315 974  (138)        303 643  (274)         12 331  (11)
1981             353 167  (153)        338 940  (302)         14 227  (12)
1982             394 374  (170)        378 045  (336)         16 329  (14)
1983             419 820  (179)        402 391  (352)         17 429  (14)
1984             445 381  (188)        425 986  (369)         19 395  (16)
1985             481 616  (201)        460 210  (394)         21 406  (17)
1986             523 922  (216)        499 140  (423)         24 782  (20)
 
Jails are usually administered on a county or local level, are smaller generally
than prisons, and offenders usually spend no longer that two years in them.  The
estimated average daily population in U.S. jails from 1983 to 1986 is given in
Table 33 below.  The increase over the last four years in the inmate jail
population is approximately 17 %.  Of these categories females experienced the
highest increase of approximately 37 % while juveniles registered a decrease of
about 20 %.  Excluded from this survey are those locked up for less than 48
hours, and those detained in privately administered facilities.
 
Table 33.      Estimated daily jail inmates (USA)
 
Average daily
population       1983          1984          1985          1986
 
All inmates     227 541        230 641       265 010       265 517
 
Adults          225 781        228 944       263 543       264 113
Males           210 451        212 749       244 711       243 143
Females         15 330          16 195        18 832        20 970
Juveniles        1 760           1 697         1 467         1 404
 
In 1985 the total number of juveniles confined in 1 040 public juvenile
facilities which include public juvenile, detention, correctional, shelter
facilities, residential programmes and group homes was 49 322.  This population
experienced only 1 % growth since 1983.
 
The average sentences in months for offenders in the U.S. District Courts in
1986 were as follows: murderfirst degree 302,7; murdersecond degree 183,5;
manslaughter 49,0; robbery 161,3; bankrobbery 164,6; assault 58,3; burglary in
general 62,6; bankburglary 141,0; and larceny/theft 46,0.
 
In 1986, the adult probationers under supervision at federal and state levels
numbered 55 378 and 1 913 334 respectively while there were 17,064 and 283,139
adult parolees under supervision from federal and state sentences respectively.
 
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2.7. Prison Statistics
 
 
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2.8. Criminal Justice Personnel and resources - background
 
 
The USA reports the following personnel engaged, and expenditure incurred, in
the criminal justice system in 1985. The expenditure is represented as U.S.
dollars.
There were 737 741 police officers.  Of these, 568 793 were county and municipal
police officers, 107,606 state police and the rest federal law enforcement
officers.  A total of 22 013 594 000 000 was spent on the police service.  (This
figure rose to 26 254 993 000 000 in 1986.)  Of this, 16 billion was spent on
local police departments.  It should be noted that all police officers are
engaged in crime prevention duties for on average, about onethird of their time.
 
There were 192 504 judicial officers, of whom 115 967 were employees in the
county and municipal courts while the state and federal courts employed 61 082,
and 15 455 people respectively.  These employees cost local, state and federal
governments approximately 2 841, 2 262, and 852 millions respectively.
 
There were 105 834 prosecution, defence and legal service employees.  These
workers cost 4 291 million dollars.
There were 394 677 corrections employees at all levels of the government at the
cost of 13 034 million in 1985.  In addition, there were other justice
activities which employed 6 409 people at the cost of 489 million dollars.
 
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2.9. Criminal Justice Resources Statistics
 
POLICE  1973       643836
POLICE  75-80      350402    344089    355091    359313    363169    493331
JUDGES  1973        32629     32629     36064     35419                   M
PROSEC  70-72       37975     32430     34163     37975     39036         M
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3.0. CRIMINAL JUSTICE STATISTICS (1980-1985)
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3.1. Offenses Reported To The Police
              1980       1981     1982      1983      1984     1985      1986
Crimes Recorded
 
TOTAL     13408300  13423800  12974400  12108600  11881800  12430400  13210800
INT.HOM.     23040     22520     21010     19310     18690     18980     20610
MAJ.ASSAULT 672650    663900    669480    653290    685350    723250    834320
RAPES        82990     82500     78770     78920     84230     87670     90430
ROBBERIES   565840    592910    553130    506570    485010    497870    542780
THEFT     12063800  12061900  11652000  10850600  10608500  11102600  11695700
 
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3.2. Offenders apprehended or arrested
Suspected Offenders
              1980       1981     1982      1983      1984     1985      1986
 
TOTAL     10441000  10840000  12136400  11700500  11564000  11965200  12487500
INT.HOM.     20040     21590     21810     20310     17770     18330     19190
ASSAULT     766070    777470    856550    846330    827860    942990   1062770
RAPE         31380     31710     33600     34080     36700     36970     37140
ROBBERY     146270    153890    157630    146170    138630    136870    145800
THEFT      1843500   1909700   2024300   1910200   1846500   1925600   2004400
FRAUD       291500    295100    334400    309800    270700    342600    349300
EMBEZZLEMENT  8500      8700      9000      8800      8100     11400     12600
DRUG POSS.  488550    486000    575950    556900    602850    619100    617250
OTHER DRUG   92350     73900    100050    104500    105550    192300    206850
OTHER      3322200   3473900   3936000   3793700   3597600   3424900   3403600
 
Persons Prosecuted
              1980       1981     1982      1983      1984     1985      1986
 
TOTAL            31218       35117       43538       45957
INT. HOM.        M        98       242       173       164       139       138
ASSAULT        432       451       540       520       453       437       581
RAPE            16        21        22        26        37        45        54
ROBBERY       1652      1911      2331      1901      1803      1675      1661
THEFT         1810      1916      2429      2116      2009      1913      2106
FRAUD         3206      4318      6458      5915      6307      5960      6758
EMBEZLEMENT   1712      2179      2976      3074      2681      2693      2919
KIDNAPPING      84        77       113       178       108       126       120
DRUG POSS.    7003      7677      9906     10162     11224     12576     14952
BRIBERY        162       158       184       179       197       166        18
 
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3.3. Offenders Convicted
              1980       1981     1982      1983      1984     1985      1986
 
TOTAL        29943     32007     34193     37187     39065     40924     43920
INT.HOM.       111       116       110       107       101       101        93
NON.INT.HOM.    11        16        10        14        23        23        29
ASSAULT        450       422       435       451       415       458       489
RAPE            49        53        48        67        90        75        80
ROBBERY       1371      1523      1564      1318      1440      1308      1258
THEFT         3613      3296      3430      3825      3721      3757      3541
FRAUD         3307      3722      4515      4919      5005      4989      6139
KIDNAPPING      73        56        66        80        51        71        48
DRUG POSS.     498      1085      1598      1597      1808      1770      1636
OTHER DRUG    4637      4896      5381      6060      7090      8519     10348
BRIBERY        170       150       156       183       189       203       200
 
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3.4. Prisoners
Prison Admissions
              1980       1981     1982      1983      1984     1985      1986
 
TOTAL            M    149186    164648    173289    166927    183131    203315
INT.HOM.         M     10592      7079      6584         M         M         M
NON.INT.HOM.     M         M      4280      3292         M         M         M
ASSAULT          M     10293     10866     12130         M         M         M
RAPE             M      4177      4280      4158         M         M         M
ROBBERY          M     28196     28978     24780         M         M         M
THEFT            M     13426     17123     19581         M         M         M
FRAUD            M      8801     10208      9877         M         M         M
DRUG POSS.       M     14487     13171     14382         M         M         M
 
Convicted Prisoners
              1980       1981     1982      1983      1984     1985      1986
 
TOTAL            M         M         M         M         M         M    450416
INT.HOM.         M         M         M         M         M         M     50446
NON.INT.HOM.     M         M         M         M         M         M     14413
ASSAULT          M         M         M         M         M         M     36033
RAPE             M         M         M         M         M         M     18917
ROBBERY          M         M         M         M         M         M     94136
THEFT            M         M         M         M         M         M     27024
FRAUD            M         M         M         M         M         M     17115
KIDNAPPING       M         M         M         M         M         M      7657
DRUG POSS.       M         M         M         M         M         M     38735
 
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3.5. Criminal Justice Resources Statistics
CRJ PErsonnel
              1980       1981     1982      1983      1984     1985      1986
 
POLICE                          514335              611488              629745
PROF.JUDGES                        839                 878                 889
LAY JUDGES                         483                 457                 467
OTHER JUDGES                         M                   M                2499
MAN.STF.-ADULT                       M                5061                   M
CUST.STF.-ADULT                      M               92680                   M
TREAT.STF.-ADULT                     M               22320                   M
OTHER STF.-ADULT                     M               20783                   M
MAN.STF.-JUV.                    48482                   M                   M
CUST.STF.-JUV.                   25244                   M                   M
TREAT.STF.-JUV.                  11334                   M                   M
 
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4.0. Selected Issues
 
 
Victimization surveys.  Victimization surveys are administered to a large
representative national sample to determine the extent of crime in the country.
(See Part II of this Report, above).  Though there are some problems with this
type of survey the results indicate that UCR estimates of crime should be
doubled for certain categories.  Data on criminal victimization for the year
198086 suggest a decrease of approximately 15,2 %.  Violent crime and household
crime experienced decreases of 10 % and 18,3% respectively.
 
Motor vehicle theft is probably the only crime which has a high concordance rate
among the UCR and victimization reports.  Other categories suggest that UCR
estimates are at least 50 % lower than the total victimization experienced.
 
Demographic Variations in Crime.
 
Sex distribution of arrestees.  In 1986 four out of every five arrests made in
the United States were of males.  Males also accounted for 79 % of all Index
Crime arrests (89 % and 76 % arrests for violent and property crime
respectively).
 
Age distribution.  In 1986 approximately twothirds of all the arrests made were
of people below the age of thirty.  The arrested offenders for all three
categories of crime are predominantly under twentyfour.  The under eighteens
appear to have committed more property crimes than other groups.  However, for
violent crimes, the age group most likely to be arrested were those aged
eighteen to twentyfour.
 
Racial distribution.  Crime in the United States is generally associated with
nonwhite populations (nonwhite populations include Blacks, American
Indians/Alaskan Natives and Asian or Pacific Islanders).  According to UCR data
in 1986, 62 % of all arrestees of Index Crime were white.  However, nonwhites
represent less than 15 % of the general population.  For example, for every
white arrest per 100 000 white population, 6,15 nonwhites per 100 000 nonwhite
population were arrested for murder and nonnegligent manslaughter.  Similarly,
the corrected ratios of white to nonwhite arrestees were for rape (1:5), robbery
(1:10), aggravated assault (1:4), burglary (1:3), larcenytheft (1:3), motor
vehicle theft (1:3,5), driving under the influence of alcohol (1:0,7).
Nonwhites were overrepresented in every category except for "driving under the
influence of alcohol".
 
Private prisons.  About 40 states contract private firms to provide prison
services or programmes such as medical, college courses, construction, and
community treatment centres.  A few states are in the process od enacting laws
authorizing privately operated correctional facilities.  Private corporations
already operate many juvenile facilities as  well as facilities for the federal
government, among them a halfway house, two Immigration and Naturalization
Service facilities for detention of illegal aliens, and a maximum security jail
in Florida.  In 1986, a 300bed minimum security private state prison was opened
in Marion, Kentucky.
 
Sentencing guidelines.  The type and length of sentence for similar offences
differ by state.  Sentencing guidelines are intended to provide judges with
information on how judges in particular jurisdictions acted in similar
situations.  These provide a reference point to guide a judge  in measuring the
sentence he/she proposes to impose.  Minnesota was one of the first states to
implement sentencing guidelines.
 
Computerization in criminal justice.  During the last few years computers have
entered various stages of the criminal justice system in the United States.
 
National Crime Information Centre (NCIC).  This is a national computer based
information system operated by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).  Since
1968, NCIC has assisted law enforcement agencies at various levels and private
agencies in criminal justice as well as for noncriminal justice functions such
as employment screening and licencing.  The Centre collects, stores, retrieves,
transmits and disseminates criminal justice information to various agencies in
the U.S.A., Canada, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.
 
Computers for law enforcement agencies.  Various police agencies have begun to
install Mobile Data Access Terminals in patrol cars to allow police officers
immediate access to crime related information from their headquarters which are
usually linked to the NCIC.  In addition, for larger cities such as New York
City, arrest processing is very complex process.  For example, in 1986 for a
period of eleven months, New York City, in its five boroughs, 268 437 arrests
were made.  Defendants must be processed through a complex network of criminal
justice agencies which have overlapping city, county, and state jurisdictions.
Computers assist in  minimizing duplication of information and for better
coordination of police duties.  Courts have also introduced computers for
improved coordination and to reduce cumbersome paperwork in its functions such
as case processing (docketing, indexing etc.), calendar management, and records
management.  In addition, computers provide sentencing information for judges.
The National Centre for State Courts located in Colonial Williamsburg, Virginia
sponsors various projects relating to computer applications in courts.
 
Electronic jails.  In 1985, Kenton County's Fiscal Court, Kentucky, first
introduced a home incarceration programme in the United States.  Soon other
states such as Oregon, Michigan, and New York have either followed Kentucky or
are seriously considering introducing such programmes.  Home incarceration
involves attaching an electronic monitoring device to the detainee's leg which
would transmit a signal verifying the presence or absence of the wearer within a
determined radius.  In addition, such electronic surveillance of convicted
offenders is either introduced or being considered for use in some states for
its probationers.
 
 
IV. Crime Prevention Strategies
 
A number of programmes are in operation, of which the following is a small
selection:
 
1) A 4 year project on the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court judges
to establish State Planning Task Forces to help abused and neglected children
obtain permanent families through adoption.
 
2) There are many programmes to provide continuous assistance to indigent
families, such as Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), Effective
Parenting Programmes, and special programmes for parents of inner city families,
especially Hispanic families in need.
 
3) Approximately 69 public and 316 private shelters for juveniles in need of
temporary care such as runaways, homeless street youth and neglected children.
 
4) There have been many job training and development programmes on federal,
state and local levels available both for institutional and noninstitutional
offenders and those at risk.  Emphasis has been placed on innovative
partnerships between public and private organizations.
 
5) The National Institute of Justice has conducted research into the
environmental/physical design of communities and buildings and their
relationship to crime.  Model building codes have been developed to help
residential and commercial areas to resist and prevent burglary.  Public housing
projects have been redesigned in an attempt to reduce opportunities for crime.
 
6) Media campaigns have attempted to sensitize the public to crime prevention.
These programmes concentrate on TV daily or weekly crime news, with  a "crime of
the week" featured.  Viewers are asked for assistance in "solving" the crime.
These programs have been popular, and some crimes have been solved.  The overall
effect of these programmes is, however, unknown.  A great deal of media
attention during this period has also been given to campaigns against drunk
driving, and more recently to drug abuse.
 
7) Community Policing and Neighbourhood Watch programmes have increased during
the period.  Local patrols, escorts of senior citizens, personal fingerprinting
of children, and placing ID marks on personal property, have been subject to
many campaigns nation wide.
 

TRAITOR McCain

jewn McCain

ASSASSIN of JFK, Patton, many other Whites

killed 264 MILLION Christians in WWII

killed 64 million Christians in Russia

holocaust denier extraordinaire--denying the Armenian holocaust

millions dead in the Middle East

tens of millions of dead Christians

LOST $1.2 TRILLION in Pentagon
spearheaded torture & sodomy of all non-jews
millions dead in Iraq

42 dead, mass murderer Goldman LOVED by jews

serial killer of 13 Christians

the REAL terrorists--not a single one is an Arab

serial killers are all jews

framed Christians for anti-semitism, got caught
left 350 firemen behind to die in WTC

legally insane debarred lawyer CENSORED free speech

mother of all fnazis, certified mentally ill

10,000 Whites DEAD from one jew LIE

moser HATED by jews: he followed the law

f.ck Jesus--from a "news" person!!

1000 fold the child of perdition

 

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