Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite (America).
Ancient and Accepted Rite (England).
1761: The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite (America) and Ancient and Accepted Rite is of Jewish origin, has 33 degrees. and they are named as follows: Symbolic or Blue Masonry: The Craft Degrees. These are practically the same as in Lodges under the Grand Lodge of England, Scotland and Ireland.
1. Entered Apprentice
2. Fellow Craft
3. Master Mason
Red Masonry or Chapters: These degrees are conferred in a Lodge of Perfection, the presiding officer must be of the 16th degree at least.
4. Secret Master: of Illuminati Origin
5. Perfect Master: of Illuminati Origin
6. Intimate Secretary: of Illuminati Origin
7. Provost and Judge: of Illuminati Origin
8. Intendant of the Building: of Illuminati Origin
9. Elu of the Nine: of Jewish Origin
10. Elu of the Fifteen: of Jewish Origin
11. Elu of the Twelve: of Jewish Origin
12. Master Architect: of Illuminati Origin
13. Royal Arch of Solomon: of Illuminati Origin
14. Perfect Elu: of Illuminati Origin
A Council of Princes of Jerusalem confers the next two degrees:
15. Knight of the East: of Illuminati Origin
16. Prince of Jerusalem: of Illuminati Origin
A Chapter of Princes of Rose-Croix confers the next two degrees:
17. Knight of the East and West: of Illuminati Origin
18. Knight Rose Croix: of Templar Origin
Black masonry, or Philosophical Lodges or Areopagi: These degrees conferred in a Consistory of Princes of the Royal Secret.
19. Pontiff: of Templar Origin
20. Master of the Symbolic Lodge: of Templar Origin
21. Noachite or Prussian Knight: of Jewish Origin
22. Knight of the Royal Axe or Prince of Libanus: of Unknown Origin
23. Chief of the Tabernacle: of Templar Origin
24. Prince of the Tabernacle: of Templar Origin
25. Knight of the Brazen Serpent: of Templar Origin
26. Prince of Mercy: of Templar Origin
27. Knight Commander of the Temple: of Templar Origin
28. Knight of the Sun or Prince Adept: of Unknown Origin
29. Scottish Knight of St. Andrew: of Templar Origin
30. Knight Kadosh: of Templar Origin
31. Inspector Inquisitor: of Unknown Origin
32. Master of the Royal Secret: of Unknown Origin
33. Sovereign Grand Inspector General
In A sketch of the Philosophy, Traditions, and records of the Masonic Order of the Red Cross of Constantine by the Editor, where we read: "The Premier Conclave of England, which has existed from time immemorial, gave rise, it is said, to the foundation of the Council of 'Emperors of the East and West,' a body which was established in Paris about the year 1758 and is considered as the parent of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. The Scottish Rite,' according to Le Forestier, 'issued from the Chapter of Clermont, as a development of the Ramsay Rite. Its foundation dates from 1748 at which period it was introduced into Germany by Count de Schmettau.'" The Supreme Council is the arch-stone of this edifice of degrees.
It is composed of a minimum of nine and a maximum of thirty-three members, Grand Inspectors General of 33o. Is that a secret 33? "But the one 'mission and object' (Mackey) of masonry is kept steadily in view; which is the worship of the god of this world, who is Satan, as the 'Grand Architect of the Universe;' and to accomplish this by inventing 'a religion in which all mankind agree;' and this, by putting all earth's religions upon a level, and uniting them together in Masonic worship, which is boldly avowed in ritual, lexicons, and philosophical degrees. This is called the image of the beast, made by 'them, that dwell on the earth' that is, everybody; every creed, and no creed; all who join the secret lodges.
But this world-religion must have some form, and shape, to hold together; and be taxed; hence, it takes the form, or image, of the beast. Lodge despotism is as absolute as Romish despotism, and is the image of it...Note now the profound craft, by which this is to be accomplished, viz, masonry promises men salvation by ceremonies invented by men [just as Judaism the origin of Masonry], administered by priests, and inhabited by devils. This is the sum and substance of all the false religions on earth, and will ultimately unite them against Christ. But the only opponent Masonry dreads is Christ, who refused to worship Satan, and his followers."
In its present form, the Rite in France dates from 1804. "At that date the pecuniary situation of the Grand Lodge was however not up to its pretensions. It was already in debt. Brother de Grasse had personal debts and Brother Abraham was a man of venal character. The Grand Orient paid the debts of the Grand Scottish Lodge and of Brother de Grasse, making a life pension of 800 francs to Brother Abraham and proposing the annexation of the Grand Central Lodge to the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite among those recognized by the Grand Orient."
In 1804, in France, a Supreme Council of Sovereign Grand Inspectors General of the 33rd degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite was duly constituted. In the construction of this Council, Comte Alexandre F.A. de Grasse-Tilly, [the son of the Admiral] played a leading part. He had been initiated in Paris several years before he went to America where we find him a colonist of San Domingo.
His successor was the Duc Decazes. In regards to the development of Scottish Rites in England, Stillson and Hughan state that: "After the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite had been established in England, the Templar body resigned control over the degrees of the 'Rose-Croix' and 'Kadosch,' which then became incorporated with the rite, as the 18th and 30th; it was therefore necessary to suppress the old ceremonies and relegate them to Templar history, but they were still retained in some of the older English encampments."
A revised ritual was issued in 1851 consequent on the omission of the 'Rose-Croix' and 'Kadosch.' Presidents of the United States are honored by being made 33rd degree masons, Scottish Rites. King Edward VII and countless other magnates were 33rd degree Masons.
What does this prove? Unfortunately nothing! This is the great deception. The success of the entire system depends on the solid integrity and political and social prominence of its affiliates whose virtues make them valuable as decoys. "Ancient and Accepted Scottish rites" runs its own Secret Service which cooperates with the national Secret Services of all countries, serving the aims and purposes of Internationalism.
Another authority, Paul Rosen makes the following comment: "The philosophy of the degree of Kadosch (30o), the apotheosis and real aims of Masonic teaching, can be summed up in the following words: I, I alone, All mine, All for me, by any and every means." There are seven different ways of carrying out this program and consequently seven different grades of Knight Kadosch which are:
1. The Jewish Kadosch
2. The Primitive Christian Kadosch
3. The Kadosch of the Crusades
4. The Kadosch of the Templars
5. The Kadosch of the Puritan
6. The Kadosch of the Jesuit
7. The Scottish Kadosch (alone true Freemasonry).
Blanchard, himself was a high mason whose Masonic studies were induced by a keen desire to fathom the truth and impart the result of his discoveries to those whom he feared might also be duped, thus sums up Scottish Rites: "Let the authoritative teaching of Dr. Mackey be continually borne in mind, that: 'the mission and object of Masonry is the worship of the Great Architect of the Universe.' It follows that the lodges must have something for their dupes to do, called worship. And what could wicked men and devils invent craftier or better suited to deceive the simple, than this very scheme of 'the Ancient Scottish Rite,' which now rules the rites of the world. It seizes and appropriates all of religion but its holiness and justice; and all of Christ but His truth and His atonement. It mixes things sacred with things profane, till the whole compound is profanity; and quoting the Bible as if it believed it true, which notoriously it does not, it has furnished a dark system, which angels flee from and which devils inhabit Every Lodge is a Synagogue of Satan; its ritual is Sorcery."
Anyone interested in the rituals etc., of this rite will find much that is interesting in D. Margiotta's Le Culte de la Nature dans la Franc-Maconnerie Universelle. Masonic philosophy is well summarized in the following expose made of it by a Jewish Mason, Paul Rosen, in Satan et Cie: Official ritual of the 33rd and last degree of Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rites. "For the Sovereign Grand Inspector General the 33rd is the last degree of the Rite. The Order is the Great Avenger of the assassinated Grand Master and the grand champion of humanity, for the innocent Grand master is man, man who is Master, King of Nature, man who is born innocent and unconscious. Our innocent Grand Master was born for happiness and for the enjoyment of all rights without exception. But he has fallen under the blows of three assassin, three scoundrels have thwarted his happiness and rights and have annihilated him. The three infamous assassins are Law, Property and Religion. (Esoteric explanation of the legend of Hiram). Law, because it is not in harmony with the rights of the individual man and the duties of social man in society, rights which belong to all. Duties are but the immediate consequence of the right inherent in all, for the enjoyment of all rights.
Property, because the earth belongs to nobody and its fruits belong to all in proportion as they are required by each for the needs of his own well being. Religion, because religions are but philosophies evolved by men of genius and adopted by the people in the belief that they would increase their well being.
Neither law, property nor religion can be imposed on man and as they annihilate him by depriving him of his most precious rights they are assassins on whom we have sworn to wreak vengeance, enemies against whom we have declared war to the death and without quarter. Of these three infamous enemies it is on religion that we must concentrate our most deadly attacks, because no people has ever survived its religion. Once Religion is dead, Law and Property will fall to our mercy, and we shall be able to regenerate society by founding on the corpses of the assassins of man, Masonic Religion, Masonic Law, and Masonic Property."
The Rite of Zinnendorf
1760: This rite was founded in 1766 by Zinnendorf, the chief surgeon of the general staff of Berlin and a Knight Commander in von Hund's Strict-Observance. Zinnendorf received the rituals and instructions for this order from a Swede named Cklack. On December 27, 1770, Zinnendorf formed a Grand Lodge in Berlin with the cooperation of twelve lodges which had adopted his opinions. On March 29 of the following year, he demanded a constitution from the Grand Lodge of London. This he finally obtained in 1773 through the influence of Prince Louis George Charles of Hesse-Darmstadt, the Grand master of the Lodges following his system. The Rite of Zinnendorf was absorbed at the Convent of Wolfenbuttel in 1778 into the Lodge of the Three Globes of Berlin.
1786: The Tugendbund was founded in 1786. The name of Tugendbund or Union of Virtue was first given to the association of men and women who met at the house of the Jewess Henrietta Herz whose husband, Marcus Herz, a Jewish Illuminatus, was the disciple, friend and successor of Moses Mendelssohn. Noted Illuminati were frequenters of this abode of licentiousness about which Graets, the Jewish historian, wrote: "The salon of the beautiful Henrietta Herz became a sort of Midianite tent. Here a number of young Jewish women assembled whose husbands were kept away by their business. The most prominent male member of this circle was Frederick von Gentz, the embodiment of selfishness, licentiousness, vice and depravity whose chief occupation was the betrayal of women."
A so-called Band of Virtue (Tugendbund) was formed of which Henrietta Hers, two daughters of Moses Mendelssohn [Dorthea and Rebecca Mendelssohn] and other Jewesses together with Christian profligates were members. He also adds that, "Mirabeau, in whose mind the storm-charged clouds of the Revolution were already forming, and to whom the Jews owed so much during his secret diplomatic embassy (1786) to Berlin, was more in the society of Henrietta Herz than in that of her husband."
Later, in 1807, a second Tugendbund or Union of Virtue was formed, a purely political league of which Thomas Frost wrote: "The nucleus of the Association devised by von Stein which received the name of Tugendbund, or League of Virtue, was formed during the latter months of 1807...The initiations multiplied rapidly, and the League soon numbered in its ranks most of the Councillers of State, many officers of the army, and a considerable number of the professors of literature and science. By the active and zealous exertions of Stein, Hardenberg and Jahn, its ramifications spread quickly from the Balitc to the Elbe, and all classes were drawn within its influence. A central directorate at Berlin, presided over by Stein, had the supreme control of the movement, and exercised, through provincial committees, an authority all the more potent from emanating from an unknown source, and which was obeyed as implicitly as the decrees of Emperor or King."
With Heckethorn, we follow the Tugendbund further, for he tells us that after its suppression by the police of Napoleon I, the Tugendbund continued, "...concealing itself however more strictly than before in the Masonic brotherhood." One of its first acts, "...was to send auxiliary corps to assist the Russians in the campaign of 1813. Prussia having, by the course of events, been compelled to abandon its temporizing policy, Gneisenau, Scharnhorst and Grollmann embraced the military plan of the Tugendbund. A levy en masse was ordered. The conduct of the patriots is a matter of history. But, like other nations, they fought against Napoleon to impose on their country a more tyrannical government than that of the foreigner had ever been. They fought as men only fight for a great cause, and those who died fancied they saw the dawn of German freedom. But those who survived saw how much they were deceived. The Tugendbund, betrayed [as all Jewish organizations do] in its expectations, was dissolved; but its members increased the ranks of other societies already existing, or about to be formed, such as the 'Black Knights' under Jahn, The Knight of the Queen of Prussia,' 'The Concordists' under Dr. Lang and the Deutscher Bund, founded in 1810."
The Illuminati of Bavaria
1776: The sect of the Illuminati of Bavaria was founded on May 1, 1776 by the Jew, Adam Weishaupt, a professor at the University of Ingolstadt, educated by the Jesuits. We know that much has already been said, and more will be said about the Illuminati but it is such an important Secret Society that it would be hard to learn too much about it. As it is the most powerful of all the Secret Societies, for its very foundation and leadership is made up of the "Learned Elders of Zion" and controls every facet of the Jewish conspiracy. So please bear with us. This society seems to have borne a close resemblance to the Order of the Golden Cross which was reorganized in 1767. According to Le Forestier, Illuminism was just as much masonry as the system of the Rose Croix, that of the Templars or the crowd of Masonic French degrees, and it is wrongfully accused of having taken in Bavaria the cloak of Masonry. It was composed of three classes of adepts, each of which was again subdivided into degrees, in the following manner:
Symbolic Fellow Craft
Masonry Illuminatus Major, or
Illuminatus Dirigens, or Scotch Knight
Epopt, or Priest
LesserPrince, or Regent
Mysteries Magus, or Philosopher,
GreaterRex, King, Homme Roi, or Areopagite
In the March issue of the occult "Revue Internationale des Societes Secretes," began a French translation of the two most important collections of the original documents relating to the Bavarian Illuminati of Weishaupt:
"(1) Einige Originalschriften des Illuminatenordens. Munich, 1786.
(2) Nachtrag von weitern Originalschriften, welche die Illuminaten-secte...betreffen en 2 parties, Munich, 1787."
Speaking of the occultists of Haute Maconnerie of the eighteenth century, the R.I.S.S. writes: "These Illumines were in fact the secret rampart of the Sect. The Illumines of France, with Martinez Paschalis, the unknown philosopher, Pernetty, and the whole school, which has left such deep roots in Lyons and its surroundings; the Illuminati of Bavaria, with Weishaupt and his accomplices. It was in these secret Lodges that the French Revolution was conceived and prepared; today it is in the Temples of the same Order, Jewish Cabalistic and Satanist, that the World Revolution has germinated and ripened...The plans of yesterday will better assist us to grasp the intentional and methods of today."
The documents are thus described: "Some Original Writings of the Order of the Illuminati which were found at the House of Zwach, former Councillor of Government, in the domiciliary visit carried out at Landshut, October 11-12, 1786. The present collection has been published by the Supreme order of His Highness the Elector in order to convince the public of this and foreign countries of the undoubted falsity of the reasons given for the ceaseless outcry from the Illuminati against the injustice, violence, and prosecution to which they are subjected in Bavaria, and also at the same time to put them on their guard in Bavaria, and also at the same time to put them on their guard against this epidemic sect, and against all other such illegal and clandestine societies. For these merely set themselves to deceive credulous people and get money out of them -- and in place of spreading the truth and morality, as they profess to do, absolutely ruin the latter and suppress or completely falsify the former. If anyone doubts the authenticity of this collection, let them present themselves at the secret archives of this town, where orders have been given to show the originals. Munich, March 26, 1787."
The scheme of this Order is apparently to form a united machine absolutely controlled by the Superiors [The Learned Elders of Zion], who alone know its true aim. For this purpose there must be complete harmony among its members, no hatred, no jealousy, no unworthy egoism; having one spirit, one consideration, and one will! To help to bring about this desired orientation, a special list of books is prescribed upon which the members must build up their outlook. In one document Zwach speaks of the proposal to form a woman's order, to consist of two classes, each constituting a separate society, each remaining unknown to the other: one class of virtuous women, a means of obtaining money, secret information, and benefits for the real Order; the other of light women, to satisfy the passions of F.M. so inclined. "Both should be kept in ignorance that they are directed by the men's Order."
Of their camouflaged and supposed aim Spartacus (Weishaupt) writes: "As in the past, the future aim of the Order remains -- to interest man in bringing to perfection his mind and moral character; to develop humane and social sentiments, to oppose wicked designs in the world, to fight Agaustice, to help the unfortunate and oppressed, to encourage men of merit who are useful to the Order, and to spread knowledge of the sciences; and they are faithfully and solemnly assured that this is the real and not merely the supposed aim of the society. That it is vain to hope to gain greater power and riches by entering this Order."
But we can see this was for external consumption, for by reviewing Marie-Antoinette et le Complot Maconnique, 1910, by Louis Daste, who quotes a rare brochure, The Role of Freemasonry in the XVIIIth Century, by F. Brunelliere, which said: "Weishaupt aimed at nothing less than the complete overthrow of authority, nationality, and the whole social system, in a word, the suppression of property, etc...As to his principle, it was absolute and blind obedience, universal espionage, the end justifies the means. This system of conspiracy so strongly organized which would have upheaved the world, spread through Germany, where it seized almost all the Masonic Lodges. Weishaupt sent to France Joseph Balsamo, so-called Comte Cagliostro, to illuminize French Masonry. Finally he assembled a Congress at Wilhelmsbad in 1782, to which he convoked all German and foreign lodges...In 1785 the Illuminati were revealed to the Bavarian Government, who terrified, appealed to all Governments, but the Protestant Princes showed little haste in suppressing it. Weishaupt found refuge with the Prince de Saxe-Gotha. He had for the rest taken great care not to tell everything to the Princes, or even to many of his initiates; he had hidden from them the appeal to the force of the masses; he had hidden from them the Revolution."
Here we have the same sinister methods as found in all similar societies of today! Weishaupt further writes that the adept must learn the art of dissimulation, observing and probing others. Discovering secrets he must disclose them to the Superiors, who in turn promise not to make use of the information unless permitted by the informer! The Order exacts complete submission in whatsoever concerns the affairs of the Order. They must practice perfect circumspection and discretion with regard to the world outside. Silence and secrecy constitute the soul of the Order, and even the Frater's grade is kept secret, save with equals, among whom there are signs for recognition. As to the true aim of this Order, a document drawn up by Zwach shows its political progress for one year in Bavaria.
Jesuits removed from all professorial chairs, and entirely cleared out of Ingolstadt University; penetration by F.M. of the Church, control of German schools, charitable societies, and other university chairs. On the recommendation of the Fratres, Pyladw was to become treasurer of the Ecclesiastical Council, and in this way the Order has the revenues of the Church at its disposal. Thus it was able to assist the Fratres and save some of the from the clutches of money- lenders! "The widowed Duchess has organized the Institute of Cadets absolutely according to the plan indicated by the Order; all the professors are members of the Order...and all the pupils become adepts of the Order. We will draw to us all the young priests of the Bartholomew endowment...there is every chance that we may in this way be able to provide all Bavaria with instructed priests."
Also among the documents were various recipes:
1). for Aqua Toffana, a poison imperceptibly slow but deadly.
2). One to bring about abortion; and
3). One concerning herbs having deleterious properties.
The Initiation took place after one, two, or three years of probation. In the Revers de silentio, a form signed by the candidate before the initiation, submission and silence is promised, and he is assured that there is in the Society nothing contrary to "State, morals, or religion." Before the Oath is administered it is said; a sword pointed at the breast: "Shouldst thou become a traitor or perjurer, let this sword remind thee of each and all the members in arms against thee. Do not hope to find safety; whithersoever thou mayest fly, shame and remorse as well as the vengeance of thine unknown brothers will torture and pursue thee."
Then in the Oath which follows he swears: "...eternal silence, and faithfulness and everlasting obedience to all superiors and regulations of the Order. I also renounce my own personal views and opinions as well as all control of my powers and capacities. I promise also to consider the well-being of the Order as my own, and I am ready, as long as I am a member, to serve it with my goods, my honor, and my life...If I act against the rules and well-being of the Society, I will submit myself to the penalties to which my superiors may condemn me..."
He received a classical name, by which he was henceforth known in the Order. He was required also to keep all things appertaining to the Order in a special place, having a label attached with the address of his superior, to whom the body had to be sent in case of his sudden death. In one of the recipes is found the description of such a box which, when opened by an uninitiated person, would at once burst into flames! To such an extent was secrecy and silence demanded! After the, alleged, breaking up of his Order Weishaupt and his followers sill secretly carried on their intrigues, for by 1789 the 266 Lodges controlled by the Grand Orient of Freemasonry were all Illuminized unbeknown to the large majority of the members, and a few months later the French Revolution of that date eventuated.
In 1794 the Duke of Brunswick, Grand Master of German Freemasonry, issued a Manifesto to all the Lodges showing how Masonry had been penetrated by this International Sect, and suggesting, for a time, suppression of all Freemasonry until it was freed from this unseen cancer. It said: "A great sect arose, which, taking for its motto the good and happiness of man, worked in the darkness of the conspiracy to make the happiness of humanity a prey for itself. This sect is known to everyone: its brothers are known no less than its name. It is they who have undermined the foundations of the Order (Freemasonry) to the point of complete overthrow; it is by them that all humanity has been poisoned and led astray for several generations. The ferment that reigns amongst the peoples in their work. They founded the plans of their insatiable ambition on the political pride of nations. Their founders arranged to introduce this pride into the heads of the peoples. They began by casting odium on religion...They invented the rights of man, which it is impossible to discover even in the book of Nature, and they urged the people to wrest from their princes the recognition of these supposed rights. The plan they formed for breaking all social ties and of destroying all order was revealed in all their speeches and acts. They deluged the world with a multitude of publications; they recruited apprentices of every rank and in every position; they deluded the most perspicacious men by falsely alleging different intentions. They sowed in the hearts of youth the seed of covetousness, and they excited it with the bait of the most insatiable passions. Indomitable pride, thirst of power, such were the only motives of this sect; their masters had nothing less in view than the thrones of the earth, and the government of the nations was to be directed by their nocturnal clubs. This is what has been done and is still being done. But we notice that princes and people are unaware how and by what means this is being accomplished..."
Later, a law was passed, as a result of all this, by the English Parliament in 1799, prohibiting all secret societies with the exception of Freemasonry. Today, it is said, these secret societies are still illegal, and although some call themselves semi-public, an oath of secrecy is still required by their chiefs, concerning the most important and secret teachings, relating, more especially, to contact with the mysterious controlling power on the astral plane. According to Monsignor Dillon, 1885 (Mrs. Webster, Secret Societies): "Had Weishaupt not lived, Masonry might have ceased to be a power after the reaction consequent on the French Revolution. He gave it a form and character which caused it to outlive that reaction to energize to the present day, and which will cause it to advance until its final conflict with Christianity must determine whether Christ or Satan shall reign on this Earth to the end."
Was Weishaupt not merely the tool of another and more formidable Sect? Of this "Overshadowing Power," which is the life, as it were, of Illuminism, we are told, in "The Victories of Israel," by Roger Lambelin: "Josheph de Maistre who was, one knows, a Freemason of fairly high grade, noted the influence exercised by the Jews. In 1811, examining the causes of the French Revolution, in a letter written to his King from St. Petersburg, he says: 'The power of this sect oriented by Jewry, to bewitch Governments, is one of the most terrible and most extraordinary phenomena that have been seen in the world."
Again, Bernard Lazare, the Jewish writer, affirms: "It is certain that there were Jews even at the cradle of Freemasonry; Cabalistic Jews, as is proved by certain existing rites; very probably during the years which preceded the French Revolution they entered in still greater numbers into the councils of the society, and themselves founded secret societies.
There were Jews round Weishaupt; and Martinez de Pasqualis, a Jew of Portuguese origin, organized numerous illuminised groups in France and recruited many adepts, whom he initiated into the doctrine of reintegration (regeneration). The Martinist Lodges were mystic, while the other Orders of Freemasonry were rather rationalist, which proves that secret societies represented the two sides of the Jewish mind -- practical rationalism and pantheism; that pantheism which, which a metaphysical reflection of a belief in the One God, ends at times in a Cabalistic Theurgy."
And M. Roger Lambelin adds: "They are the ferments of revolution in all ethnic groups foreign to their race." Further, Rabbi Benamozegh says: "Is it surprising that Judaism has been accused of forming a branch of Freemasonry? What is certain is that Masonic theology is only theosophy at bottom, and corresponds to that of the Cabala...Those who will take the trouble to examine with care the connection between Judaism and philosophic Freemasonry, theosophy, and the mysteries in general...will cease to smile in pity at the suggestion that Cabalistic theology may have a role to play in the religious transformations of the future...It contains the key to the modern religious problem."
In an interesting book, "Les Juifs et le Talmud," by M. Flavien Bernier, we find some light thrown on this Pantheistic creed of the Cabalistic Jews and the "Deified Man" of Illuminism. He wrote, 1913: "Now the dominating philosophic doctrine among learned Chaldeans...was absolute Pantheism. In the vast Temple which is the Universe, the learned Chaldeans suppressed the Creator...Everything was cause and effect; the world was uncreated and itself became its own god. Even the idea of Divinity was confounded with Universal Harmony which regulated all things, and with each of the things it regulated. God was therefore in turn, and as a whole, Earth nourisher of man, the dew which fertilized it, the Sun which gave light and heat, the wind which carried the fertilizing pollen of vegetation; God was the life principle which perpetuated the species, human and animal; which caused plants to germinate, grow, die, and spring into life again, which manifested even in apparently inanimate bodies. Identified as a kind of breath of Nature, uncreated and eternal. God emanated from the world not the world from God. It is realizable that such a system, which bears the imprint of a bizarre but undeniable poetry, would, in all ages, have the power to seduce the human mind. It would seduce it all the more that the system had, as immediate result, the increase of human pride in the cult of the 'Deified Man.'
In effect, if no Supreme Being as distinct from Nature was imposed over the latter by right of creation -- if all things had in some manner an intelligence or soul, and if God was merely the sum of all these conscious or unconscious souls of the Universe, a hierarchy would necessarily exist among these souls of which each was a part of God, but which could only contain God in a very unequal manner. The divine principle would find itself distributed in less abundance in a stone than in a tree, which lives, breathes, grows, and dies; in a tree than in an animal, which thinks, perceives, and acts; in an animal than in a man who mediates on the past and future, solves the problem of Nature, corrects the latter's imperfections by his labor and ingenuity, and seeks to perfect himself indefinitely. At the summit of the ladder of beings Man, much more perfect and more intelligent than any of the others, evidently absorbed the greatest amount of the divine essence of which the Universe is composed. Having emptied the heavens of any being superior to himself, he was in truth God of the World, where all were apparently inferior and subordinate to him."
In a footnote the author adds: "Those of our readers who are familiar with the works of Hermetic Freemasonry will at once recognize the favorite ideas of the pontiffs of that sect, ideas which they have inherited from the alchemists of the Middle Ages, who held them from the Cabalistic Jews. The same may be said of the cult of the 'Deified Man,' which was the basis of Chaldean Pantheism, and which has remained that of Occultism, ancient and modern. Certain traditions give to Zoroaster, a Jewish Prophet, as Master...But, on the other hand, Chaldean thought acted powerfully upon orthodox Judaism and determined the growth of a sect in its midst which was to transform Israel...This sect was that of the 'Pharisees.'...
What they borrowed (from the Chaldeans) in fact...was the essence of the Pantheistic doctrine...It was then that was formed from these borrowings that Kabalah (Kabbalah) of the Pharisees which was for long transmitted orally from Master to disciple, and was, 800 years later, to inspire the compilation of the Talmud, and found its completest expression in the 'Sepher ha Zohar.'...This religion of the 'Deified Man,' with which they were impregnated in Babylon, was only conceived as benefitting the Jew, superior and predestined being...The premise of universal domination found in the Law by the orthodox Jew was not interpreted by the Pharisees in the sense of the reign of the God of Moses over the Nations, but in the sense of a material domination which would be imposed by the Jews over the Universe. The expected Messiah...was to be a temporal King, all bloody from battle, who would make Israel master of the world and trample all peoples under the wheel of His chariot."
Have we not here the basis of the teaching in all these Orders and groups, mystic and occult, of the present time -- the cult of the life-force, the I.A.O. the "Serpent Power," the all-pervading ether? And have we not also the key to the Cabalistic Jews, in these Pharisees of old and of today; these so-called "Divine Guardians" working behind and through these secret Orders, who profess to teach the doctrine of the deification of the adept, but who in very truth create Illuminised slaves controlled by the Cabalistic Jew, who claims to be the "Deified Man" as M. Bernier says, "the God people" rather than the "People of God."
In the Patriot, March 7, 1929, we find some interesting material in connection with Secret Societies and the French Revolution; it says: "In 1910 there was published a very remarkable book, entitled Marie-Antoinette et le Complot Maconnique. It was written by M. Louis Daste, an erudite historian, who had spent a great deal of time in examining published and unpublished documents throwing light on the part played by secret societies in preparing the French Revolution...the extracts show, among other things, how anti-Christian and revolutionary ideas were circulated by bodies ostensibly engaged in educating the French people. Behind these bodies was French Freemasonry, which was and is, unlike our own Freemasonry, anti-Christian, political, and revolutionary."
It was the stated intention of the Founder to constitute a Protestant organization to fight Jesuitism, using Jesuitical methods [This was only a smoke screen to conceal the real objectives of the organization]. He was ably assisted in his efforts by Adolph, Baron von Knigge, Massenhausen, Bode, Anacharsis Clootz, Fischer, Zwack, Merz, Hertal, the Marquis de Constanza, Count Saviola, Bassus, Baron de Montgelas and Nicolai. Behind Nicolai was Moses Mendelssohn, and behind Mendelssohn the Jewish Kahal, the Jewish International World Government.
"Nicolai had established about the year 1765 at Berlin a literary review with the object of propagating the pernicious doctrines of a shallow Illuminism, and, in that, the infancy of German literature, when this periodical had scarcely a rival to encounter, the influence it exerted was more extensive than can at present be even conceived. Bahardt and Basedow, at the same time, in cheap and popular tracts, scattered among the lower classes the poison of infidelity; and they, as well as Nicolai, were in close communication with Weishaupt, carrying on with the most reckless violence, and with the weapons of a most shameless ribaldry, the warfare against Christianity. The great critic Lessing, the founder of the modern German literature, lent his powerful support to the anti-Christian League. While librarian at Wolfenbuttel, he edited a work, composed by Reimarus, consisting of various irreligious essays entitled Fragments of Wolfenbuttel, and which, from the tone of earnestness and dialectic acuteness where they were written, exerted a very prejudicial influence over public opinion."
As the organization of the Illuminati developed, so did its ambitions, which ended in a plot to subvert Freemasonry to its aim of world dominion by any and all means. But for the Freemason Baron Adolph von Knigge, a Templar, who succeeded in having it absorbed by Freemasonry, the order would have perished soon after its creation. After obtaining control of certain Masonic Lodges, Weishaupt and his associates recklessly vaunted their growing power.
Their organization then, soon becoming permeated by the agents of their enemies, the Jesuits and Rose Croix Orders, they were denounced to the Elector of Bavaria, Charles Theodore, by the Duchess Marie-Anne of Bavaria (Princess Clementine), has cousin whose secretary, Joseph Utzschneider, had, as an Illuminatus, become acquainted with certain methods of the order. Constanza had ordered him to hand over certain letters written by Frederic II to the Duchess Marie-Anne and, suspecting blackmail, instead of complying with the request, he denounced the order.
On March 2, 1785, the Elector wrote his second and final edict, suppressing the order of the Illuminati, but it was not until July 10, 1785 that incriminating evidence was obtained on the activities of the sect when one of its members, a priest, Jacob Lang, was struck dead by lightning while walking with Weishaupt at Ratisbon [Some writers have it he was riding a horse when struck by lightning]. His body was placed in the chapel of Saint-Emmeran and a Benedictine found some documents and a list of the members of the Illuminati sewn in his clothes.
These he handed over to the Councillor of the Government of Upper Bavaria. More papers were found when the authorities, who were watching Zwack's relations with a certain Jew, Mayer, the superintendent of Bassus' chateau of Sandersdorf, near Ingolstadt, decided to raid the place, and in 1787 the judge charged with the inventory of the succession of the valet of Baron Maendl, the Chamberlain of the Elector, found among his effect, an iron box full of papers concerning the Illuminati. This discovery, Maendl, himself an Illuminatus, was summoned to explain. Among the details of his evidence is the statement that the Lodge Bader had 97 degrees. The coincidence of this number becomes of interest when compared with the 97 degrees of Memphis sent to England in 1762 by the Grand Orient of France. When Weishaupt was banished from Bavaria by his sovereign, he was received at the court of the Duke Earnest-Lous de Saxe-Gotha who, besides a pension, gave him the title of Honorary Councillor.
The Marquis of Constanza, his secretary, and Count Saviola, the Keeper of the Archives of the order, two Italian accomplices, were also banished with pensions of 400 and 800 florins respectively, and as Illuminism was already said to have found its way into Italy, there is no reason to suppose that these gentlemen failed in their administration of the subsidy.
The Gospel of Revolution
We see the foundation and growth of such societies as:
1). The Strict Observance of the Baron Hund and the notorious Jew Leucht who had assumed the name of Johnson, and several other aliases. It recruited its members in the Lodges and went from occultism into political intrigue, later even formulating a plan of economic and financial rule.
2). The Martinists, which, founded by a Portuguese Marrano Jew, Martinez Depasqualy, united political intrigues, fomented for the overthrow of the monarchy, together with magical practices. It numbered among its members the chief politicians who prepared the French Revolution. These were Savalette de Lange, William Law and Marabeau.
3). The Scottish Rite.
4). The Moravian Brothers.
5). The Alta Vendita.
6). The Egyptian Rites of Cagliostro (Mizraim).
The adepts of all these different rites knew but little beyond the fact that they had shaken off the yoke of Christian principles which were replaced by the cult of nature, and in almost all cases licentiousness. They were but mere puppets manipulated by unseen men whose sinister aims were the destruction of Christianity and disruption of States and to whom all the above named orders or organizations were but so many recruiting grounds. It was only when each and all had gathered sufficient strength that the "Invisible Masters" attempted to unite them all under one supreme sway, namely that of Illuminism at the convent of Wilhelmsbad in 1782. Illuminism represented the efforts of the heads of the powerful Jewish Kahal which has ever striven for the attainment of political financial, economic and moral world dominion. The movement had been founded in 1776 by Adam Weishaupt, Bernard Lazare, himself a Jew, has written that "There were Jews behind Weishaupt," and upon a close study of Illuminism, we find that the destructive forces which culminated in the French Revolution were of three kinds; financial, intellectual and anti-Christian.
In the first class, we come upon the names of Jewish Financiers such as: Daniel Itzig, Friedlander, Ceerfbeer, Benjamin and Abraham Goldsmid, Moses Mocatta, and Veitel Heine Ephraim. In the second category, we find Moses Mendelssohn, Naphtali Wessely, Moses Hersheim, who are the inspirers of Lessing, Frederic Nicolai, Weishaupt, Mirabeau, l'Abbe Gregoire, the Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel and Anacharsis Clootz.
Lastly, the third class is composed mostly of the group known as the Encyclopedists: d'Alembert, Diderot, Rousseau, Voltaire and of all the Cabalists practicing magic and among whom we find: Martinez Depasqualy, Leucht, the enigmatic Count of Saint Germain, Flake and Joseph Balsamo surnamed Cagliostro. The objects of this powerful organization of the Bavarian Illuminati, were:
1). The destruction of Christianity and of all Monarchical Governments;
2). The destruction of nations as such in favor of universal internationalism;
3). The discouragement of patriotic and loyal effort branded as narrow minded prejudice, incompatible with the tenets of goodwill to all men and the cry of "Universal Brotherhood;"
4). The abolition of family ties and of marriage by means of systematic corruption;
5). The suppression of the rights of inheritance and property.
The codified correspondence of the Grand Orient was received by Savalette de Langes and dealt with by the Committee. To be admitted to these councils they had to swear, as Chevalier du Soleil, hatred to Christianity and, as Chevalier kadosch, hatred to Crowns and Papacy. They had a branch in Paris, and this was frequented by Saint-Germain, Raymond, Cagliostro, Condorcet, Dietrich, brothers of Avignon, and students of Swedenborg and Saint-Martin. Outside they passed as charlatans, visionaries, evoking spirits and working prodigies, while secretly searching out accomplices in the Masonic Lodges.
Consorting with the chief disciples of Weishaupt, Mirabeau was initiated in Brunswick into the final Mysteries of Illuminism. Already he knew the value of Masonry in revolution, and on his return to France he introduced these mysteries among the Philalethes. It was then decided to illuminize all the lodges of France; for this purpose the Illuminati, Bode, or Aurelius, and Baron de Busche or Bayard, pupil of Knigge, were deputed to assist.
After much discussion it was resolved to adopt the Bavarian mysteries without changing the old forms of the lodges to illuminze them without revealing the name of the sect from whom the mysteries were received, and only to use Weishaupt's code in so far as it would hasten the revolution (Le Couteulx de Canteleu). From then the political aim was accentuated, a new grade was added, preserving Masonic emblems and rites, and this was passed on to the provinces. The closest alliance was concluded, and a general Convent of Masons in France and abroad was convoked by the secret committee for February 15, 1785. Savalette de Langes was elected president, and among the deputies were: Saint-Germain, Saint-Martin, Etrilla, Mesmer, Cagliostro, Mirabeau and Talleyrand, Bode, Dalberg, Baron de Gleichen, Lavater, Prince Louis de Hesse, and also deputies from the Grand Orients of Poland and Lithuania.
The Duc d'Orleans was then Grand master under its jurisdiction and order lodges of 282 towns in France and abroad (Mirabeau). At this Congress the French Revolution and its propagation throughout Europe was resolved upon even to the decree of regicide. The part, according to Mirabeau, to be taken by the people is thus described in his Memoires by Marmontel:AHave we to fear the great part of the nation which knows not our projects, and would not be disposed to lend us their support? ...If they disapprove of them, it will be only timidly, without clamor. For the rest, does the nation know what it wants? We will make it want and say what it has never thought of...The nation is a large herd which thinks only of browsing, and which, with good dogs, the shepherds lead at will...One will have to impose upon the bourgeoisie who sees nothing to lose, but all to gain by the change. To stir it up one has the most powerful motives: poverty, hunger, money, rumors of alarm and fear, the frenzy of terror and rage with which we will strike their minds...What will we do with all this people while muzzling their principles of honesty and justice? Good men are feeble and timid; it is the blackguards who are determined. It is advantageous to people during revolutions to have no morals...there is not a single one of our old virtues which can serve us...All that is necessary for revolution, all that is useful to it is just -- that is the great principle."
About the beginning of the revolution a manifesto was issued from the committee of the Grand Orient addressed to all Masonic Lodges and Councils, to be used throughout Europe. By it, "...all the lodges were summoned to league together to unite their efforts for the maintenance of the Revolution, everywhere to seek followers, friends, and protectors, to propagate its flame, to stir up its spirit, to excite zeal and ardor for it in all countries and by all means in their power." After the receipt of this manifesto anti-Monarchy and Republican ideas everywhere became dominant, and anti- religious ideas were used only to undermine nationalities.
The Jew and high Mason, Cremieux, founder and president of L'Alliance-israelite-universelle, said in his manifesto, in 1860: "The net which Israel now casts over the terrestrial globe enlarges and extends...Our power is immense; learn to turn that power to our cause. The day is not far distant when all the riches, all the treasures of the earth, will become the property of the children of Israel."
In his book Marie-Antoinette et le complot Maconnique, Louis Daste shows how that net was spread before and after the French Revolution of 1789. He writes: "From 1774 to 1783 we have seen Masonry unceasingly cover Marie-Antoinette with the mud of its pamphlets. The hour approached when the sect was to strike the blow from which the Queen died."
It was the Affair of the necklace which was, according to G. Bord, "organized by the Strict Observance and the Amis Reunis of Paris." "The Jew Cagliostro," said ex-Mason Doinel 33o, "...was the contemptible agent of this intrigue in which the popularity of the Queen foundered and the prestige of the unfortunate Louis XVI was ruined."
Further, Louis Blanc wrote, in 1848: "His initiation took place a short distance from Frankfort in a subterranean vault...(he was shown) a manuscript book in the first page of which could be read: We Grand Masters of the Templars; followed by an oath formula traced in blood. The book ...maintained that Illuminism was a conspiracy plotted against thrones, that the first blows would fall on France; that after the fall of the French Monarchy they would attack Rome. Cagliostro learned from his initiators that the secret society to which he henceforth belonged possessed a mass of money scattered in the banks of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, London, Genon, and Venice...As for himself, he handled a huge sum destined for the expenses of propaganda, received instructions from the Sect and went to Strasbourg."
On the seals of the lodge founded by him at Lyons were the three letters L.P.D. -- Lilia pedibus destrue, trample the (Burbon) lilies underfoot. This, then, was his diabolical mission. When, therefore, Cagliostro arrived in Strasbourg, 1781, his first care was to control and set his tools in motion. The Cardinal Prince de Rohan, his dupe, and the Comtesse de la Motte, his accomplice, were made known to each other; the latter being in reduced circumstances, the Cardinal advised her to apply direct to the Queen, at the same time confiding to her his ambitions and his bitterness because of the Queen's refusal to see him. From then Mme de la Motte, pretending to be in touch with the Queen, under instructions from Cagliostro, acted as intermediary in a correspondence between the Queen, whose name was forged, and the Cardinal, which was nominally to bring about his restoration to the Royal favor and the realization of his ambitions, but was eventually to besmirch and compromise the unwitting Queen. Nothing was done without consulting Cagliostro.
In May, June, July 1784, the forged letters multiplied, written by Retaux de Villette and dictated by Mme de la Motte. Then at midnight, August 11, came the brief pretended interview in the park at Versailles between the Queen and the Cardinal. Nicole d'Oliva dressed as the Queen strongly resembled her; the Cardinal believed he had seen and spoken with Marie-Antoinette. When, therefore, further forged letters twice asked him to find 60,000 livres for the Queen's bounties, both sums were willingly borrowed by the Cardinal from the Jew Cerfberr. The money was retained by Mme de la Motte!
In December, having come into touch with the Court jeweler, Boehmer, who was anxious to dispose of a diamond necklace worth 1,800,000 livres, she quickly planned to acquire it, in the same way, for herself. More forged letters from the Queen, along with advice from his oracle Cagliostro, reassured the Cardinal, and on February 1, 1785, the negotiations with Boehmer were completed; the necklace passed into the possession of Mme de la Motte, and the finest stones were sold in London by her husband.
Failing to receive the first payment of 100,000 ecus which fell due on July 30, Boehmer realized the fraud; the indignant Queen was informed of everything, and in August the Cardinal, Mme de la Motte, and Cagliostro were arrested, but not before most of the compromising letters were secretly burned. The Cardinal refused the King's offer to act as judge; they were, therefore, tried by Parliament, which was largely Masonised. The Cardinal and Cagliostro were acquitted, Mme de la Motte was condemned to be branded as a thief, whipped, and shut up, but was later secretly assisted to escape.
From London she waged her campaign of calumny against Marie-Antoinette; in 1788 her Memoire justificatif was published, formed, said de Nolhac, of rage and lies, dragging the Queen through infamous mud. It was almost wholly retouched by M. de Calonne in a ferment of hatred against the Queen, whom he blamed for his disgrace from Ministerial office.
In 1789 appeared the Second memoire justificatif, again attributed to but repudiated by Mme de la Motte, and which outdid the first in filth and venom. Then followed an avalanche of indecent pamphlets, all based on the memoire with the double object of vilifying the Queen and besmirching minds with filthy pictures, killing in advance all pity in the hearts of the people and of her executioners; Lilia pedibus destrue. But Cagliostro was finished, the Secret Power, fearing disclosures, mercilessly broke him; forced to leave London, hunted through Europe, he was finally arrested in Rome by the Pontifical Police. After a long trial, recorded in Vie de Joseph Blasamo, 1791, he was condemned to death, commuted to imprisonment for life, and died in 1795. In a wretched garret in London, 1791, Mme de la Motte ended her life in terrible suffering, deserted by all. The Secret Power having no use for broken tools, had ceased to protect them.
In "La Revue," March 1, 1909, the editor wrote of an indecent pamphlet, O Marquez de Bacalhoa, published in February 1908, a month before the assassination of Don Carlos: "It is published in the form of the romances which appeared about 1780 on the private life of Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette ...It smothered the King in mud and did not spare Queen Amelia...The pages consecrated to the Queen were a mere tissue of infamous lies..." And the Portuguese Revolution of 1910 was the work of Jews of l'Alliance-israelite-universelle united to Freemasonry. Again we have Proudhon writing: "What mysteries of iniquity would be revealed if the Jews, like the mole, did not make a point of working in the dark."
Moses Mendelssohn, himself the head of the Haskalah [Jewish Illuminati], cooperated with the Bavarian Illuminati of Weishaupt and with the prominent members of the other revolutionary secret societies aspiring to political power, but, in 1784, the Elector of Bavaria made an abortive effort to stamp out the conspiracy which, being international, was necessarily impervious to local measures. The poison of subversion was working in France, where on January 21, 1793, it culminated in the death on the scaffold of Louis XVI, an event that in Masonic jargon is known as "The second cannon shot." The capture of Rome by Cadorna in 1870 was the third. As a further confirmation of concerted Masonic action let us bring yet another illustration: In the first days of the French Revolution (1848), 300 Freemasons, with their banners flying over brethren of every rite representing French Freemasonry, marched to the Hotel de Ville, and there offered their banner to the Provisional Government of the Republic, proclaiming aloud the part they had just taken in the glorious Revolution. M. de Lamartine made them this answer, which was received with enthusiasm by the Freemasonry Lodges: "It is from the depths of your lodges that the ideas have emanated, first in the dark, then in the twilight, and now in the full light of day, which have laid the foundations of the Revolutions of 1789, 1830, and 1849."
Fourteen days later, a new deputation of the "Grand Orient," adorned with their Masonic scarfs and jewels, repaired to the Hotel de Ville. They were received by A. Cremieux (The means for the attainment of Cremieux's ambition are set forth in a book entitled Paris: Capitale des Religions, by Jean Izoulet), and Garnier Pages, attended by Pages, who also wore their Masonic emblems. The Representative of the Grand Master spoke thus: "French Freemasonry cannot contain her universal burst of sympathy with the great social and national movement which has just been effected. The Freemasons hail with joy the triumph of their principles, and boast of being able to say that the whole country has received through you a Masonic consecration. Forty thousand Freemasons in 500 lodges, forming but one heart and one soul, assure you here of their support happily to lead to the end of the work of regeneration so gloriously begun."
Brother Cremieux, a Jewish brother, member of the Provisional Government, replied: "Citizens and brothers of the Grand Orient, the Provisional Government accepts with pleasure your useful and complete adhesion. The Republic exists in Freemasonry. If the Republic do as the Freemasons have done, it will become the glowing pledge of union with all men, in all parts of the globe, and on all sides of our triangle." If the wielding of power and their national political economic and financial strength over the peoples by a few hidden hands can result in such calamitous upheavals as the French Revolution, the World War of 1914 and the Russian Revolution of 1917, were it not wise to apply the lesson of experience to ascertain whether the supposed harmless Masonry of today does not again serve as a screen or curtain behind which thrive secret societies no less subversive, revolutionary and demoralizing than those which we have just so briefly sketched?
We know that most of them such as the Martinists, the Illuminatis, the Scottish Rite and the Egyptian Lodges of Memphis and Mizraim still exist today, so, on what grounds can we base our assumption of a change of their revolutionary and anti-Christian principles? In the face of late events, namely, the Peace Conference, the creation of the League of Nations, the amalgamation of international resources, the confiscatory inheritance taxes, the development of international finance, the proposed establishment of an international non-Christian cult, have we the right to refrain from lifting the veil of Masonry behind which subversive movements are so conveniently hidden?
The Rosicrucians were deeply involved in the formation of the Illuminati. So much so that speculation as to the origin of the Rosicrucians, and the many fables and legends connected with the subject have but little historical value. Owing to the great discrepancy between the information contained in the following article and that given in the more modern editions of the Encyclopedia Britannica, it has been deemed advisable to reprint the former. "Rosicrucians, a name assumed by a sect or cabal of hermetical philosophers; who arose, as it has been said, or at least became first taken notice of in Germany, in the beginning of the fourteenth century. They bound themselves together by a solemn secret, which they all swore inviolably to preserve: and obliged themselves, at their admission into the order, to a strict observance of certain established rules.
They pretended to know all sciences, and chiefly medicine: whereof they published themselves the restorers. They pretended to be masters of abundance of important secrets, and, among others, that of the philosopher's stone: all which they affirmed to have received by tradition from the ancient Egyptians, Chaldeans, the Magi and Gymnosophists. They have been distinguished by several names, accommodated to the several branches of their doctrine.
Because they pretend to protect the period of human life, by means of certain nostrums, and even to restore youth, they were called Immortals; as they pretended to know all things, they have been called Illuminati; and because they have made no appearance for several years, unless the sect of illuminated which lately started up on the continent derives its origin from them, they have been called the Invisible Brothers.
Their society is frequently signed by the letters F.R.C. which some among them interpret fratres roris cocti; it being pretended that the matter of the philosopher's stone is dew concocted, exalted, etc. Some, who are no friends to freemasonry, make the present flourishing society of freemasons a branch of Rosicrucians; or rather the Rosicrucians themselves, under a new name or relation, viz., as retainers to building. And it is certain, there are some freemasons who have all the characters of Rosicrucians; but how the area and original of masonry, and that of Rosicrucianism here fixed from Nadaeus, who has written expressly on the subject, conflict, we leave others to judge...notwithstanding the pretended antiquity of the Rosicrucians, it is probable that the alchemists, Paracelsists (Followers of Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim (1493-1541)), or fire- philosophers, who spread themselves through almost all Europe about the close of the 16th century, assumed about this period the obscure and ambiguous title of Rosicrucian brethren, which commanded at first some degree of respect, as it seemed to be borrowed from the arms of Luther, which were a cross placed upon a rose.
But the denomination evidently appears to be derived from the science of chemistry. It is not compounded, says Motheim, as many imagine of the two words Rosa and crux, which signify rose and cross, but of the latter of these words, and the Latin ros, which signifies dew...At the head of these fanatics were Robert Fludd, an English physician, Jacob Behmen, and Michael Mayer; but if rumor may be credited, the present Illuminated have a head of higher rank. The common principles, which serve as a kind of center of union to the Rosicrucian society, are the following: They all maintain that the dissolution of bodies, by the power of fire, is the only way by which men can arrive at true wisdom, and come to discern the first principles of things. They all acknowledge a certain analogy and harmony between the powers of nature and the doctrines of religion; and believe that the Deity governs the kingdom of grace by the same laws with which he rules the kingdom of nature; and hence they are led to use chemical denominations to express the truth of religion. They all hold that there is a sort of divine energy, or soul, diffused through the frame of the universe, which some call the argheus, others the universal spirit, and which others mention under different appellations. They all talk in the most superstitious manner of what they call the signatures of things, of the power of the stars, over all corporeal beings, and their particular influence upon the human race, of the efficacy of magic, the various ranks and orders of demons: These demons they divide into two orders, sylphs and gnomes."
This article having been written in 1747 only hinted at what the Rose Croix might have been. Subsequent research upon the organization of the Fraternity, its tenets and its achievements, shows it to have been a medium for the propagation of Gnosticism and a center for political activities. Before it conquered Freemasonry, which was officially instituted in 1717, many names were already associated intimately with this esoteric organization. Among others were Faustus Socinius, Cesare Cremonini, Michael Maier, Valentin Andrea, Thomas Vaughan (Philaletes), Charles Blount, Frederich Helvetius, Richard Simon, and Theophilus Desaguliers.
It is claimed that Faustus Socinius, named after Faustus, the Manichee, nephew of Lelius Socinius, whose teacher was Camillo Renato, was an intimate of Rosicrucianism and the founder of the Socinians. Catholics and Protestants alike opposed Faustus Socinius in his efforts to graft a secret cult on the existing orthodox religions, and in 1598, the people of Cracovia, revolted by his doctrines, pillaged his house, burned his books and manuscripts and almost massacred their author.
He had sworn hatred to the church and busied himself in founding an association the aims of which were to be subversive to all its teachings, and two years before his death, he was obliged to take refuge from his enemies with one Abraham Blonski. The membership of the Rose Croix was composed of Alchemists, Astrologers and Spiritists whose quest was for the search for a process for transmuting base metals into gold and the secret of life. To most of these "generation was the root principle of Achemy."
The order of the Rose Croix revealed itself in 1614 with the appearance of two books, Fama Fraternitalis and the Confessio attributed to Valentin Andrea giving the legend of the travels of Christian Rosenkreutz. According to Charles T. MacClenachan 33o, Historian, Grand Lodge State of New York, this same legend had appeared as the work of Raymond Lulli, who died in 1315. In this legend, translated into English in 1616 by Robert Fludd, a symbolic personage called Christian Rosenkreuz, destined to live 106 years on earth, traveled in the East where he studied the Cabala and, on his return to his native Germany, he revealed to three disciples the secret of secrets, the great secret of theosophy. (Fire, alias Kundalini, alias sex-force). Finally, he retired to a cave to finish his days in solitude, dying in 1484 at the age of 106. His disciples came, enshrouded him and disappeared. His grave was to be unknown for six times twenty years at the end of which period it was to become the hearth of the light destined to illuminate the world at the time appointed by God.
In 1604, chance brought men to this cave. On entering, great was their surprise to find it resplendent with a bright light. It contained an altar bearing upon a copper plate the inscription "Living, I reserved this light for my grave." One mysterious figure was accompanied by this epigram "Never vacant." A second figure "The Yoke of the Law." A third figure "The Liberty of the Gospels." A fourth "The Glory of the Whole God." The hall still contained lamps burning without fuel, mirrors of various shapes and books. Upon the wall was written "In six times twenty years I will be discovered." The prophecy was fulfilled, adds the fable, by way of conclusion. The movement was greatly furthered by the impulse given it when, after the appearance of the Fama Fraternitatis and Confessio, a German Alchemist, Michael Maier, an English Physician, Robert Fludd and a Pietist, Julius Sperber, wrote treatises in defense or explanation of the order of the Rose Croix. It has repeatedly been stated that Michael Maier, who frequently visited England, was a friend of Robert Fludd. He was the author of Themis Aurea and Silentium post Clamores, both Rosicrucian works. His political influence may be judged from his career. Physician to Rudolf II, he was created by him Count of the Palatinate, and acted as adviser to his sovereign. In 1609, Rudolf II issued an Imperial Charter granting religious liberty to the Moravians. Masonic authorities state that Maier, as a Rosicrucian, changed his official title to Summus Magister, Sovereign Master, which is that used by all his successors and borne by the principal Socinian Rose-Croix documents, dating from the time of Faustus Socinius to that of Johann Wolff, which are preserved in the Sovereign Patriarchal Council of Hamburg.
In his book "Themis Aurea," written in 1616 and 1617 and printed in 1618, Maier, the Grand master, refers to a resolution passed at a meeting in 1617 in which it was formally agreed that the Brotherhood of the Rose Croix must maintain the strictest secrecy for a hundred years. On October 31, 1617, the Convention of the Seven at Magdebourg had indeed agreed to qualify its members during the ensuing one hundred years of secrecy as "The Invisibles." It had renewed its oath to destroy the church of Jesus Christ and had decreed that, in the year 1717, it would transform the fraternity into an association which could carry on a more or less open propaganda, while adopting such measures of prudence as might then be deemed expedient by the leaders of the sect. Finally, the Seven adopted definitely, as being sufficiently original to appeal to the popular imagination, Valentin Andrea's curious story of the Rose Croix which had been secretly printed in Venice towards 1613.
Robert Fludd was the author of "Tractatus Apologelicus" (1617) and Clavis Philosophiae et Alchymiae (1633). He was greatly helped in the foundation of the Rose Croix order in England by Francis Bacon, author of "Nova Atlantis Histoire des Rose Croix." Valentin Andrea to whom, as we have seen, are ascribed the works Fama and Confessio, as well as Chemycal nuptials, had, in 1640, been appointed preacher to the Duke of Brunswick Wofenbuttel, who was soon to make him his champion.
To those who know the important part played by a Duke of Brunswick during the French Revolution, this entrance of the Brunswick family into the sect is very interesting. As a Rosicrucian, Andrea was the teacher of Commenius (Amos Kominsky), who frequently visited England during his mysterious political career. Bishop of a Moravian community, Comenius was the leader of the Moravian Brethren, a sect pledged to achieve the extermination of the Catholic church and which, being considered heretical, was also suspected of practicing secret Satanism.
The Moravians were imbued with Socinianism, that is the doctrine of Lelius Socinius which had been spread among them by his nephew Faustus Socinius who had found refuge in Moravia when persecuted by the Church. Their link with Rosicrucianism had already been established in the person of the pietist, Julius Sperber, who was also one of their leaders.
When Kominsky was persecuted, he first went to London in 1641 and, early the next year, went to Sweden where he was granted refuge and help by the powerful Swedish Minister, Count Axel Oxenstiern, himself a Rosicrucian adept and protector of another initiate, Ludwig van Geer from Holland.
The combination of the pursuit of alchemy and hermeticism with political aims was frequently evidenced even before the official appearance of Rosicrucianism. The influence of adepts on the destinies of nations was immense. To Queen Elizabeth, the advice of John Dee, her alchemist, was always considered in matters affecting national policy, and to Dee, his crystal gazer, Edward Kelly, was indispensable as a medium
Ludwig van Geer, (one of the Seven present at Magdebourg) had settled in Sweden and had won over the chancellor. Count Axel Oxenstiern, then the real regent, in view of the minority of Queen Christina. A great industrialist of Dutch birth, with a colossal fortune made in the manufacture of cannon, he had become a Baron, and as owner of 20 ships of the Swedish fleet, he was an indispensable man. Another striking Rosicrucian figure was Thomas Vaughan, (Eugenius Philaletes) not to be confused with his pupil, George Starkey, known as Irenius Philaletes. It is said that it was Thomas Vaughan who, inspired by the writings of Nick Stone, conceived the idea of subverting to the ambition of the sect to which he belonged, the guild of the Freemasons which, owing to its universal character, lent itself better than any other to the realization of his project.
Nick Stone was one of the Seven of the Convention of Magdebourg. As an architect, belonging to the guild of the Freemasons, he had helped Inigo Jones, the grand-master of the English Lodges which, at this period, were non-sectarian. On the other hand, as a Rosicrucian he had grasped, in the Luciferian sense, the idea given by Faustus Socinius, and he had composed, for the nine grades of the fraternity, rituals which the chiefs declared remarkable. His ritual of the eighth degree (Magister Templi) was really Satanic.
Thomas Vaughan, struck by these manuscripts wondered whether it would be possible to extend the teaching of the Rose Croix to all "accepted masons," who were then admitted to the lodges in an honorary capacity; the Freemasons received in their guild, under the name of "accepted masons," peers and men of letters or professional men, as well as rich bourgeois, who enhanced the brilliancy of their meetings and patronized their entertainments. These honorary members were their protectors and benefactors (This is still customary. Many of the English Guilds of today such as the Goldsmiths have honorary members who, for attending their dinners receive a box of chocolates and ,3 in cash). Vaughan believed that this element, gifted with certain intellectual