"In Search of Isaac's Children"
Part 11 of 32
By Willie Martin
Chapter Six Continued:
The enslavement of White Children from Great Britain became the subject of a much better known book, Robert Louis Stevenson's Kidnaped which was based on the real-life case of James Annesley whose uncle, the Earl of Anglesey, had arranged for him to be seized and sold into slavery in America, in order to remove any challenge to the Earl's inheritance of his brother's estates.
Annesley was savagely whipped and brutally mistreated in America and it appeared as if he would die in chains. He was eventually re-sold to another master who accepted his story that he was an English lord and the heir to the Anglesey barony. He managed to make his way back to Scotland where he wrote a book, Memoirs of an Unfortunate Young Nobleman, Returned from Thirteen Years' Slavery in America, which came to the attention of Robert Louis Stevenson.
Unfortunately this rare case involving the enslavement of a member of the English nobility attracted attention only because it involved royalty. The far more common plight of hundreds of thousands of poor British children who languished and died in slavery in the colonies was ignored and their lot remained unchanged in the wake of the publication of Stevenson's classic.
The head of one kidnaping ring, John Stewart, sold at least 500 White youths per year into slavery in the colonies. Stewart's thugs were paid twenty-five shillings for Whites they procured by force, usually a knock in the head with a blunt instrument, or fraud. Stewart sold the Whites to the masters of the "White Guineaman" slave ships for forty shillings each. One eyewitness to the mass kidnaping of poor Whites estimated that 10,000 were sold into slavery every year from throughout Great Britain. (1)
White Slaves transported to the colonies suffered a staggering loss of life in the 17th and 18th century. During the voyage to America it was customary to keep the White Slaves below deck for the entire nine to twelve week journey.
A White Slave would be confined to a hole not more than sixteen feet long, chained with 50 other men to a board, with padlocked collars around their necks. The weeks of confinement below deck in the ship's stifling hold often resulted in outbreaks of contagious disease which would sweep through the "cargo" of White "freight" chained in the bowels of the ship.
Ships carrying White Slaves to America often lost half their (White) Slaves to death. According to historian Sharon V. Salinger, "Scattered data reveal that the mortality for [White] servants at certain times equaled that for [Black] slaves in the 'middle passage,' and during other periods actually exceeded the death rate for [Black] slaves." (2)
Foster R. Dulles writing in Labor in America: A History, p. 6, states that whether convicts, children 'spirited' from the countryside or political prisoners, White slaves, "experienced discomforts and sufferings on their voyage across the Atlantic that paralleled the cruel hardships undergone by Negro slaves on the notorious Middle Passage."
Dulles says the Whites were, "indiscriminately herded aboard the 'white guineamen,' often as many as 300 passengers on little vessels of not more than 200 tons burden, overcrowded, unsanitary... The mortality rate was sometimes as high as 50% and young children seldom survived the horrors of a voyage which might last anywhere from seven to twelve weeks."
Independent investigator A.B. Ellis in the Argosy writes concerning the transport of White Slaves, "The human cargo, many of whom were still tormented by unhealed wounds, could not all lie down at once without lying on each other. They were never suffered to go on deck. The hatchway was constantly watched by sentinels armed with hangers and blunder busses. In the dungeons below all was darkness, stench, lamentation, disease and death."
Marcus Jernegan describes the greed of the ship masters which led to horrendous loss of life for White Slaves transported to America: "The voyage over often repeated the horrors of the famous 'middle passage' of slavery fame. An average cargo was three hundred, but the shipmaster, for greater profit, would sometimes crowd as many as six hundred into a small vessel... The mortality under such circumstances was tremendous, sometimes more than half... Mittelberger (an eyewitness) says he saw thirty-two children thrown into the ocean during one voyage." (3)
And: "The mercantile firms, as importers of (White) servants, were not too careful about their treatment, as the more important purpose of the transaction was to get ships over to South Carolina which could carry local produce back to Europe. Consequently the Irish, as well as others, suffered greatly... It was almost as if the British merchants had redirected their vessels from the African coast to the Irish coast, with the White Servants coming over in much the same fashion as the African slaves." (4)
A study of the middle passage of White Slaves was included in a Parliamentary Petition of 1659. It reported that White Slaves were locked below deck for two weeks while the slave ship was still in port. Once under way, they were "all the way locked up under decks... amongst horses."
They were chained from their legs to their necks. One White Woman Slave, Elizabeth Dudgeon, had dared to talk back to a guard. She was trussed up to a ship's grating and mercilessly whipped. One of the ship's officers relished watching her whipped: "The corporal did not play with her, but laid it home, which I was very glad to see... she has long been fishing for it, which she has at last got to her heart's content." (5) In order to realize the maximum profit from the trade in White Slaves, the captains of the White Guineamen crammed their ships with as many poor Whites as possible, certain that even with the most callous disregard for the lives of the Whites the financial gain would still make the trip worth the effort.
A loss of 20% of their White "cargo" was regarded as acceptable. But sometimes losses were much higher. Out of 350 White Slaves on a ship bound for the colonies in 1638 only 80 arrived alive. "We have thrown over board two and three a day for many days together" wrote Thomas Rous, a survivor of the trip. A ship carrying White Slaves in 1685, the Betty of London, left England with 100 White Slaves and arrived in the colonies with 49 left. A number of factors contributed to the higher death rates for White Slaves than Blacks. Although the goal of maximum profits motivated both trades, it cost more to obtain Blacks from Africa than it did to capture Whites in Europe. White Slaves were not cared for as well as Blacks because the Whites were cheaply obtained and were viewed as expendable. "The African slave trade was not fully established in the early 17th century... The price of African slaves was prohibitively high and the English were neither familiar with nor committed to black slavery as a basic institution." (6); "Sold to a master in Merion, near Philadelphia, David Evans was put to work 'hewing and uprooting trees,' land clearing, the most arduous of colonial labor, work that was spared black slaves because they were too valuable." (7); "Before 1650, however, the greater victims of man's inhumanity were the mass of White Christian servants who suffered at the hands of callous, White Christian masters. For the time being, with all of their troubles, the blacks had it better." (8)
In the British West Indies the torture visited upon White Slaves by their masters was routine. Masters hung White Slaves by their hands and set their hands afire as a means of punishment. To end this barbarity, Colonel William Brayne wrote to English authorities in 1656 urging the importation of Negro slaves on the grounds that, "as the planters would have to pay much for them, they would have an interest in preserving their lives, which was wanting in the case of (Whites)..." many of whom, he charged were killed by overwork and cruel treatment.
Ship Captains involved in the White Slaves trade obtained White Slaves with penal status free of charge and for all other categories of White Slaves paid at most a small sum to an agent to procure them, forfeiting only the cost of their keep on board ship if they died. Moreover, traders in Black slaves operated ships designed solely for the purpose of carrying human cargo with the intent of creating conditions whereby as many Black slaves as possible would reach America alive. White Slave ships were cargo ships with no special provisions for passengers. In addition, transportation rules decreed that, in cases where White Slaves were sold in advance to individual planters in America, if the White Slave survived the voyage beyond the halfway point in the journey, the planter in America, not the captain of the slave ship, would be responsible for the costs of the White Slaves' provisions whether or not the slave survived the trip.
Captains of the slave ships became infamous for providing sufficient food for only the first half of the trip and then virtually starving their White captives until they arrived in America. "Jammed into filthy holds, manacled, starved and abused, they suffered and died during the crossings in gross numbers. Thousands were children under 12, snatched off the streets..." (9); "...the transportation... became a profitable enterprise. Traders delivered thousands of bound laborers to Pennsylvania and exhibited a callous disregard for their... cargoes." (10)
As a result, White Slaves on board these ships suffered a high rate of disease. The number of diseased White Slaves arriving was high enough for Pennsylvania officials to recommend a quarantine law for them. Thus a new torment was to be endured for White Slaves who, "were often stopped just short of the New World, with land in sight, and forced to remain quarantined on board ships in which they had just spent a horrifying ten to twelve weeks." (11)
In 1738 Dr. Thomas Graeme reported to the colonial Council of Pennsylvania that if two ships crammed with White Slaves were allowed to land, "it might prove Dangerous to the health of the inhabitants of the Province." (12)
Ships filled with diseased White Slaves landed anyway. In 1750 an island was established for their quarantine, Fisher Island, at the mouth of Schuylkill River. But the establishment of the quarantine area did nothing to protect the health of the White Slaves and the island was more typical of Devil's Island than a place of recuperation.
In 1764 a clergyman, Pastor Helmuth, visited Fisher island and described it as "a land of the living dead, a vault full of living corpses." Even privileged 17th and 18th century "apprentices" often became slaves in the end (i.e., unpaid, forced laborers for life) based on contractual trickery, judicial malfeasance and usury employed against them during their supposedly limited term as indentured servants.
Such an apprentice would be enticed to borrow sums of money, sign a contract with impossible provisions guaranteeing his or her violation of the contractual terms and other unscrupulous means of extending both of the period of servitude as well as broadening the scope of the servant's obligations. By these means an apprentice could be transformed into a slave for life.
Free White people were sometimes induced to sign "indentures" and place themselves in voluntary "temporary" slavery with the promise of obtaining farm acreage at the end of their term of indenture. An American colony typically offered 50 acres to such persons. This was actually little more than an organized racket. The alleged "servant" had his or her land grant entrusted to the landowner for whom they labored, with the understanding that title would pass to the servant at the end of his term of labor. But he could forfeit his rights to this promised land on the slightest pretext of his owner, on such grounds as running away (the owner's word would do) or for "indolence."
For the price of a White Slave's transport, six pounds, his owner secured a "headright" to the land which was supposedly intended to go to the "servant" but which was instead combined with the land supposedly set aside for other White Slaves and formed into an estate which would multiply in value. By this means and with an occasional additional fee to an English merchant or "spirit" who provided the landowner with kidnaped extra White Slaves, the plantation owners of colonial America played Monopoly with the fertile valleys and wooded uplands of Maryland and Virginia.
Meanwhile the rightful owners of this land lay in paupers' graves or enshackled for life. This monopolistic grip on the land market was detrimental to all White laborers. Those White slaves who did manage to obtain their freedom alter thirty or forty years as chattel, were swindled out of the spectral "freedom dues" of acreage, left to exist as landless peasants and scorned as "hillbillies" and "White trash," in spite of decades of labor under monstrous conditions of hardship. "One would like to think that some of the few survivors went on to become prominent leaders of the colony or were the founders of great families. This does not appear to be the case... Some were doubtless the progenitors of the 'poor white trash' of the South... many of the free whites who had descended from the poorer elements of the white servant class became objects of charity..." (13); "...at no time after 1640 in either Barbados or St. Christopher, and probably Nevis, was there any cheap land enough for a man to purchase with his freedom dues... the vast majority never became landholders..." (14); "It then became the custom to give the servant at the end of his term, not land, but three hundred pounds of sugar, worth less than two pounds sterling... It was hardly worth the servant's while to endure the conditions which have been described for... ($4 worth) of sugar." (15)
These former White Slaves' share of the accumulated wealth of the American colonies, measured by any standard, was negligible; their say in the planter aristocracy was virtually non-existent. They were the "expendable" by-products and survivors of a system of exploitation governed solely by merchant companies chartered in England by aristocratic fiat. It was the exclusive government by a merchant company which Adam Smith assailed as the worst of all governments for any country.
Often working conditions were made especially gruesome toward the end of the period when the [White] servant's contract was due to expire in order to induce him to run away, lose his 50 acres and be held extra years in enslavement for fleeing. "Toward the end of the term of servitude, working conditions would often be deliberately worsened, tempting the man to run away so the master might gain these advantages." (16)
Of 5,000 "indentured servants [Slaves]" who entered the colony of Maryland between 1670 and 1680, fewer than 1300 proved their rights to their 50 acre "freedom dues." What had become of the others? More than 1400 died from overwork, chronic malnourishment and disease. The others were defrauded. "By the 18th century the White Servant class was disillusioned... The planters had... squashed the laboring Whites... They were the easy pawns of the planters, who despised them..." (17)
The statutes overseeing non-penal indentures servitude in colonial America were mere window- dressing and neither these statutes or the Common Law proved any obstacle to the gradual enslavement of those with the non-penal status of "indentured servant," by means of tacking on extra time to be served, on the basis of fabricated or trumped charges and minor offenses. A Virginia law of 1619 provided that "if a servant willfully neglect his master's commands he shall suffer bodily punishment."
When Wyatt became Governor in 1621 he was ordered to see that punishment for offenses committed by White slaves would also be in terms of labor on behalf of the colonial government, such labor to be performed after the slave fulfilled his original period of service to his master.
This is the evil practice of lengthening the time required for the White Person's term of labor, a practice which quickly resulted in the lengthening of the term of "service" by years and ended in the perpetual enslavement of the White. "While it is true that the Common Law of England had the status of national law with territorial extent in the colonies, the relation of Master to servant in cases of what began as non-penal indentured servitude, was unknown to the Common Law and could neither be derived from nor regulated by it." (18)
Both indentured servitude and the White Slavery were permitted under of the penal codes, depended for their regulation and sanction on special local statutes and tribunals which acted as the "necessities of the occasion" demanded.
The legacy of White enslavement bound up in the medieval English legal concept of "villeinage" contributed an informal framework or milieu at least, for legitimizing the enslavement of the White poor in British-America. In this light, Richard B. Morris is only partially correct. There was in fact precedent for White Slavery in Common Law but it was little cited in the colonies, perhaps because such former legal citation would have exposed the indentures racket for what it was. Old English law did have something of a White Slave code, based on the concept of "villeinage" from which we derive the words villain and villainy with their now blatantly pejorative connotations.
With the emergence of the English Common Law (1175-1225) came the ruse of the writ of novel dissension which dealt with who was qualified to contest land evictions. The aristocrats who drafted the writ established a category of juridical unfreedom known as villein tenure which could defeat any English peasant's claim to land, no matter how long his family had held it.
At first villain denoted a White peasant (from the French Carolingian word vilani, a general description for a peasant dependent upon a lord), and the sense of evil that was attached to the word was largely a construct of the rich who would naturally want their world order to be seen as good and therefore any White kinsman enslaved was seen as "justly deserving" of such treatment and hence had to have been bad, evil, a "villain."
It was as important for the English nobility to make this claim about English slave "villeins" as it was for American colonial merchants to label the Whites they enslaved as criminals and traitors or in the common parlance found in original documents of the period, as "rubbish and dung."
The Oxford Dictionary gives the following definition of villainy, "The condition or state of a villein, bondage, servitude, henace base or ignoble condition." (19) In other words, the connection between villaniny and evil first came about from a premeditated association between the condition of being a slave and the state of being an evil person. Who is it that would benefit from stigmatizing White Slaves as evil beings? who but the slave holding aristocracy who could then justify any crime they committed against these "villains."
Much of the common understanding of the land swindles perpetrated against the English villein class is derived from the legal treatise, De legibuset Consuetudinibus Angliae, commonly known as Bracton after Sir Henry de Bracton. The Bracton code equates the English villein with the Roman servus or slave.
The Bracton code denies all rights to the villein by placing him in the same category as the Roman servus. Villeinage was considered a hereditary condition: "Neither of Duke, earl or lord by ancestry but of villain (vylayne) people." (20) "Thou are of vylayn blood on thy father's side." (21)
This propaganda-labeling of enslaved Whites may be better understood if we examine the original meaning and the subsequent connotations associated with the use of another name, that of "churl." We call someone a churl today who is badly bred or bad acting. Yet according to the Random House Dictionary of the English Language, originally a churl was an English "freeman of the lowest rank" -- the poorest White who was not a slave. It is no coincidence that the names for White Slaves and White poor came to be linked with evil and bad breeding as part of a self-serving process of appellation manufactured by their rulers.
A revealing display of the opprobrium associated with both words is exhibited in a description by Sir Walter Scott, "Sweeping from the earth some few hundreds of villain churles, who are born but to plow it." The association of these names with what Scott views as a degraded existence of plowing the earth is a holdover from plutocratic ancient Roman philosophy. "Romans considered manual occupations... as degrading in themselves..." (22)
Since these were associated in the aristocratic mind with the work of slaves. Up until recently, European history was largely written from the point of view of institutional Churchianity, the wealthy, the aristocracy and the merchant class, at the expense of the laboring people. Rodney Hilton further cautions that, "historians risk falling into the trap dug for the peasants by the lawyers, for most of our evidence about freedom and serfdom depends on evidence which is a by-product of the legal... process." (23)
The creation of an exculpatory nomenclature rigged to justify the depredations of the ruling class against the White poor by establishing an intrinsic relationship between being poor and being evil, is a masterstroke of propaganda. It leads to the internalization of these negative images in the minds of the White poor themselves.
Some memory of these connections and connotations were no doubt extant in the minds of colonial Americans and has surely contributed to the dearth of material on those who survived or were descended from White Slavery.
In Britain and Europe under the laws of villeinage, survivors and descendants of White Slavery were susceptible to discrimination before the law and even re-enslavement: "The former (White) Slaves, now serfs, might gradually shift into another legal category over several generations, or the taint of servility might lose much of its practical meaning as they became de facto independent, but... the descendants of (White) Slaves were for centuries considered unfree in a way that other people in equally dependent economic positions were not." (24)
This taint, which the ruling class cleverly asserted was the result of some hereditary defect among White Slaves, has been applied to many nations of White peoples from the Slavs to the Irish, Welsh and Scottish.
The stigma attached to White "slave blood" by the rulers served as an effective device for:1). Keeping such descendants from seeking redress for past wrongs.This pattern is occasionally overturned when we examine unfiltered folk literature or music. For example, in such 13th century Icelandic folk sagas as the Frostbroeora and the Laxdoela, White Slaves are portrayed as fair and Nordic in general appearance and possessed of great personal courage and honor. Biblical provisions for bound and hired labor were cited to justify White Slavery in early America, on the grounds that it was Scriptural and therefore humane. The Body of Liberties of 1641, the first law code of Puritan New England, established four categories of servitude, citing Exodus 21:2; Leviticus 25:39-55 and Deuteronomy 23:15-16.
2). Being ashamed to identify their heritage and background in the form of written memorialization.
3). Serving as a neat propaganda justification for the continuing privileges and governance of the aristocracy.
However, had those Scriptures actually been obeyed, the enslavement of Christians (the heirs of the Israelites) would never have taken place. Deuteronomy mandates that a bondsman is not to be oppressed. Exodus decrees that the term of service will under no circumstance exceed six years. Leviticus forbids forced slavery for the payment of debts as well as child slavery. (25) The permanent enslavement of racial aliens and their children was permitted. (26)
Abraham Lincoln's use of the Bible, which according to his law partner he did not believe in (27), to justify rights for Negro slaves, is another example of this masterful politician's distortion of fact. While it is true that Galatians 3:28 contains the famous passage about there being "neither slave nor free... in Christ Jesus," this statement is meant to have only a spiritual application. The passage also contains the statement that there is neither male nor female in Christ, but I rather doubt Paul intended to sanction transvestitism or homosexuality. In Ephesians 6:5 slaves are ordered to obey their masters "with fear and trembling as unto Christ."
In considering the Biblical stand on slavery, it is necessary to differentiate Biblical laws concerning the enslavement of aliens and Israelites. The former could be permanent, the latter was to be temporary, even though many who claimed to be the Christian heirs of the Israelites acted otherwise.
In America, those who enslaved Blacks and disparaged the manual laborer generally did not derive their philosophy from Biblical sources, however: that legacy falls in the camp of ancient Rome. (28) Southern planters would sometimes justify the bondage of the Negro with Biblical arguments, but this was usually a rejoinder to abolitionist attacks, rather than the main source of enslavement praxis, it is chiefly from the aristocratic notions of the Romans toward manual labor that the classic mindset of the modern slaver in the West evolved.
These concepts differ considerably from the status of the manual laborer in the Bible. Jesus Christ, the "King of Kings," toiled as a carpenter for most of His life. Then as now, religious hypocrites of "Churchianity," as it more properly may be called, ignored Bible teachings on the subject even as they cited them for purposes of their own justification in enslaving fellow White Christians for pecuniary gain. It should be noted that some individual masters in early America who felt convicted by the Scriptures regulating bonded kinsmen moderated their treatment of White bondsmen accordingly.
In colonial America, White people could be enslaved for such an "offense" as missing church services more than three times or for "prevention of an idle course of life."
In 1640 a Virginia master needed to ensure further labor from his White servants in order to place his investments and land improvements on a more secure basis. He therefore falsely accused a number of his servants of a conspiracy, "to run out of the colony and enticing divers others to be actors in the same conspiracy."
As a result of his accusation the alleged "runaways" were severely whipped and had their term of forced labor lengthened an additional seven years, to be served "in irons." This can be regarded as a light sentence in view of the fact that seven years was a standard addition of the term of labor for the crime of running away, or conspiring to do so, to which would then be added, in terms of additional time, the expenses incurred for capture and return of the White to his master, such costs being likely to include rewards, sheriffs and slave-hunters' bounties and jail fees. These latter were not fixed by law until 1726 and were a source of tremendous abuse by tacking on huge costs to the capture of the runaway and then commanding that the runaway pay for these inflated costs in terms of years of his life in further forced-labor.
A White Slave who fled or was accused of fleeing often had his term of labor extended fifteen, twenty or even fifty years, as a result. White Slave Lawrence Finny received an additional seven years, eleven months of forced labor for running away, while escaped White Slave William Fisher on being caught, received an additional term of six years and 250 days. (29) Just for being absent from the plantation at any time, a White Slave would be forced to undergo one additional year of slavery for every two hours he was absent. (30) Starving White Slaves who took extra food from their masters' overflowing larders were enslaved another two years for each commission of that "crime."
Further accusations, infractions and violations added to these additions and in sum amounted to a lifetime of total enslavement and not the allegedly limited, benign White "indentured servitude" our court historians fleetingly refer to on their way to their semester-long devotion to Negro slave studies. Indeed, one-half of White "indentured servants" did not live to attain their freedom. Lest anyone think this grim datum refers mainly to Whites enslaved in old age, it actually refers to Whites who were first "indentured" between the ages of 16 and 20. (31) "The truth is," wrote White Slave Edward Hill, "we live in the fear fullest age that ever Christians lived in."
Young white females in bondage were denied the right to marry, a clever device for helping extend their servitude into full-fledged slavery since the penalty for a woman having a baby out of wedlock while a slave, was an extension of her term of slave labor another two and a half years.
A white male slave had at least four years added to his time for having sex with a White female slave or for entering into a compact of marriage with her. Twenty-three year old Henry Carman, a White slave since he had been kidnaped in London at the age of seventeen, made White Slave Alice Chambers pregnant and received an additional seven years slavery for this "crime." (32)
A Virginia law of 1672 recognized that there were masters who had lengthened the enslavement of their White Female Slaves by making them pregnant by the slave master himself. No punishment was given to the master for such acts, however. As bad as this may seem it cannot compare with the dreadful fate that awaited the children of the enslaved White mother. The "bastard" or "obscene" children, as they were called, of unmarried White women-slaves were bound over to the mother's slave master for a period of thirty-one years! This heinous child-slavery from birth was not modified until 1765 when the Assembly of Virginia declared it to be "an unreasonable severity to such children" and limited the term of bondage for such White Children to a "mere" 21 years for boys and 18 years for girls.
The following is an entry describing one such case of infant- enslavement: "Margaret Micabin servant to Mr. David Crawley having a bastard Child, Mr. Crawley prays the gentlemen of this Vestry to bind out the said Child as they think fit. It is ordered by the Vestry that the Church-Wardens bind out the said Child named John Sadler born the 26th July last 1720. The foresaid child is by indenture bound unto Mr. David Crawley to serve according to Law." (33)
At other times the baby was forcibly separated from the White Slave mother shortly after birth. White woman Sally Brant was enslaved to the wealthy Quaker family of Henry and Elizabeth Drinker. The Quakers were strong campaigners against Negro slavery but had no qualms about White Slavery! When Sally Brant's baby was born in the Drinker's country house. Sally was forced by the Drinkers to return to their main house in Philadelphia, leaving the newborn infant behind with a stranger. The White Slave father of the child was also not allowed to see his baby and the infant subsequently died. Elizabeth Drinker, the wealthy Quaker slave owner, kept a diary in which she philosophically noted that the death of her White Slave's baby had most likely worked out for the best. "Unmarried (White) women servants who became pregnant, as did an estimated 20 percent, received special punishment. All had to serve additional years; some had their children taken from them and sold, for a few pounds of tobacco, to another master." (34)
By 1769 all children born to even free White women who were unmarried were also candidates for enslavement: "...in 1769... the church wardens were instructed to bind out illegitimate children of free single White women." (35) Long hours and exposure to disease and the elements were considered part of a first year "seasoning" process it was thought a good White Slave would require. A White Slave would work form sunrise to sunset in the fields and then might be put to work in a shed grinding corn until midnight or one a.m. and expected to return to the fields the next day at dawn. In some southern colonies with extreme heat, as many as 80% of a shipment of White Slaves died in their first year in the New World. Richard Ligon, a traveling writer and eyewitness to White Slavery has written that he saw a White Slave beaten with a cane, "about the head till the blood has followed for a fault that is not worth speaking of; and yet he must be patient, or worse will follow." (36)
How many White tourists today who take winter vacations in such Caribbean islands as Jamaica and Barbados know that they are visiting the site of a gruesome holocaust against poor White people who died by the tens of thousands and were slaves in those islands long before Blacks ever were? Historian Richard Dunn has stated that the early sugar plantations of the British West Indies were nothing more than mass graves for White workers. (37) Four-fifths of the White slaves sent to the West Indies didn't survive the first year. (38)
In 1688 a member of the nobility wrote from a British colony in the Caribbean islands to the British government, "I beg... care for the poor White Servants here, who are used with more barbarous cruelty than if in Algiers. Their bodies and souls are used as if hell commenced here and only continued in the world to come." (39) "Twenty or more (White) servants laboring under the supervision of an overseer led the most wearisome and miserable lives... if a servant complained, the overseer would beat him; if he resisted, the master might double his time in bondage... the overseers act like those in charge of galley slaves... The cost in (White) lives of such inhuman treatment is incalculable, but it was very, very high." (40)
One example of the horrible conditions White Slaves labored under can be seen in the case of the White Slave known to history as Boulton. In 1646 Boulton's master was suspected of cheating a colonial official of a large shipment of cotton. The master asked the White Slave if he would take the blame. If Boulton made the bogus confession in place of his master he was liable to have both his ears cut off by the colonial officials as well as having more time added to his period of bondage.
However Boulton's master promised that he would not only ignore the extra time if Boulton agreed to take the blame for him, but that he would free Boulton from slavery after Boutlton had been punished by the authorities.
So desperate was Boulton to be free that Boulton agreed to pretend that his master had told him to give the cotton to the officials, but that instead he had embezzled it for his own use. Both of the White Slave's ears were subsequently cut off. Afterward, his master kept his part of the bargain and Boulton was emancipated. "Some planters grew so desperate for help that they would ransom White captives from the Indians, returning them to a servitude which, according to one complainant, 'differeth not from her slavery with the Indians." (41) "Fugitive Slave" laws, enacted to facilitate the apprehension and punishment of runaway White Slaves is another suppressed aspect of the history of early America. William Hening in his 13 volume Statutes at Large of Virginia records that the punishment for runaway Whites was to be "branded in the cheek with the letter R." they also often had one or both of their ears cut off.
In 1640 the General Court of Virginia ruled that two White slaves, "principal actors and contrivers in a most dangerous conspiracy by attempting to run out of the country and (by) enticing divers others to be actors in said Conspiracy," be whipped, branded and required to serve the colony an additional seven years in leg irons.
In the stock scenes from Hollywood films like Glory the Negro slave's shirt is dramatically lifted to reveal a back full of hideous scars from repeated whippings. This brings tears to the eyes of one of his White New England commanders in the fictional film Glory. Yet in reality, among the White soldiers in that scene there would have been more than a few who also bore massive scars from a whip or who had seen the scars of the lash on their White fathers' backs. The current image of Blacks as predominantly the ones who bore the scars of the whiplash is in error. On September 20, 1776 the Continental Congress Authorized the whipping of unruly American enlisted men with up to one hundred lashes. There are cases on record of rank and file White troops receiving up to two hundred-fifty whip-lashes! (42) This incredible savagery represented the level of treatment poor Whites sometimes experienced at the hands of the authorities in 18th century America, "...the officer class... came to use the lash unsparingly (on)... unpropertied... recruits... the poor white rank and file..." (43)
White slaves, "found themselves powerless as individuals, without honor or respect, and driven into commodity production not by any inner sense of moral duty but by the outer stimulus of the whip." (44); "In 1744 provision was made for whipping escaped servants through the parish, after proof had been made before a justice of the peace that they were fugitives... Dennis Mahoon was sentenced to be stripped naked to his waist and receive thirty-nine lashes upon his naked back.' This was his punishment for a second offense in persuading fellow servants to run away..." (45); "(White) servants were tortured for confessions (fire was inserted between their fingers and knotted ropes were put about their necks)..." (46)
Not only White Slaves were brutalized but also those who dared to aid them in gaining their freedom. The image of whites being hunted, whipped and even jailed for assisting fellow Whites out of slavery is completely absent from modern textbook accounts of slavery in America. Those who helped White Slaves run away in colonial America were known as "enticers" and received 30 lashes with a whip if caught. Merely to counsel a White Slave to seek his freedom was considered by the colonial courts as illegal interference with the property rights of the rich and resulted in criminal penalties.
Hening states that to reduce the number of runaway White slaves a pass was required for any person leaving the Virginia colony and masters of ships were put under severe penalty for taking any White Slave to freedom. Advertisements regularly appeared in early American newspapers for fugitive White Slaves. One such wanted notice described a slave who had run off as having a, "long visage of lightish complexion, and thin-flaxen hair; sometimes ties his hair behind with a string, a very proud fellow... very impudent..." (47)
Notices of runaway White Slaves in South Carolina newspapers included specific warnings against harboring or assisting the fugitive White Slaves and listed the statutory criminal penalties for doing so. Certificates of freedom were required to be carried on the person of freed White Slaves at all times. All White workers and poor in colonial America were regarded as suspect, guilty of being fugitive slaves unless they could "give an intelligent account of themselves" or show their certificate; a very convenient arrangement for enslaving free White men and women in America by claiming they were fugitive White Slaves. White Slaves who ran away found safe haven in portions of North Carolina which became known in Virginia as the "Refuge of Runaways." The mountains of Appalachia also served as hideouts for fugitive White Slaves. The hunting of White slaves became a lucrative practice.
In Virginia in 1699 persons who successfully hunted a White Slave received 1000 lbs. of tobacco, paid for by the future labor that would be extracted form the White Slave. Richard B. Morris describes the appearance of fugitive White Slaves: "One culprit was described as having a string of bells (fastened) around his neck which made a hideous jingling and discordant noise, another wore an iron collar, and others bore the scars of recent whippings on their backs." (48)
The history of "racist White toleration" of the hunting of Negro slaves as well as the controversy surrounding the capture of fugitive black slaves in the North just prior to the Civil War is incomprehensible without being placed in the context of the body of Fugitive Slave Law that was first established for use against White Slaves. In colonial America the fugitive White slave was considered the property of the master and the legal right to recovery was universally recognized. The Articles of the New England Confederation provided that where a White Slave fled his master for another colony in the Confederation, upon certification by one judge in the colony to which the White Slave had fled, the fugitive would be delivered back into slavery.
Classed with "thieves and other criminals," the fugitive White Slave could be pursued "by hue and cry" on land and over water, and men and boats were often pressed in the hunt for him.
Magistrates, sheriffs or constables were authorized by statute to whip the fugitive white Man severely before returning him to his master, twenty to thirty-nine lashes being the usual sentence imposed [Blacks were not commonly treated the same]. Massachusetts authorized that any White Slave who had been previously whipped for running away was to be whipped again just for being found outside his master's farm without a note of permission from the slave master.
Between February 12, 1732 and December 20, 1735, the South Carolina Gazette carried 110 wanted notices for fugitive Black slaves and forty-one notices for fugitive White Slaves. The claims of masters in one colony upon the fugitive White Slaves in another jurisdiction were allowed from the beginning of colonial settlement in America.
The U.S. Constitution upheld the colonial fugitive White Slave laws in its Article IV, section 2: "No person held to service or labor in one state, under the Laws thereof escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labor, but shall be delivered up on a claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labor may be due." This law was enacted by Whites against fellow White people and allowed White slavery to continue in some parts of America right up until the Civil War.
The first legal blow to the system of White bondage didn't occur until 1821 when an Indiana court began to enforce the Ordinance of 1787 prohibiting White Slavery in the old "Northwest Territory." The decision cited the Constitution of the state of Indiana which in turn drew its base from the 1787 ordinance in holding all White Slavery null, void and unenforceable. The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution dealt a fatal blow to White Slavery. The enslavement of Whites in one form or another has proved very durable. bound White servitude for orphans and destitute children on contracts of indenture still occurred in New York State up until 1923 when they were finally banned.
During the American Revolution the Continental Congress, desperate for fighting manpower, permitted the recruitment of White Slaves into the army, which was tantamount to granting them their freedom. This was not particularly radical however, in view of the fact that "four score and seven years" before Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, Lord Dunmore, the Royal governor of Virginia, freed the Negroes in his jurisdiction in the hope they would join the "Ethiopian Regiment" he had formed and fight the patriots. (49)
In 1765, a fourteen year old Irish lad, Matthew Lyon, was orphaned when his father was executed along with other leaders of the "White Boys," an Irish farmer's association organized to resist British government confiscation of their farmlands. The boy was enslaved and transported to America where he was purchased by a wealthy Connecticut merchant. Later he was made to endure the shame of being sold to another master in exchange of two deer "which was a source of no end of scoffs and jeers" at Lyon's "irreparable disgrace of being sold for a pair of stags." (50)
By the spring of 1775 Matthew Lyon had taken advantage of the manpower shortage of the American Revolution and joined an obscure, rag-tag band of guerrilla fighters. Lyon and his fellow rebels were destined to enter the annals of historical fame when not long afterward they appeared out of nowhere at Ticonderoga in northern New York where their commander, Ethan Allen, demanded the surrender of the mighty British fort. Matthew Lyon had joined the Green Mountain boys. "Eighty five of us," Lyon would later recall with pride, "took from one hundred and forty British veterans the Fort Ticonderoga."
The guns, cannon and ammunition obtained at Ticonderoga would supply the American army throughout the war. One of the founders of the state of Vermont, he was elected to its assembly and later to the U.S. Congress, where the eponymous firebrand wrestled a Federalist on the floor of the House of Representatives. He was the first American to be indicted under President John Adams' Sedition Act, for publishing material against central Federal government and Adams. Forced to run for Congress from a jail cell, Lyon was overwhelmingly re-elected and returned to a tumultuous hero's welcome in Vermont.
The colonies of Rhode Island, New Jersey and Maryland declared White Slaves eligible to enlist in the Continental Army without their master's consent. Though such decrees had the effect of granting the freedom of those slaves who fought, the American Revolution did not result in a prohibition of the institution of White Slavery itself.
In rhetoric it was conceded that White Slavery was "contrary to the idea of liberty" but the system remained profitable and many Southern and middle colony White Slaves had not been allowed to join the Revolutionary Army and they remained in bondage. The importation of White Slaves was resumed on nearly as large a scale after the American Revolution as it had existed before. Fear of rebellion by White Slaves led to the passage of a Virginia law to suppress "unlawful meetings" and directed that "all masters of families be enjoined to take especial care that servants do not depart from their houses on Sundays or any other days without particular lycence from them."
Individual acts of rebellion by White Slaves were constant and many slave masters were killed. "...unrest among White servants was more or less chronic." (51)
In the Caribbean colonies White Slaves revolted by burning the sugar cane of the slave master "to the utter ruin and undon of their Masters." Lured to colonial America with the promise of teaching job, Thomas Hellier was instead enslaved as a field worker. That betrayal combined with the viciousness of his slave master's wife led him to kill the slave master's entire family with an axe in 1678. Hellier was believed to have been inspired by Bacon's Rebellion two years before.
In 1676 Nathaniel Bacon led an uprising in Virginia. A small army of former White Slaves and fugitive White Slaves joined with the 30 year old Indian fighter Bacon against the House of Burgesses and the Governor, sparked by anger at the government's apathy in the face of warring Indians and their own penurious condition after having been cheated out of the "head" acreage they were promised. There was great fear among the circle of the royal governor, William Berkeley, that the White Slaves of the entire region would rise with Bacon and "carry all beyond remedy to destruction."
Bacon's rebels burned down the city of Jamestown, plundered the plantations and expelled the royal Governor. Bacon died suddenly, allegedly of dysentery, on October 26 at the height of the insurrection, "...an incredible number of the meanest (poorest) of people were everywhere armed to assist him and his cause," and these fought on through the winter, until the last of them were captured or killed by January of 1677.
Other White Slave rebellions included the risings of 1634 which took 800 troops to put down, and 1647 in which 18 leaders of the White revolt were tortured and hung. The rulers of Barbados even passed a proclamation in 1649, "An act for an Annual Day of Thanksgiving for our deliverance from the last Insurrection of servants."
Richard Ligon was an eyewitness to this White Slave plot on Barbados: "Their sufferings being grown to a great height, and their daily complaining to one another... being spread throughout the Island; at the last, some amongst them, whose spirits were not able to endure such slavery, resolved to break through it, or die in the act; and so conspired with some others... so that a day was appointed to fall upon their Masters and cut all their throats..." (52)
And in Virginia: "After mid-century the number of runaway (White) servants increased steadily, and in 1661 and 1663, servants in two separate (Virginia) counties took up arms and demanded freedom. The first episode occurred in York County, where servants complained of 'hard usage'... Isaac Friend, their leader, planned to bring together about forty servants. They would then 'get arms' and march through the country, raising recruits by urging servants 'who would be for liberty, and free from bondage,' to join them. Once a large enough force had been aroused, the rebels would go through the country and kill those that made any opposition, and they would either be free or die for it." (53)
1. Information in a pamphlet by M. Godwyn, London, 1680.
2. Salinger, p. 91.
3. Jernegan, pp. 50-51.
4. Warren B. Smith, p. 42.
5. Journal of Ralph Clark, entry of July 3, 1787.
6. White Servitude, Beckles, p. 3.
7. Van der Zee, p. 138.
8. Bridenbaugh, p. 120.
9. Kendall, p. 1.
10. Salinger, p. 88.
11. Salinger, p. 89.
12. Minutes of the Provincial Council of Pennsylvania, Colonial Records, 4:306.
13. Johnson, p. 147; Jernegan, pp. 56 and 178.
14. Bridenbaugh, p. 113.
15. Eric Williams, pp. 102-103.
16. Kendall, p. 7.
17. Rebels and Reactionaries, Beckles, pp. 18-19.
18. Massachusetts and the Common Law, American History Review, cf. Richard B. Morris, 1926.
19. Compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary, p. 3,631.
20. St. Werburge, Bradshaw, 1513.
21. Caxton, 1483.
22. William Phillips, p. 28.
23. Freedom and Villeinage in England, Past and Present, Hilton, July, 1965, p. 6.
24. Karras, p. 36.
25. cf. 25:40-41.
26. Leviticus 25:45-46, Exodus 21:4, which destroys the whole basis of Abraham Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address.
27. Little has been published about the early life of Abraham Lincoln. However, during a search of some old property records and will in a small courthouse in central North Carolina, Alex Christopher the author of "Pandora's Box,"; in one of the old will books dated around 1840, he found the will of one A.A. Springs. Upon reading the will he was shocked and amazed at the secret that it disclosed, but one must remember that it is a known fact that wills, even though they are classified public records the same as property and corporation records, they are rarely combed through as he was doing at the time, and these records hold many dark secrets that can be hidden in public view, but are never uncovered because there are very few who research these old records.
This practice of hiding secrets in public view and the conspirators can say, when faced with the facts and accused of concealing the records; they can reply "Well it was there in the public record in plan view for any and all to find." In the will of A.A. Springs was the list of his property. it went into detail to whom the property was to be dispersed and it included his children. Mr. Christopher and others were looking to find what railroads and banks this man might have owned and had left to his son Leroy Springs. He didn't find anything like that, but he did find the prize of the century. On the bottom of page three of four pages was a paragraph where the father, A.A. Springs, left to his son an enormous amount of land in the state of Alabama which amounted to the land that is today known as Huntsville, Alabama and then he went into detail to name the son and at first Mr. Christopher and the others with him couldn't believe what they were seeing, but there it was the name of the son and it was "Abraham Lincoln!"
This new information that they had about the Springs (real name Springstein) family, this was just another twist to add to the already manipulative family. This new information about Lincoln built a fire under them to see where this new lead would take them, because everything they had found in the railroad and banking saga had been a real mind-bender. They figured this one would be the same; so they inquired at the local archives and historical records on families and found a reference to one Abraham Lincoln in the family genealogy of the family of the Carolina by the name of McAdden, in a published genealogy on the family. The family members in the Carolinas were in a limited edition that at one time could be found in the public libraries. The section on Lincoln and the story went something like the following: "In the late spring of the year of 1808 Nancy Hanks, who was of the family lineage of the McAdden family was visiting some of her family in the community of Lincolnton, North Carolina. While on her stay with family in the Carolina', she vistaed with many of the neighboring families that she had known for many years; one such visit was the Springs family. The sordid details had been omitted but obviously the young Nancy Hanks had found herself in a compromised position and was forced to succumb to the lust of A.A. Springs. She became pregnant as a result. There were no details of a love affair or an act of violence on a helpless female. Abraham Lincoln was the result of that act, which leads one to wonder if the name Lincoln was real or a fabricated name for the are of conception was Lincolnton. Was there really a Thomas Lincoln? Since the Spring were of the race that called themselves Jewish, that made Lincoln part Jewish and as part of the Springs family, he also became a relative of the Rothschild family by blood."
The following information was derived from information that exists in the Smithsonian, National Archives, the Congressional Library, Courtroom Police files, public and private libraries and storage vaults across the United States and Europe: "Abraham Lincoln was slapped three times with a white glove by a member of the Hapsburg royal family of Germany (Payseur family relatives) during a White House reception in 1862. The German royal family member demanded a pistol duel with the, then, President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. The blows to the face stunned Lincoln but he non-verbally refused to participate in the duel by bowing his head before walking out of the reception room. What had ol' honest Abe done to so enrage and up-set the royal European personage?
It seems that the practice of promiscuity was running rampant in many families in those days and the German King Leopold had, had an illegitimate daughter named Elizabeth who was sent to America, where she lived in a very comfortable manner. Although Leopold could not recognize her position, he was very interested in her life.
In the early or mid 1850s, Abraham Lincoln and Elizabeth began having sexual liaisons that produced twin daughters named Ella and Emily in 1856. The regal German father who was so royally up-set with ol' honest Abe probably had full knowledge of what the true blood line of Lincoln really was. Abraham's wife, Mary Todd Lincoln, did not find out about Elizabeth, Ella and Emily until 1865. Previous to being informed about Elizabeth and the twins, Mrs. Lincoln had developed a ravaging dependency on opium. Her main supplier of the drug was a former member of the Confederate Intelligence community, he was a former member because the Southern gentlemen did not approve of his drug pushing and unreliable behavior. It was because of his involvement with the Southern Intelligence Community, Mary's supplier; John Wilks Booth, knew about the lover and the illegal twins.
After being spurned by the Confederate intelligence community, Mary's 'candy man' approached and became involved with the Rothschild Empire of Europe, for he realized the European banking moguls would be very interested in his pipeline to the White House.
(At this time) Abraham was searching for an issue that would unite the North and South AFTER the Civil War ended. The issue needed to be popular to all levels of American citizenry so they could 'rally around the Stars and Stripes' thus rapidly healing the wounds of the bloodiest war in history. Lincoln was seriously considering one major movement or event that would galvanize his fellow Northern and Southern patriot countrymen into cutting loose the United States of America from the dictatorial grip of the Hapsbergs bloodline of banking control in Europe. All the time, the Rothschilds were trying to take control of the entire world monetary system, and at that time the Rothschilds were trying to get a foot-hold in America and find a way around the British, Virginia Company, and French Bourbon family that were gaining control in this country through government help...
Lincoln found himself in real hot water, because under the Virginia Company covenant the 48 families that formed it were all of the Holy Grail Bloodline. This country was to be an extension of what all the royal families of Europe controlled. The royalty of Europe is Hapsburg, no matter what their name is. The royal family of England is one such example. Now what Lincoln did is he wanted to become independent of the cogenant (in favor of his family) on the Rothschild side... the Rothschilds and their family bloodline have always been undermining the affairs of the Hapsbergs and stealing the monetary control away from them. No matter what the history books say, the Rothschilds didn't get (total) real control on things in America and the Federal Reserve until the Springs usurped the Payseur family companies in the early 1920s...
(But Lincoln had fallen from Rothschild grace also and so, due, in part to his Executive Order to print United States Greenbacks, thus interfering with the Jewish International Banks profits) It appears that the Rothschild family wanted Lincoln embarrassed to the maximum degree. (So) Mary Todd's drug dealer (John Wilks Booth) was hired to kidnap the President of the United States. Abraham would be put on a boat for a two month cruise of the Atlantic where he would be injected with and addicted to opium and then dumped on the streets of Washington. While the forcefully addicted President was stumbling around our nation's capital, the press would be informed of Elizabeth, Ella and Emily.
The drug pusher (Booth) and collaborator (agent) of the Rothschilds had his perfect accomplice in the plot to kidnap and discredit the leader of the North American continent in the First Lady Mary Todd Lincoln. After being informed of Abe's lover and the twins and the kidnap plot by her drug supplier, Mary was promised that after her husband resigned or was impeached, she and Abe would be moved to Europe to live happily ever after with plenty of opium. Superficially Mary expressed a desire to live in Europe with plenty of opium and no Civil War or politics to distract her husband or family. But her drug suppler had totally underestimated the confusion, desperation and anger of Mary Todd Lincoln.
The plotters decided the Presidential snatch needed to take place in a public, yet discreet location where minimum witnesses would be present. There were too many potential witnesses at the White House. Two hours before the capture was to take place, Mary Todd had on the floor, a tantrum, because Abe had decided not to go out of the White House that night. Mary's outrageous outburst caused Abe to change his mind and the First family departed. Several minutes after arriving at the kidnap location, Mary instructed the family bodyguard to take a position that placed the First Family out of his visual sight. The position also required the bodyguard to traverse several flights of stairs to reach Abe and Mary should he be needed for any reason... A wagon with a wooden cover arrived at the back entrance of the kidnap location with several men including Mary's opium supplier. The plan was for the drug pusher to traverse the backstairs entrance, silently move down a hallway, and open an unlocked door to a darkened room where Mary and Abe were sitting.
After entering the room, Mary's drug man (Booth) would tell the President an urgent message was waiting for him at the War Department. Before descending down the backstairs, Abe would be knocked out with a chloroform loth. The kidnappers would load the limp body into the covered wagon and swiftly stow Lincoln on an opium boat for a novel 'cruise' of the Atlantic Ocean. When Booth actually opened the door to the darkened room where Abe and Mary were sitting, he went into a panic and shock. Abe was asleep with his head on Mary's left shoulder and the First Lady had her head turned toward the left looking at the door... When she was sure the man who opened the door was Booth, she turned and looked at the President to be sure the pistol she was pointing would explode beneath the lower left earlobe of her husband.
Before Mary pulled the trigger, John Wilkes Booth, drug supplier to the First Lady, realized he was the patsy in all this mess. But he did not know if he was only Mary's patsy or also a chump for the Rothschild family. Were the men hiding around the back door of Ford's Theater there to help Booth with the kidnaping or there to point the false finger at the 'innocent' Booth? Booth was not about to run into the hallway or down the backstairs to find out the answer to that question. The only escape route was to jump the balcony and crash onto the stage during the performance. That night, Booth gave a literal interpretation of the theatrical phrase 'brake a leg' as he fractured one of his during his leaping act from 'lethally looney Mary' and the men lurking around the back entrance of Ford's Theater.
In a novelty case on a wall in Ford's Theater is 'The Gun That Shot Abraham Lincoln.' If anyone (assassin) were to kill a head of state, they would use a revolver, because several bullets might be needed to accomplish the murder and stop any guards during the escape. One would only use a one-shot pistol if they were absolutely sure they had intimate access to the victim. The gun on the wall of Ford's Theater is a derringer-the perfect weapon for the left handed female assassin who did not attend her husbands funeral. Mary Todd was not hiding in her room due to overwhelming grief and sorrow; she was imprisoned in her room with two armed guards for two weeks after killing her husband.
In the 1860s, an act of Congress mandated the compensation of widows of former and active Congressmen, Senators, Vice Presidents and Presidents. The mouth and duration was ratified by both Houses of Congress for each widow. Mary Todd Lincoln applied for her widowers compensation three times and was denied the mandated compensation three times by both Houses of Congress. An unknown benefactor paid for Mary's passage to Europe where she died in small cottage in Germany.
In 1867, the Secret Service was founded so that drunken municipal law enforcement could not unwittingly participate with drug-addicted First Ladies or Gentlemen in vengeful high-brow killings of philandering Presidents of the United States. (To cover up the murders committed which would reflect a bad light for the presiding Administration, such as the Foster murder is doing at the present time).
Before Booth jumped out of the balcony of the Presidential Box of the Ford Theater, he shouted at General Riley and his wife who were sitting to the right-front of the Lincolns. Booth's words expressed his innocence but also sealed the fate of the Rileys. Within a week of the shooting, General Riley and his wife were packed off to an insane asylum where they both died of 'unknown causes' within 30 days of being committed." (Pandora's Box, by Alex Christopher, pp. 282-286).
28. see Classical Antiquity and the Proslavery Argument, Slavery and Abolition, J. Drew Harrington, May 1989.
29. Petitions, Chester County, Pennsylvania, Court of Quarter Sessions, August 1731 and June, 1732.
30. White Servitude, Beckles, p. 84.
31. Bridenbaugh, p. 123.
32. Johnson, p. 148.
33. The Vestry Book and Register of Bristol Parish Virginia, 1720-1789.
34. Levine, p. 52.
35. Jernegan, p. 180.
36. Ligon, p. 44.
37. Sugar and Slaves: The Rise of the Planter Class in the English West Indies, p. 302.
38. Van der Zee, p. 183.
39. Sir Thomas Montgomery to the Lords of Trade and Plantations, August 3, 1688, Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series, 1685-1688, p. 577.
40. Bridenbaugh, p. 107; Pere Biet, Voyage, p. 290.
41. Van der Zee, p. 85.
42. Reflections of 'Democracy' in Revolutionary South Carolina, in The Southern Common People, Walter J. Fraser, Jr., p. 16.
43. Frasher, p. 17.
44. White Servitude, Beckles, p. 5.
45. Warren B. Smith, p. 76.
46. Rebels and Reactionaries, Beckles, p. 14.
47. Jernegan, p. 51.
48. Government and Labor in Early America, Morris, p. 435.
49. Ronald Hoffman, pp. 281-282.
50. Life and Services of Matthew Lyon, Pliny H. White, p. 6.
51. Bridenbaugh, p. 108.
52. Ligon, p. 45.
53. Levine, p. 56.
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