"In Search of Isaac's Children"
Part 9 of 32
By Willie Martin
Chapter Five Continued
North America Was Inhabited By Israelites
1000 Years Or More Before 1492
When embarking upon a study such as this, one will find that there are archeological discoveries that have been made which show a strong correlation to the Bible. For when people think of Israel in the Bible they assume that all the events which happened to Israel did so in the little country known as Palestine; today it is called Israel.
And therefore the Israelites could not have been very important in the ancient world. However, Daniel told us that knowledge would increase in the latter days: "But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end: many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased." (1) Also, Daniel tells us that many things will be kept secret until the latter days: "And he said, Go thy way, Daniel: for the words are closed up and sealed till the time of the end." (2)
Many of these recent archeological discoveries combined with secular and Biblical history give us a shockingly different perspective of the ancient world in general and ancient Israel in particular. In this chapter we will attempt to show you evidence which will prove ancient Israel was an empire. It had a homeland in Palestine, and a far-flung empire much the same as Britain did until just a few decades ago. Britain once ruled over a far-flung empire from a small homeland, located in the British Isles.
In The History of the Jews (Read that Israelites, as Dr. Margoliouth was a Jew, so he would naturally say Jew instead of Israel) in Great Britain, Dr. Moses Margoliouth, 1846, p. 12, he states that Israel was "trained to be a wandering nation" with "a peculiar migratory disposition" (3) in preparation for "their mighty dispersion" over the earth. Israel's progenitor, Abraham, was "a type of the same," or example to those who followed after. Not only that, but Israel was "trained to be a maritime nation," as well, and "the first colonizing expeditions were performed by water, not by land."
"Now the LORD had said unto Abram, Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's house, unto a land that I will show thee: And I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing: And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee: and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed." (4)
These statements have proven true in history. Other scholars (such as Aylett Sammes in the 17th century), have noted the Hebrew-Phoenician language of the early colonists of Britain, yet want to give the Phoenicians all of the credit by saying that the Hebrews were never known to colonize!
On pages 16 to 21, Pastor Margoliouth comments on this Hebrew-Phoenician connection with ancient Britain, and says, "...the conclusion is inevitable, the Israelites must have visited the western countries in the days of Solomon." (see also page 31)
Israel and Phoenicia both spoke the same language in ancient times, but since the nation of Israel far outnumbered the Phoenicians, it is obvious that most "Phoenician" colonization was in reality Israelite. An excellent and authoritative discussion of this subject is covered in Stephen M. Collins recent book, "The Ten Tribes of Israel... Found!"
Pastor Margoliouth sums up this issue well in saying, "I see no reason for disbelieving that there were [Israelites] in Spain in the time of David and Solomon - startling as it may appear... there existed colonies of Hebrews all over the world, in the reigns of David and Solomon..." (page 30)
A fascinating discussion of the language connection with ancient Israel appears beginning on page 32. The name "Britain" itself "is a corruption of the Hebrew words Barat Anach," or islands of tin. We read that "an eminent Cornish scholar of last century, who devoted a great deal of his time to prove the affinity between the Hebrew and Welsh languages, observes, 'It would be difficult to adduce a single article or form of construction in the Hebrew grammar, but the same is to be found in Welsh, and that there are many whole sentences in both languages exactly the same in the very words.'" Two columns of quotations follow, showing the connection between the Hebrew and Welsh languages, after which Pastor Margoliouth asks, "where could [the early Britons] have got hold of such whole Hebrew, purely Hebrew, sentences?"
Proper names are next referenced. Kings of ancient Britain often had Hebrew names, such as Solomon (three different kings!), Daniel, Abraham, Asaph, and Adam, "from which circumstance some antiquarians attempted to prove that the Welsh are descendants of the children of Israel." Pastor Margoliouth expresses that he is being "very moderate" in establishing that at the very least, ancient Israelites had been "mixing with the Britons" in forming the foundation of the modern British people.
Biblical prophetic references to Britain are discussed beginning on page 37. "The command is to declare the Lord's purpose concerning Israel" in "The isles afar off," in Jeremiah 31:10 These "were supposed by the ancients to have been Britannia, Scotia, and Hibernia (Ireland)." Again, in Jeremiah 31:7, "For thus saith the Lord, sing with gladness for Jacob, and shout among the chief of the nations... save thy people, the remnant of Israel." Pastor Margoliouth avers that, "The prophet seems to behold Britain in his vision. There can be no doubt that Britain is now the chief of the nations. Her monarch's territory is one upon which the sun never sets." Yet a third Biblical term is also tied to the British isles. "The expression, 'The end of the world,' mentioned in Isaiah 62:11, is also supposed to mean Britain, which was a common appellation for this island in remote ages."
In the year 1670, a contractor digging the basement for a house in Mark-lane, London, came across an old underground Roman-era vault beneath the pavement. The vault was sealed with a large old Roman-style brick "of curious red clay, and in bas-relief on the front hath the figure of Samson putting fire to the foxes' tails, and driving them into a field of corn." An antiquarian of the time, writing about the find, asked, "How the story of Samson should be known to the Romans, much less to the Britains, so early after the propagation of the gospel, seems to be a great doubt, except, it should be said, that some Jews, after the final destruction of Jerusalem, should wander into Britain..."
Lastly, the spread of the Gospel into Britain during the time of the Apostles, is a matter of historical record. "As to St. Paul's being one of the first heralds of salvation in this island, there can scarcely be any doubt on the subject. Indeed, if we do not believe it we must make up our minds to reject all the hitherto authentic historians."
Dr. Burgess, late Bishop of Sarum, has shown that St. Paul laid the foundation of Britain's national church. Clemens Romanus, "who was an intimate friend and fellow-laborer of St. Paul, declares in his Epistle to the Corinthians, that 'St. Paul having been a herald of the Gospel both in the east and in the west, he received the noble crown of faith, after teaching righteousness to the whole world, and gone even. to the utmost bounds of the west'; an expression, well-known to every scholar, that always designated, or at least included, the British Islands."
Theodoret, a learned church historian of the fourth century, 'mentions Britain among the nations which had received the Gospel.' He states that "Paul carried salvation to the islands which lie in the ocean." Jerome soon after said that "St. Paul's diligence in preaching extended as far as the earth itself." Venentius Fortunatus, fifth century Bishop of Poitiers, said, "Paul having crossed the ocean, landed and preached in the countries which the Britons inhabit."
Pastor Margoliouth observes that "the greatest men... who spent a great part of their lives in such researches... the learned Ussher, Parker, Stillingfleet, Cave, Camden, Gibson, Godwin, Rapin, and a great many others - have clearly shown that St. Paul was the founder of the British church... yea, the government of the British Christian Church was established and set in proper scriptural order by [Israelites] themselves, be they who they may - Peter, Paul, Simon Zealotes, Joseph of Arimathea."
However, Daniel told us that knowledge would increase in the latter days: "But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end: many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased." (5) Also, Daniel tells us that many things will be kept secret until the latter days: "And he said, Go thy way, Daniel: for the words are closed up and sealed till the time of the end." (6) Many of these recent archeological discoveries combined with secular and Biblical history give us a shockingly different perspective of the ancient world in general and ancient Israel in particular.
Following we will attempt to show you evidence which will prove ancient Israel was an empire. It had a homeland in Palestine, and a far-flung empire much the same as Britain did until just a few decades ago. Britain once ruled over a far-flung empire from a small homeland, located in the British Isles. In the years from about 1050-850 B.C. Israel was the dominant power of the world with an empire that rivaled and perhaps exceeded that of the Caesars. The empire included areas of the world now inhabited by the Israelite people and that included portions of North America. We full well understand this is a bold statement, but the evidence will follow. In this study we will examine the real extent of Israel's power and empire in the ancient world; the Israelite presence in North America with considerable specifics.
The impact of the drought of Elijah's day on the weakening of Israel and the rise of Cartage, which we will show was an Israelite colony. Cartage continued Israel's presence in the New World, very possibly even during Christ's lifetime here on earth. The time of Israel's greatness really began with King David and its rise to empire status. This happened in about the year 1050 B.C. 2 Samuel 8 discusses David's defeat of the Philistines, Moab, Amalek, Edom, and the Syrians for example lost more than 80,000 men in just three battles. (7) That is more men than the United States lost in the 14 years of the Vietnam War. To give you a perspective of the ferocity of the battles.
1 Chronicles 21 shows that David could mobilize over 1� million men. With an army of that size you are not insignificant, not even in this age, this day and time. In 1 Chronicles 18:3 it states the border of his dominion went to the Euphrates River which bordered the area of Assyria and Babylon; or Mesopotamia who viewed David as an upstart rival.
The Phoenicians were the city states of Tyre and Sidon, and had a far flung empire on land and sea. They were the best sailors in the ancient world at that time, and they saw the rise of David and Israel and made an alliance with them. They were a common race of Semitic people; they also had a common language. There were only dialectic differences between Hebrew and the Phoenician tongue. 1 Kings 17:9-16 relates where Elijah met with a Phoenician or Zidonan widow, and they had immediate discourse, with no difficulty at all in communication.
King Hiram the king of Tyre made David a palace and they became very close allies as 1 King 5:1 shows. The Israelite Phoenician alliance was an ancient super power, with all twelve tribes of Israel united they sat astride the area where three continents met; they had the world's greatest navy in the Phoenicians combined with David's one and one-half million man army. And David was not the least bit reluctant to use it. They were challenged by Assyria and Mesopotamia, which is almost totally unknown by most and yet it is related in the Bible. There was a revolt in Amon which is a pretext for war between many nations and the Israelites.
It is discussed in 1 Chronicles 19 and 20 in some detail. There were 32 thousands chariots from Mesopotamia alone (8) that came to fight David's army in this battle. There was also an unknown number of men from Mesopotamia and Syria which included a number of different people which fought with Ammon against Israel. In verse 9 we can see it was a national effort with a number of different nations to destroy Israel as it states their kings came to watch the battle. "And the children of Ammon came out, and put the battle in array before the gate of the city: and the kings that were come were by themselves in the field." (9)
So, we can clearly see, this was not just a mercenary effort, this was a matter of national commitment against Israel. Israel won the first round and also the second which left them with no one in the area to challenge them. If you will look at Psalm 83, which was likely written by David at this time where he lists many nations that come to help the children of Lot, which also included Ammon to destroy Israel from off the face of the earth. "Keep not thou silence, O God: hold not thy peace, and be not still, O God. For, lo, thine enemies make a tumult: and they that hate thee have lifted up the head. They have taken crafty counsel against thy people, and consulted against thy hidden ones. They have said, Come, and let us cut them off from being a nation; that the name of Israel may be no more in remembrance. For they have consulted together with one consent: they are confederate against thee: The tabernacles of Edom, and the Ishmaelites; of Moab, and the Hagarenes; Gebal, and Ammon, and Amalek; the Philistines with the inhabitants of Tyre; Assur also is joined with them: they have holpen the children of Lot. Selah. Do unto them as unto the Midianites; as to Sisera, as to Jabin, at the brook of Kison: Which perished at Endor: they became as dung for the earth. Make their nobles like Oreb, and like Zeeb: yea, all their princes as Zebah, and as Zalmunna: Who said, Let us take to ourselves the houses of God in possession. O my God, make them like a wheel; as the stubble before the wind. As the fire burneth a wood, and as the flame setteth the mountains on fire; So persecute them with thy tempest, and make them afraid with thy storm. Fill their faces with shame; that they may seek thy name, O Lord. Let them be confounded and troubled for ever; yea, let them be put to shame, and perish: That men may know that thou, whose name alone is JEHOVAH, art the most high over all the earth." (10)
Secular history has recorded that Assyria's Empire went into eclipse or confusion, some encyclopedias call it, between 1100-900 B.C. Halley's Bible Handbook comments on it also, and states that ancient Israel was much stronger than Assyria, Babylon or Egypt. This is the same period as Israel's golden age under David and Solomon. And is glossed over in almost all historical texts, if they even cover it at all. What happened to Assyria? It was defeated badly in a war against Israel's army, as we learn from 1 Chronicles and Psalm 83. The texts of ancient history will not tell you this nor will it give great credibility as the Bible is the Word of God. Assyria and other nations had provoked Ammon to start this war, and this will give you a little indication of how large an area that David ruled.
In Psalm 83 he named the nations that became a part of this war, which included Assyria and in all likelihood became a vassal state to David. It included the Ishmaelites, which included the Arabian Peninsula and people we don't know where they lived in the east, so we really don't know how large an are David actually ruled. But he did rule from Egypt to somewhere about the middle of the modern nation of Iran. Ether directly or through vassal states as a result of that war. But Israel was the dominant super power of the ancient world at this time.
Is there evidence of an Israelite Empire? The answer is Yes! But the secular historians will rarely call it an Israelite Empire, they will call it a Phoenician Empire. Most people who do not realize the difference between Judah and Israel balk at this major role for Israel because they think the Jews were the Israelites and the Jews have always been few in number, but they don't realize that the men from Judah were only a small part of David's army at this time. It is true that David was of the tribe of Judah but he, also, had eleven other tribes to provide manpower.
The Phoenician Empire is credited by historians as being dominant in the Mediterranean Sea; as being present in substantial numbers in the British Isles, the West Coast of Europe and Africa in the period of about 1100-800 B.C. and they are not at all bashful in calling it a Phoenician Empire. This coincides with the exact time that Assyria was put down and the Bible tells us that David had defeated the Assyrians. It coincides with Israel's greatness and the allegiance of the Phoenician city Israelites; show Phoenicia took pains to join with them because they did not wish to be their enemy. 1 Chronicles 22 relates that David accumulated for the Temple of God iron and brass beyond calculation. (11) Warrner Keller in his book "The Bible is History" states: "Israel was using the Bessemer system of smelting, which was not re-discovered until recently in the modern era... Essian Gebar was the Pittsburgh of ancient Palestine." That nowhere else in the fertile crescent which includes Mesopotamia could such a large smelting facility be found. We see by this that Israel was not just an agriculture only nation but they were also the industrial power house of the ancient world.
Dr. Berry Fells book "Bronze Age America" cites evidence that � billions of copper ore was taken from mines near Lake Superior in North America, in roughly 2000-1000 B.C. The dates include the time of David's reign, at the tail end of it, as the ore apparently ran out for they have no evidence that it was mined after that. It could be that the Israelites simply worked the mines to death, or to where they could not be mined economically at that point. Which Fell states that this New World copper mine output there is no evidence what became of it. There is no evidence it was used in this hemisphere at all. And they have no idea where the copper came from which was smelted in Palestine during this time.
Putting this evidence together and one comes up with the assumption that this copper was shipped from North America to Palestine by boat and was used by Israel in its huge smelting facilities in Palestine. The Phoenician/Israelite presence in America has abundantly shown to be real. At this point, we must, in all fairness, present just one of the many stories which abound which make reference to our Israel ancestors coming to America thousands of years before Columbus. The following is taken from an article in National Geographic, December 1977: "The New World: Who, from the Old first touched its shore? Historians held for centuries that it was Christopher Columbus. By current consensus, it was Norse voyagers of a thousand years ago. But perhaps it was a group of shadowy, yet very real, Irish seafaring monks who predated even the Vikings by more than four centuries. In the great pantheon of New World explorers no name is more intriguing, or more clouded in controversy, than that of Ireland's St. Brendan. His legend, today more tantalizing than ever, has persisted through the centuries in the form of a Christians imram, an Irish saga: Navigatio Sancti Brendani Abbatis, Voyage of Saint Brendan the Abbot. With 17 fellow monks, it relates, Brendan sailed to Terra Repromissionis Sanctorum, the land promised to the saints, somewhere beyond the far reaches of the Western Atlantic. Was the Promised Land North America? Did St. Brendan actually reach it in the sixth century? Neither history nor archeology offers proof." (12)
This statement is totally untrue, and I believe the publishers of National Geographic knew it at the time of the publication. Most of us have read (from reputable history books) of the adventures of Lief Eriksson and his party in the founding of Vinland circa A.D. 800-1400 in the area of the St. Lawrence River in the North-eastern United States and Canada. Although they predated the Columbus voyage by many centuries, were the expeditions of Lief Eriksson the first discovery of what is now known as the United States? There were Christians living in America over 100 years before Columbus arrived in the Caribbean. The official historians of this country have known this for many, many years. Yet, none of this is discussed as a national heritage. Why is this?
Those of us who are interested in finding petroglyphs, or ancient symbols and pictures engraved on stones, have wondered about the meaning of them. All we could do was wonder and speculate until the science of deciphering ancient and unknown languages was developed. The science is called Epigraphics and it has been developed into a rather sophisticated science. Symbols, for example, mean something, but what?
Epigraphics: Until a few years ago geologists told us that the numerous short and repetitive lines inscribed on rocks found in the Northeastern United States and Canada were simply scratches made from the movement of ice and rocks during the recent ice-age. Because of Epigraphics, we now know that it was a language and it has been deciphered.
The Celts: This language is that of the Celts from Ireland, Scotland, England, France and the Rhineland country of Germany. The language dates from long before Christ and was in use in Ireland and England at the time of Celtic Druids. It is called Ogam script and has been found all over America, from the West Indies to Newfoundland and west into Oregon and British Columbia. We know that Julius Caesar described the vessels that the Celts had built and used.
In Book III of his De Bello Gallico he described these vessels against which his small, puny (by comparison), ships of the Roman fleet fought. He described them as being capable of sailing "upon the vast open sea." This is exactly what they did. It appears that there were many different expeditions and migrations by the Celts during the period of many centuries before Christ until circa 400-800 A.D. They came, not only just once to colonize, but they came and returned to Europe on a repetitive basis.
The Vikings: The Vikings were here in America when King Woden-lithi sailed the Atlantic seventeen centuries before Christ and entered the St. Lawrence River. He established a trading post at a site near where Toronto now stands. It became a religious and commercial center that is now known as Petroglyph Park at Peterborough, Canada. King Woden-lithi's home was in Norway. He remained in Canada for five months, from April to September and traded his woven fabrics for copper ingots obtained from the European settlers. He called these people Wal, which is a word cognate with Wales and Welsh. He gave these Celts his religious beliefs, the ability to measure woven cloth and an astronomical observatory for measuring the Nordic calendar and for determining the dates of the pagan Yale and Ishtar festivals. Remember, this was seventeen centuries (1700-years) before Christ!
Ogam Script: The Celts were already here when King Woden-lithi arrived. What was their written language like? We have already shown that they wrote with the Ogam script which can be described simply as an alphabet, comprising fifteen consonants and five vowels, together with a few other signs representing double letters such as diphthongs. The letters are made by inscribing single parallel strokes placed in sets of one to five, in position above, across, or below a guide line.
The Languages: But what words were made from this Ogam alphabet? Here again the science of Epigraphics gives us the answer. We know that there is no language of any of the American Indians that is made up of the Greek language. And yet the ancient Celts in the area of the St. Lawrence River spoke a language that was directly derived from the Greek! As we shall see, the different Celts in America spoke yet other languages!
The type of Greek that was spoken by the Celts of the area is known as Ptolemaic which means that it is a dialect of Greek that was spoken in Egypt, Palestine and the other countries in the area that Alexander conquered. Alexander forced upon the area his idea of one-world government, one-world people, one-world religion and one-world language. It was this Ptolemaic dialect that Alexander forced upon the citizens of the area. The dialect was composed of Greek, Egyptian and Aramaic. This is why Jesus spoke Aramaic and Greek, instead of Hebrew. We will study the effect that Alexander had on Israel and Christianity in a future lesson.
The obvious question from the previous paragraph is, who were the Celts? Did the Celts from Iberia (The Spanish Peninsula) and the Rhineland go to Egypt and Palestine and learn the Greek spoken language at the time of Alexander or did the Israelites (Not Jews) learn the Greek and Aramaic when they were in Palestine and then go to the new world to escape the dictatorship of Alexander? Remember, Israel lost the knowledge of ancient Hebrew (not modern Yiddish) before and during the time of Alexander.
The language of the Celts who were already here in the St. Lawrence River Valley when King Woden-lithe arrived has since been lost. Why has the language disappeared? This is probably at least partly because through the subsequent years they intermixed with other peoples and in the process the language was lost.
It doesn't take much to lose a language. Notice the difference between American English and the English language spoken in England. But that doesn't account for the fact that a race of people totally vanished from the continent. Some of the Ogam Script is with the Gaelic influence. The Gaelic language came from the highlands of Scotland. In the New England area, artifacts such as grave headstones have been found, all with Ogam script in Gaelic script. (13) The Celts with the Gaelic dialect came from the highlands of Scotland. According to the Scottish Declaration of Independence written by Robert Bruce and his noblemen, the Scotland people came from ancient Israel through the Rhineland area of France and Germany and then through Iberia or Spain.
The Mariners from Tarshish: Tarshish was thy merchant by reason of the multitude of all kind of riches; with silver, iron, tin, and lead, they traded in thy fairs. (14) The Celts were well established in foreign trade. In 1780, Ezra Stiles, who later became the president of Yale College, found and recorded a Tartessian inscription on a rock along the seashore near Mount Hope Bay, Rhode Island. The deeply cut inscription clearly shows the outline of a typical high-sterned ship from Tarshish. Under the outline of the ship are the words in Tartessian (Tarshish) Punic, "Mariners of Tarshish this rock proclaims."
Near Union, New Hampshire, another Tartessian inscription was found with a similar Tarshish ship hull and the words, "Voyagers from Tarshish this Stone Proclaims."
On Mohegan Island, off the coast of Maine, is, in Ogam script in Gaelic dialect, an inscription showing that the Celts traded with the traders from Tarshish. It is obvious that the mariners from Tarshish were not residents of the area as were the Celts. They were trading with the Celts for their furs and raw materials from the mining done by the Celts.
Thus, there was a lively trade being conducted between the Japhetic sons of Tarshish (15) and the Celtic sons of Shem. Some of the trading was done with goods in exchange for the furs and metals of the Celts. But there was also an exchange for coins. It seems that modern historians won't believe the facts of history such as the Ogam inscriptions.
They only like to see the money! Well, there is that, too!
Coins: From about the fourth century B.C. the ancient mariner traders brought coins in addition to goods. In the year 1787, Pastor Thaddeus Madson Harris came upon a group of men working on a road known as the Cambridge-Malden road (now Route 16) in Massachusetts. The workers had uncovered a flat stone underneath the surface. Under the stone was a cache of ancient coins, nearly two quarts of them. The coins were square pieces made of a copper-silver alloy. Each coin was stamped on both sides with an unknown script.
Pastor Harris recorded the incident in a letter to John Quincy Adams. The inscriptions were taken to the Harvard Library for translation but with no success. The letter was then buried in the archives for nearly two hundred years until James Whittall, of the Early Sites Research Society, re-discovered the letter with the inscriptions and researched them with the American Numismatic Society and with Epigraphic scientists.
The inscriptions proved to be that of Kufic origin which is a form of Arabic. Undoubtedly, one of the trading mariners brought the coins to America to purchase the Celtic goods which were for sale. After the newly designed steel plow was invented by Charles Newbold in 1797, the earth could be turned over to a much greater depth. The furrow that the plow made opened up the soil and there, by the thousands, were found Roman coins!
In the days of early America, the extensive study of Latin and Roman history was required for a college degree. Thus, the people of America readily knew that Europeans came to America and lived in America much earlier than Christopher Columbus.
But later, from American history books, our school children were taught the Columbus mystique and they were taught that the world was considered flat by all educated people until Columbus discovered America! All of those Roman coins that were discovered were ignored and it has remained that way until very recently. As we continue our studies, we will realize why the truth was buried.
In 1961, Frederick J. Pohl raised the nagging question of the Roman coins in his book Atlantic Crossings Before Columbus. He describes notable finds of Roman coins in the United States. Other scientists have carried on the task of proving the European travels to this continent long before Columbus. One of the notable men in this field is Professor Cyclone Covey of Wake Forest University. Much will be discussed about his investigations later in this lesson.
Roman coins are not the only money found in America. Carthaginian, Celto-Iberian, Greek, Libyan and Norse coins have been found in locations all over the United States. Near Castle Gardens, Wyoming a petroglyph was found, written in Celto-Gaelic, describing the location of what would be the description of a bank.
Yes, the petroglyph says that this was the first money-changing location to reach the area and that the bank operated with no usury! Undoubtedly, this was a location for exchanging the value of one coin for another for the purpose of trading and traveling. The petroglyph written in Celto-Gaelic undoubtedly means that the Celts were located in Wyoming and the fact that they operated in Wyoming and the fact that they operated with no usury is significant. We will shortly discuss the type of law the Celts exercised.
From 400 B.C. to 1100 A.D., the Western world realized six maritime powers. They all came out of the Mediterranean area except for the last one. They are, in order of their appearance,(1) the Carthaginians of Tunisia;Although the Celts were never realized as a maritime power, since they were a people scattered over many countries, their ocean-going ships were among the best. These ships were huge in comparison to the Roman ships.
(2) the Greeks and Libyans of North Africa;
(3) the Romans;
(4) the Byzantine Greeks who succeeded Rome;
(5) the Islamic powers of North Africa and Asia; and
(6) the Norse sea-rovers.
They were two thousand tons in capacity as compared to about four hundred tons of the average Roman ship. The ships that the uncle of Jesus, Joseph of Aramathea, used to haul lead and tin from the Glastonbury area of England for sale to the Romans were Celtic in design and operation. Again, Julius Caesar spoke very highly of the sea-going prowess of the Celts and their ships. Throughout this period, each of these maritime powers sent ships all over the high seas and to America.
But it was the Libyans who transcended all of the others in the span of their voyage. A Libyan, named Eratosthenes of Cyrene, accurately calculated the earth's circumference. He reasoned that the earth's oceans had to be continuous and consequently a ship could sail around the world in either direction and return to the starting point. The date was approximately 239 B.C.!
Eratosthenes developed the system of the meridian circles of the map of the globe. The meridian circles are simply the points on the globe where the USN is directly overhead at noon at the local time. He set these meridian circles in a grid in such a way that a mariner could accurately locate his position. He drew the primary meridian circle to pass through Alexandria.
The Libyans then set sail in their ocean-going vessels to prove that Eratosthenes was right. Their ships were equipped with magnetic compasses. Their compass consisted of a ceramic bowl with the compass points engraved around the edge. A lodestone (a strongly magnetic variety of the mineral magnetie) was floated on the water in the bowl.
Sometimes, a magnetized iron strip was suspended in the bowl. They also had a device for navigation that was the forerunner of the modern sextant. The Libyans traveled eastward, through the Suez Canal that King Darius had built, then sailed down the Red Sea, and then around the tip of India, through the Indonesian straits and then into the Pacific Ocean. They arrived on the West Coast of America, disembarked and traveled inland to Nevada.
These ancient Libyans settled in the arid Nevada country because it was very similar to their own home country. In various locations in Nevada are petroglyphs, written in Aramaic-Libyan and Celto-Gaelic which reflect their mariner skills. There is a map of North America, showing the outline of both coasts from the Hudson Bay country of Canada to Panama in the South. It was obviously taken from one of their meridian circle navigation charts that Eratosthenes developed. In addition, examples of their mathematics is displayed along with oceanography. Their alphabet was written in stone for us to see. Astronomy as a science is displayed.
Remember, before the fall of the Roman Empire, the Center of Western Civilization rested along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. The modern day epigraphic scientists are puzzled as to what happened to all of these people, from the Celts, to the Carthaginians, to the Libyans and all the other original settlers who have come to this land. Certainly educated people in the sciences and mathematics lived here many years ago, that is now obvious. But when the American colonists arrived, the natives had no written language nor any knowledge of higher education.
For example, the Paiute and Shoshone tribesmen of Nevada were asked where all of the petroglyphs we now know to have been scribed by the Libyans came from, they could tell the archaeologists and epigraphists nothing except that neither they nor their forebears had cut them. However, some of the methods and style of living that were taught by these ancient settlers have come down through the centuries by the indigenous peoples who were here and then remained after the mysterious disappearance. For example, in the modern, Libyan North African region there are two Distinct ecological groups.1). The first is the modern Berber who is of lighter skin with obvious and European features with many having blond hair and blue eyes. He prefers to live in the mountainous regions where there is more water and better soil. He is an agriculturist and he builds his home pueblo style out of sun-dried mud which he calls in Arabic attobi which in America is called adobe.In the Peabody Museum of Harvard University are ancient bowls made by these Libyan mariners who built their temporary colonies in the Southwestern United States. The bowls very clearly show a man and woman painted on the sides of each. The women have no veil but have their chins tattooed.
Their buildings are multi-level with the floors and ceilings strengthened with wooden beams which project beyond the outer walls. His dress code calls for the women not to wear the face veil but to tattoo their chins. The mens custom was to cover their heads and faces with a scarf-like cloth, showing only their eyes to strangers. Even today, these modern Berbers still speak the Berber language which came to them from their Celto-Iberian background.
2). The second ecological group is the Arabs. They are nomadic, moving their herds from place to place in the lowlands. They live in tents. The women cover their heads with veils and are not tattooed. The men do not veil the face. Their language is Arabic.
The men have the Berber type of scarf covering their faces with only the eyes showing! Beyond a doubt, these people were a part of the Libyan expeditions into the Western United States. They, too, suddenly disappeared in the 10th to 12th century A.D., after having been here from about 500 B.C. All of these people abandoned their towns and simply vanished.
The ancient Berbers were of Celto-Iberian origin. They spoke a Gaelic Celto-Iberian language. When we again return to the Scottish Declaration of Independence and read that they traveled through Iberia (The Spanish Peninsula) on their way to Scotland and Ireland, it would account for the Celto-Iberian-Gaelic dialect. It is in this language that the great majority of the petroglyphs are written. It is obvious that the Libyan Berbers associated with the Celts of the Eastern and Northern United States during the apex of their civilization here.
It is apparent that they had a flourishing trade with their home countries of Europe. Not only did they travel to and from Europe on occasion in their own ships, they conducted commerce with the traders from Tarshish and Cartage. Just as the Celts in the Glastonbury and Avalon areas of England mined for tin and lead and shipped the finished metal to Rome in Joseph of Aremathea's ships, the same Celts conducted mining operations in America and either sold or traded their metal with Europe. But it all vanished around the end of the first millennium A.D.
Christianity and the American Celts: When the first Celts arrived in America, they were as pagan as their brothers in Europe. Many of the earlier inscriptions in America depicted Baal worship and classical Phallic worship. Then, all of sudden, there came the appearance of Christian inscriptions. In fact, whenever it was possible, the later Christian inscriptions were inscribed over the top of the earlier pagan writing. This was obvious to the epigraphic scientists because the later inscriptions were cut deeper and partially obliterated the earlier work. In Cripple Creek, Colorado there is a memorial in Greek that states, "Herein is the last resting place of Palladis (a priest), the servant of God."
At Oak Island, Nova Scotia is found an inscription in Libyan dialect of the North African Coptic Church, which states, "To escape contagion of plague and winter hardships, he is to pray for an end or mitigation, the arif: The people will perish in misery if they forget the Lord, alas." (16)
Wherever Christianity has gone, the Laws of God have been adapted into the legal system of the community. The Christian Celts of Iberia, Ireland, Scotland as well as the Christian Celts of America had a legal system that reflected the teachings of the Christian Bible.
The system was called the Tanistry which means the administration of law by deputies of the king. The system as it is preserved from ancient times is rather lengthy so here are just a few examples to show the influence of the Christian Bible:1). "In the obscurity of the mists of olden time a desire would arise to replace armed combat by arbitration. (17)There is much more to the Tanistry but this gives you information that the early Celts became Christian and this was imparted to those Celts living in the United States long before Columbus "discovered" America.
2). And it would seem a desirable thing that land boundaries should be fixed without recourse to moats. (18)
3). Henceforth cases involving wrongdoing are to be made over to the wisest men. (19)
4). Any case is to be brought to judgment without delay.
5). Henceforth in any case involving false utterances let amends be paid in compensation for the harm. (20)
6). Henceforth if a complainant be merciful, let the judges also be merciful. (21)
7). If a malicious man utter lying words that another declares to be slanderous, to the measure of his tongue-loose recklessness shall he transport heavy burdens for the other man.(22)
8). The common people may eat corn, together with game bird but they may not hunt bears. They may kill stags, goats and red deer." (23)
1. Daniel 12:4.
2. Daniel 12:9.
3. The History of the Jews in Great Britain, Dr. Moses Margoliouth, 1846, p. 13.
4. Genesis 12:1-3.
5. Daniel 12:4.
6. Daniel 12:9.
7. 2 Samuel 8:5, 13, 10:18.
8. 1 Chronicles 19:7.
9. 1 Chronicles 19:9.
10. Psalm 83:1-18.
11. 1 Chronicles 22:3.
12. National Geographic, Vol. 152, No. 6, December 1977, pp. 769.
13. To this date no one has found the remains of the bodies because of the acid content of the soil which destroys all remains in less than 100 years. Additionally, our early American settlers removed the headstones from the burial sites and placed them in hedgerows along the sides of the fields and so the headstones are not now located near the actual graves.
14. Ezekiel 27:12.
15. Genesis 10:4.
16. The arif was a precentor in charge of a small congregation lacking an ordained priest of the North African Coptic Church.
17. 1 Kings 3:16-28; 1 Corinthians 6:1-8.
18. Deuteronomy 19:14; 27:17; Job 24:2; Proverbs 22:28; 23:10; Joshua 5:10.
19. Exodus 18:21-22; 22:9; Leviticus 19:15; Deuteronomy 1:13-15.
20. Deuteronomy 19:16-20; Proverbs 6:16-19; and Leviticus 19:16.
21. 2 Samuel 22:26; Psalm 18:25.
22. Leviticus 6:2-6.
23. Leviticus 1-30.
Continue on to Part 10
In Search of Isaac's Children - Table of Contents
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