Scientific Evidence that Men and Women are Designed Differently
Women drive only 30% of miles driven but are in 37% of the fatal accidents
"It is well established in the literature that a
NASA Taken for a [Sally] Ride
Navy Discredited by Kara Hultgreen Travesty of Justice
Most Famous Female Pilot Disappears
Colgan Air Gets the [Rebecca] Shaw Shaft
Carey Dunai Lohrenz Disgraces Entire US Navy for $1
"Female airline pilots were significantly more likely to have aviation accidents than their male counterparts."
"Significantly more likely" means the very best women pilots in the country have 4.1 times higher accident rate than men pilots, consistent with the lower math skills and reduced hand/eye coordination of women and the 3 times higher fatal child abuse rate of single mothers.
Kathleen never even acknowledged that hiring even more female pilots from lower down the female bell curve would increase this "gender gap" to far greater than 4X.
She makes the totally unsupported assertion that hiring more female pilots who could "mentor ... inexperienced female airline pilots" would "enhance safety within the airline industry", contradicting her own statement that "if males had more current flight time, this may explain the higher accident rate of male versus female private pilots"
She "adjusts for important variables" [read: eliminates the obvious factors which make males better pilots] in order to be able to make the feminist assertion that "male and female pilots are not significantly different".
She proposes that, since "aviation accidents are such rare events", comparisons should be made to simulator performance instead [read: since we know that female pilots are killing passengers at a rate 4 times that of male pilots, let's ignore that factor and concentrate on flight simulators where females are less stressed and thus might not perform as poorly].
After proving that she has seen the data, after subtracting all the suitable outliers and massaging her assumptions, after giving female pilots the benefit of every doubt, and still after proving that females are 4.1 times more likely than males to have an accident, she claims "the non-significant difference ... could be entirely due to chance."
Only a true feminist mental midget would dare dismiss such critical, revealing, and important data like this with such aplomb.
What has been the track record of women pilots?
First woman pilot Harriet Quimby killed herself when she crashed at an aviation meet on July 1, 1912.
First black woman pilot Bessie Coleman killed herself when she crashed in Florida in 1926.
Cornelia Fort was the first woman pilot killed in WWII.
First woman pilot in the Navy Barbara Rainey killed herself while training another pilot in an air accident.
Amelia Earhart, the most famous woman pilot, disappeared in the Pacific Ocean.
First woman Turkish pilot Gok killed when she crashed her F-5A warplane.
1st Lt. Mary Grace Baloyo, one of the first women pilots in the Phillipines, crashed an OV-10 in the Phillipines and killed herself.
Maj. Marie Therese Rossi, U.S. Army, one of the first female helicopter pilots killed herself the day after the cease fire which ended Operation Desert Storm (the Persian Gulf War).
Lt. Kara Spears Hultgreen, one of the first U.S. Navy combat pilots, killed herself immediately after the Department of Defense Risk rule was rescinded.
Mabel Rawlinson killed in plane crash.
Amy Mollison killed in plane crash in the Thames River.
Captain Amy Lynn Svoboda killed herself when she crashed her A-10 Thunderbolt during a training mission at Barry Goldwater Air Force Range in Arizona.
Lt. Laura Piper killed in Army helicopter in Iraq on 14 April 1994.
US Army pilot Captain Jennifer J. Odom killed herself and four other crew members when she crashed her DeHavilland RC7 in southern Colombia [correction: As the widower of Army Captain Jennifer J Odom who was killed in Colombia as a MEMBER of the crew of an Army DeHaviland -7 reconnaissance aircraft I respectfully request that you immediately remove the erroneus entry regarding Jennifer. You mistakenly put her as the pilot of the downed aircraft. The record of investigation shows she was in the rear of the aircraft and not piloting the plane as you indicate in this posting. In fact the pilot was CW2 Moore, a male. My "Jew" attorney will monitor this site and if the correction is not made than you will unfortunately find out what libel and slander costs in todays society. First amendment rights can only be stretched so far my friend. Charles Odom LTC(R) USA]
Doris Mullen, Whirly Girl #84, killed in 1966.
JANE DOLORES CHAMPLIN entered flight training to become a WASP at Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas on February 21, 1943.On the night of June 7, she and her instructor were killed in a BT-15 while on a training flight near Avenger Field.
SUSAN PARKER CLARKE entered WASP flight training at Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas in September, 1943 and graduated on March 11, 1944. Shewas then stationed with the 33rdFerrying Group at Fairfax Field, Kansas City, Missouri. She lost her life on July 4, 1944 when the BT-13 she was ferrying crashed near Columbia, South Carolina.
MARJORIE LAVERNE DAVIS learned to fly in Sparks, Nevada, and entered training to become a WASP at Avenger field, Sweetwater, Texas in June, 1944. She was killed on the night of October 16, 1944 while on a cross country training flight in an AT-6 near Walnut, Mississippi.
KATHERINE KAY APPLEGATE DUSSAQ entered flight training to become a WASP at Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas on August 9, 1943, and graduated on February 11, 1944. Her first duty station was Sioux Falls Army Air Base, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.She was then transferred to Randolph Army Air Base, San Antonio, Texas (HQ/CFTC)), then to Fort Worth, Texas (FTC, Hq.) She was killed when the AT-6 she was flying on an administrative cross-country flight crashed on the night of November 26, 1944 near New Carlisle, Ohio.
JAYNE ELIZABETH ERICKSON reported for WASP flight training to Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas in January, 1944. While flying an AT-6, she was killed in a mid-air collision in the traffic pattern at Avenger on April 16, 1944.
MARJORIE DORIS EDWARDS entered WASP flight training at Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas on December 7, 1943. She died in the crash of an AT-6 near Childress, Texas, while on a cross-country training flight.
CORNELIA FORT reported for duty as a WAFS in October, 1942. She lost her life on March 21, 1943 in a mid-air collision near Abilene, Texas, while on a ferrying mission in a BT-13. Cornelia was the first casualty of an American woman pilot on active duty.
FRANCES FORTUNE GRIMES entered WASP flighttraining atHouston Municipal Airport, Houston, Texas on January 15, 1943 and graduated at Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas, July 3, 1943. Her active duty assignment was to the 5th FG/ATC at Love Field, Dallas, Texas. She was killed shortly after take-off from Otis Field, Massachusetts in an A-24 attack bomber on March 27, 1944.
MARY E. HARTSON entered flight training to become a WASP on April 6, 1943 at Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas and was graduated on September 11, 1943. She was progressively stationed at four different bases: Dodge City Army Air Base, Kansas; Coffeyville ArmyAir Base, Kansas; Independence Army Air Field, Kansas and Perrin Army Air Base, Sherman, Texas. She was killed on August 14, 1944, while flight testing a BT-13 at Perrin.
MARY HOLMES HOWSON began herflight training to become a WASP on November 1, 1943 at Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas. While returning from a cross-country flight in a PT-19, Mary was killed in a mid-air collision in the traffic pattern at Avenger Field, on April 16, 1944-- just three weeks before her scheduled graduation.
EDITH EDY CLAYTON KEENE arrived at Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas to begin training to become a WASP, and graduated on February 11, 1944. She was assigned to Hondo Army Air Field, Hondo, Texas and later transferred to Moore Army Air Base, Mission, Texas. She was killed on April 25, 1944 while on a routine flight in an AT-6 that crashed near Mission.
KATHRYN BARBARA LAWRENCE entered training to become a WASP at Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas on July 10. 1943. She was killed on August 4, 1943, while flying a PT-19 on a routine training flight at Avenger Field.
HAZEL YING LEE entered WASP flight training on February 21, 1943 and graduated from Avenger Field,Sweetwater, Texas on August 7, 1943. She was assigned to the 3rdFerrying Group, Romulus, Michigan. While flying a P-63, she was killed in a mid-air collision on the final approach at Great Falls, Montana, November 23, 1944.
PAULA RUTH LOOP began her training to become a WASP on December 19, 1942 at Houston Municipal Airport, Houston, Texas and graduated at Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas on May 28, 1943. She was then stationed at Romulus Army Air Base, Michigan, with the 3rd FG/ATC, as a ferry pilot. She was killed in the crash of a BT-13 near Medford, Oregon on July 7, 1944, while on a ferrying mission.
ALICE E. LOVEJOY entered WASP flight training at Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas. She graduated on September 11, 1943. Her first assignment was to the 3rdFerrying Group,Romulus, Michigan, later being transferred for pursuit training to Brownsville, Texas. During a training mission near Brownsville on September 13, 1944, she was killed in a mid-air collision in an AT-6.
LEA OLA McDONALD entered WASP flight training at Houston Municipal Airport, Houston,Texas on January 15, 1943. She graduated at Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas on April 5, 1944. After graduation, she was stationed at Biggs Army Air Field, El Paso, Texas, and was killed while flying an A-24 attack bomber on a practice flight on June 21, 1944.
PEGGY WILSON MARTIN entered flight training to become a WASP on November 1, 1943 at Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas, and graduated on May 23, 1944. She was stationed at Marianna Army Air Base, Marianna, Florida. She was killed while engineering test flying a BT-13 on October 3, 1944.
VIRGINIA C. MOFFATT reported to the Houston Municipal Airport, Houston, Texas on December 19, 1942 to begin her flight training to become a WASP, and was in the first class of womento graduate at Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas, May 28, 1943. She was then assigned to the 6th Ferrying Group, Long Beach Army Air Base, California. She was killed while flying a BT-15 on a routine flight, 5 October 1943.
BEVERLY JEAN MOSES entered training to become a WASP on December 7, 1943 and graduated on June 27, 1944 at Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas. She was stationed at Las Vegas Army Air Field, Nevada. While flying as the co-pilot inan AT-11, she was killed in a crash in the mountains near Las Vegas on July 18, 1944.
DOROTHY MAE DOTTIE NICHOLS reported to the Houston Municipal Airport, Houston, Texas on December 19, 1942 to train to become a WASP. She was a member of the first class to graduate at AvengerField, Sweetwater, Texas on May 28, 1943. She was assigned to the 6thFerrying Group at Long Beach Army Air Field, California. While ferrying a P-39 from Buffalo, New York, she was killed just aftertake-off outside Bismarck, North Dakota on June 11, 1944.
JEANNE LEWELLEN NORBECK entered WASP flight training at Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas in October, 1943 and graduated on April 15, 1944. She was assigned to Shaw Army Air Base, Sumpter, South Carolina (BT-13 Modification Center), and was killed there on October 16, 1944, while flight testing a BT-13.
MARGARET SANFORD OLDENBURG was the first trainee fatality in the WASP program. She began her flight training to become a WASP at Houston Municipal Airport, Houston, Texas on February 21, 1943. She was killed on a routine training flight in a PT-19 on March 7, 1943 at the training base at Houston.
MABEL VIRGINIA RAWLINSON reported to Houston Municipal Airport, Houston, Texas on January 15, 1943 to begin her flight training to become a WASP. She graduated from Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas on July 3, 1943. She was thenassigned to a tow-target squadron at Camp Davis Army Air Field, North Carolina. She was killed in the crash of an A-24 attack bomber on August 23, 1943.
GLEANNA ROBERTS entered training at Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas in June, 1944 to become a WASP. On June 20, 1944, she was killed while on a routine training flight in a PT-17 near Lorraine, Texas.
MARIE MICHELL ROBINSON began her flight training to become a WASP at Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas in September, 1943 and graduated on March 11, 1944. She was stationed with the 5thFerrying Group at Love Field, Dallas, Texas, and later transferred to the Bombardier Training School, Victorville, California. On October 2, 1944, Marie was killed when the B-25 she was co-piloting crashed in the mountains near Victorville, California. [Correction April 10, 2005--the military accident report states that this accident was in flat terrain and was 100% pilot error, with the pilot having 1,500 hours of flying time]
BETTIE MAE SCOTT entered flight training to become a WASP in October, 1943 at Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas and graduated on April 15, 1944. She was stationed at Waco Army Air Field, Waco, Texas, a Basic Flying Training School. She was killed while flight testing aBT-13 on July 8, 1944.
DOROTHY E. SCOTT entered the WAFS in October, 1942. She wasfirst assigned to the 5thFerrying Division, Love Field, Dallas, Texas and later transferred for pursuit training to Palm Springs Army Air Base, California. While flying with her instructor in an AT-6, she was killed in a mid-air collision on December 3, 1943
MARGARET JUNE PEGGY SEIP entered flight training atAvenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas on April 6, 1943 to become a WASP. She, together with her instructor and a fellow class-mate, was killed in the crash of a UC-78 near Big Springs, Texas, August 30, 1943, on a routine training flight.
HELEN JO ANDERSON SEVERSON reported to Avenger Field,Sweetwater, Texas on April 6, 1943 to begin her training to become aWASP. She, together with her instructor and a fellow class-mate, was killed on a routine training flight in a UC-78 near Big Springs, Texas, August 30, 1943.
MARIE ETHEL SHARON began her training to become a WASP on February 14, 1943 at Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas. She graduated from Avenger Field on August 7, 1943. She was then stationed at Long Beach Army Air Base, California and assigned to the 6thFerrying Group. She and her instructor were killed on April 10, 1944 near Tecumseh, Nebraska, whileflying a B-25 on a night flying instrument training mission.
EVELYN SHARP entered the WAFS inOctober, 1942. She was assigned to the 2nd Ferrying Group, New Castle Army Air Base, Wilmington, Delaware. She was killed on April 3, 1944 when an engine on the P-38 she wasferrying failed on take-off at New Cumberland, Pennsylvania (Evelyn was one of the most experienced women pilots in America, with 2,968 hours of flying time when she entered the WAFS.)
BETTY PAULINE STINE entered training to become a WASP at Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas in September, 1943. On February 25, 1944,during her last cross-country flight before graduation, she was killed when she was forced to bail out of her AT-6 over the mountains near Tucson, Arizona.
MARIAN TOEVS began her training to become a WASP at Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas on July 10, 1943 and graduated December 17, 1943. She was stationed at a Basic Flying Training School at Lemoore Army Air Base, Lemoore,California. She was killed near San Jose, California, while flying a BT-13 from Lemoore to Fresno, California on February 18, 1944.
GERTRUDE TOMPKINS-SILVER reported to Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas in June, 1943 tobegin her training to become a WASP. She graduated on November 13, 1943. She was stationed at Love Field,Dallas, Texas, with the 5th Ferrying Group. After departing on a ferrying mission from Los Angeles, California in a P-51 for the East Coast, she never arrived, and no traces of her were ever found. (She is the only WASP not accounted for.)
MARY ELIZABETH TREBING reported for WASP training at AvengerField, Sweetwater, Texas on February 21, 1943, and graduated on August 7, 1943. She was stationed at Love Field, Dallas Texas, with the 5thFerrying Group. She was killed on November 7, 1943, when the PT-19 she was ferrying crashed southeast of Blanchard, Oklahoma.
MARY LOUISE WEBSTER went into training to become a WASP at Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas in March, 1944 and graduated on October 16, 1944. She was stationed with the 33rdTraining Wing of the AFTS SE at Frederick Army Air Field, Frederick, Oklahoma. She was killed on December 9, 1944, while flying as co-pilot in a UC-78.
BONNIE JEAN ALLOWAY WELZ reported for training to become a WASP on Easter Sunday, April 25, 1943 at Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas. She graduated and became a WASP on October 9, 1943. Bonnie was sent to Dodge City, Kansas for B-26 training, and was then stationed at Harlingen Army Air Field, Harlingen, Texas, (a B-26 Flexible Gunnery School ) She was killed in the crash of a BT-13 near Randado, Texas,while on an administrative flight.
BETTY TAYLOR WOOD began her training to become a WASP at Avenger Field, Sweetwater, Texas on February 14, 1943, and graduated at Avenger on August 7, 1943. She was assigned to Camp Davis Army Air Field, Camp Davis, North Carolina, an Anti-Aircraft Artillery School. She was killed in the crash landing of an A-24 attack bomber on September 23, 1943.
What was the return on the huge investment the nation made in women pilots? How many of the enemy did they shoot down? What was the kill ratio of dead women pilots to dead enemy pilots? Women pilots shot down zero enemy pilots, which makes the kill ratio Infinite. So Kathleen giving such "sage advice" to hire women pilots who killed an infinitely larger number of themselves than they did the enemy, to an industry and federal agency which are obsessed with safety, is the equivalent of more than 1,000 bomb threats. If some blind dumb feminist politico took her advice and implemented some form of affirmative action for female pilots which resulted in 10% of the nation's pilots being women, the damages documented by Kathleen herself would exceed that of every terrorist act against airlines in US history, combined.
This $40 billion industry is so obsessed with safety that, just to reduce the risk of terrorism and sabotage, it now treats each American citizen as a potential terrorist. It requires picture ID's just to pay for the privilege of travelling with them, and puts each piece of luggage and each body which passes through a "security point" in every airport in the country through metal detectors and embarrassing body searches. The travelers themselves paid for this, of course, through a $1.2 billion per year tab added to their ticket prices.
What was gained by this heightened security and loss of privacy between 1997 and 1998? You can't claim that there were fewer aviation accidents because there was a 2% increase in spite of it. You can claim ONLY that the number of fatal accidents decreased by ONE, from 380 to 379, a 0.26% decrease. Not counting FAA costs, the industry spent $1.2 billion to achieve a 0.26% decrease in fatal accidents--a $4.6 billion per one percent decrease--and now Kathleen proposes to add enough female pilots with proven higher accident rates to INCREASE that accident rate by 31%!
If female pilots' flying skills did NOT improve because the airlines hired more of them, female pilots would be 120 times more dangerous to the flying public than all acts of sabotage combined.
What could possibly be more irresponsible than for a "researcher" to propose to increase airline fatalities by a third and to ratioinalize it by calling them "rare events"?
CURRENT LEVEL OF WOMEN PILOTS KILLS 55 AMERICANS PER YEAR
The following table is based on Kathleen's assertion that female pilots are 4.1 times more likely to have an accident than male pilots, published on page 443 of Omega "The International Journal of Management Science", Volume 24, Number 4, August 1996. It's a very good explanation for why only 2.4% of the nation's airline pilots are women. In fact, it's an even better reason for reducing that percent to zero, because hiring this many pilots with a four fold higher propensity for accidents increased the overall accident rate by 7.3%. The higher accident rate of female pilots causes, each year, an additional 149 incidents, 28 fatal accidents, and 55 fatalities. If the percent of pilots who are females were to be increased to 10% (reducing the percent of males pilots to 90%), and if that additional 7.6% of female pilots didn't have an even higher accident rate (a very unlikely probability, since they would come from a group of pilots which are even more unqualified than the current group), then the overall accident rate would increase 31% and there would be an extra 633 incidents, 118 fatal accidents, and 233 fatalities.
INCREASED HIRING OF WOMEN PILOTS WOULD COST $12 BILLION PER YEAR
The added cost to taxpayers for the $35 billion/year FAA expenditure is $2.6 billion at 7.6% and $10.9 billion at 31%, and the increased costs to the $40 billion airline industry is $3 billion at 7.6% and $12.4 billion at 31%.
Only 2.4% of the nation's 70,164 airline pilots being females is proof enough that the upper edge of the female bell curve is 4.1 times more dangerous than the entire group of good and bad male pilots put together. Kathleen never mentions that a comparison of the top 0.0014% of American females' flying skills to the top 0.055% of American males' flying skills was an extremely biased sample in the first place, and that comparing apples to apples would have produced evidence that women pilots are much more than 4 times more likely to have accidents than men pilots.
KATHLEEN'S BIASED STATISTICAL SAMPLE
This is very bad statistical practice. She should have at least acknowledged that comparing the top 0.055% of females to the top 0.055% of males would have produced significantly different results, but she was mute on this point. We can only speculate that, including enough less qualified female pilots to achieve a sample size equivalent to the male pilot sample size would have increased the overall higher accident rate of the female pilots to 6 or 10 or even 30 times that of the male pilots. The following chart is thus not merely extremely conservative, its intentionally misleading:
|Annual Air Transportation||Total 1997 Costs||Increased Costs Due Only to 2.4% of Pilots Who Are Females||Increased Costs If 10% of Pilots Were Females|
|FAA Budget||$35 billion||$2.6 billion||$10.9 billion|
|Airline Industry Revenues||$40 billion||$3 billion||$12.4 billion|
FIRING ALL FEMALE PILOTS WOULD SAVE LIVES AND $35 BILLION ANNUALLY
Kathleen's data shows that one hundred male pilots over their 30 year careers have an average of 2.9 accidents, 0.6 of which are fatal, whereas 100 female pilots have 11.7 accidents, 2.3 of which are fatal. The airline industry seems content to increase its costs by $1.2 billion just to reduce its number of fatal accidents by a mere 0.26%. Using that criteria, eliminating female pilots and reducing annual fatalities by 7.6% has an economic benefit of $35.1 billion to the industry, a greater expenditure than the FAA itself. Doing this would enable the industry to restore constitutional rights to privacy to its passengers while at the same time reducing costs and fatalities by 7.3%.
WOMEN PILOTS CRASH MORE OFTEN THAN DRINKING MEN PILOTS
To add insult to injury, Kathleen also published a paper which recommended that pilots be subjected to DWI background checks EVEN THOUGH HER OWN DATA SHOWED THAT AIRLINE PILOTS WITH TWO OR MORE DWIs HAD FEWER ACCIDENTS PER CAPITA THAN PILOTS WITH NO DWIs. Her faulty conclusion was based entirely on TWO pilots who had airline accidents, which was ONE pilot more than predicted, which is a completely unacceptable sample size.
It also demonstrated something else that she failed to note: women airline pilots have far, far more accidents than pilots who drink.
Using even her most remote assumptions, accepting her flawed logic and unacceptably small sample size, ignoring that some of these pilots whose accidents were attributed to drinking alcohol may have actually had the accident because they were women, pilots with 2 or more DWIs had ZERO accidents where it was expected they should have had more than zero.
The ONLY way she can interpret her own data to report that there is an association between prior DWIs and airline accidents is to note that only .73 accidents were expected whereas 2 accidents were observed. But this ONE extra pilot with one DWI who had an accident just cannot make the case for DWI checks of pilots.
For this "research", Kathleen gains a spot on the Feminist Art Gallery!
An Abomination Before God!
Blind Dumb Feminist Art Gallery
+Chr1st1an Israel Also you gotta like how in that salary search a 'Man' major airline pilot makes more than just A major airline pilot"
It's not clear what your point or your question is. This is true for all professions. And that's because men in all professions, even nursing, earn more than women. Even men strippers earn almost twice as much as female strippers. The average doctor earns $69,000, but a male doctor earns $124,000, and a female doctor like a "fellow" alumnus who took out $200,000 in student loans earns only $56,000 (which is $21,000 less than if she'd saved her $200,000 and become a nurse instead). Women lawyers earn half as much as men lawyers ($67,000 vs. $35,000), which is $18,000 less than prostitutes and HALF of men bus drivers.
Perhaps in your lexicon, the most racist and sexist place on the planet is a basketball court in New York where White Basketball players earn $315,000 and women earn ONE SEVENTH as much, or $43,000.
But there is always a silver lining, eh? Women basketball players don't crash jets.
If you like the way this major airline salary database highlights the 18
standard deviation separation between males and females in NYC, you're going to
LOVE how it breaks it down by RACE, across the entire country, not just NYC.
First of all, in this scenario, Females earn only $32,000, ONE FOURTH of males.
Only Puerto Ricans, at $29,000, earn less.
Indian pilots, from a country where parents sell their own children at a price which is one tenth the cost of a water buffalo, earn TWICE as much, or $70,000.
Earning $3,000 more than Indian pilots are German, Korean, Japanese,and Chicano pilots.
Mexican and African American pilots earn $46,000 which is 44% more, while Hispanic and Latino pilots earn about 20% more.
The first time I began to fly on Mexican airlines, which bought all our old used jets, they were flown by White American MALE pilots. But eventually they transitioned to Mexican pilots, which was so unfomfortale that I no longer fly on Mexican airliners.
To imagine that our airlines put these Mexican pilots at 44% greater value than our major airlines put female pilots is a real eye opener, even to me.
Colgan Air paid Rebecca Shaw, First Officer of Colgan Air Flight 3407 which killed 50 people, $16,000 per year, and the pilot $60,000.
Did they save money by hiring a woman pilot who cost them one quarter as much as the pilot? Not exactly: this is the crash which caused them to go bankrupt.
Did they underpay her? As the above salary data shows, the average salary for a pilot for a regional airline is $59,000, but this salary data base does not have a male versus female salary breakdown for regional airlines.
If 5% of the pilots are women who earn $16,000, and 95% are men who earn X, and if the total average salary is $59,000, then:
.05 x $16k + .95 x X = $59k
X = $61,263 = average for men pilots = almost exactly what they paid the male pilot.
What it DOES show is that a man commercial pilot earns $86,000, but there is no entry for female commercial pilots, for obvious reasons. Ditto for men with instrument ratings who earn $81,000, versus no entry for women. And for a man airplane pilot who earns $105,000, versus no entry for women airplane pilots. And a male airplane mechanic earns $55,000, versus no requirement or entry for women airplane mechanics.
So how can we use this data base to determine if Rebecca Shaw was underpaid? There is an entry ,and therefore a demand, for stewardesses who earn $47,000, but male stewards earn $90,000, almost twice as much. Ditto for female ship captains, $24,000 vs. $43,000.
According to certain studies, men on average have one standard deviation higher spatial intelligence quotient than women. This domain is one of the few where clear sex differences in cognition appear. However, in a couple of studies, once time constraints were removed, women did as well as men. It has also been found that spatial ability correlates with verbal ability in women but not in men, suggesting that women may use different strategies for spatial visualization tasks than men do. However, spatial ability is correlated with video game exposure and other such activities, and thus gender difference in spatial ability may be linked to a difference in spatial experience, rather than actual difference in innate spatial ability. The University of Toronto researchers have discovered that differences between men and women on some tasks that require spatial skills are largely eliminated after both groups play a video game for only a few hours. Although some have claimed women are more "visually dependent" than men, this has recently been disputed. Other studies suggest gender differences in spatial thinking may be explained by a stereotype threat effect. The fear of fulfilling stereotypes negatively affects the performance which results in a self-fulfilling prophecy. The adaptive significance, if any, of male superiority in spatial navigation, has recently been questioned.
Men were 95.7% of licensed pilots but only 66.6% of noncommercial crashes
Women were over-represented by 7.8 fold, while men were under-represented by 0.7
Relative to men noncommercial pilots, women noncommercial pilots are 11.2 times more likely to crash.
When measured by flight hours, because men pilots have twice as many hours as women pilots, the ratio is 22.4.
Air crashes involving female pilots are mostly due to mishandling of the plane, while those with male pilots are more often due to flawed decision-making and inattention, a study found.
Flying planes with known mechanical problems, running out of fuel and landing with the gear up were typically male problems, said the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health study released last week.
Women's crashes were more often due to incorrect use of the rudder, poor response to a bounce or inability to recover from a stall, the study found.
"Males trade accuracy for speed," said professor Susan Baker, the study's co-author. "They would rather do something faster even if they don't do it accurately.
"Women tend to be more cautious and pay greater attention to details and rules."
The authors said women may have mishandled planes because they had less flight time and experience on average than men.
The study in this month's issue of Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine was prompted in part by the more than 30-fold increase in the number of female airline pilots in the United States since 1959.
Officials of the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board and the Federal Aviation Administration would not comment on the study.
Hopkins scholars looked at crashes of civilian, noncommercial planes from 1983 to 1997 involving 144 female and 287 male pilots over 40 years of age.
[read: women were 33.4% of the 431 pilots involved in noncommercial crashes]
1. Male and Female Pilots Cause Accidents Differently
Male pilots flying general aviating(private) aircraft in the United States are more likely to crash due to inattention or flawed decision - making, while female pilots are more likely to crash from mishandling the aircraft. These are the results of a study by researchers at the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health.
The study identifies the differences between male and female pilots in terms of circumstances of the crash and the type of pilots error involved. "Crashes of general aviation aircraft account for 85 percent of all aviation deaths in the United States. The crash rate for male pilots, as for motor vehicle drivers, exceeds that of crashes of female pilots," explains Susan P. Baker. MPH, professor of health policy and management at the Bloomberg School of Public Health. "Because pilot youth and inexperience are established contributors to aviation crashes, we focused on only mature pilots, to determine the gender differences in the reasons for the crash. "
The researchers extracted data for this study from a large research project on pilot aging and flight safety. The data were gathered from general aviation crashes of airplanes and helicopters between 1983 and 1997, involving 144 female pilots and 267 reale pilots aged 40 -63. Female pilots were matched with male pilots in a 1 : 2 ratio, by age, classes of medical and pilot certificates, state or area of crash, and year of crash. Then the circumstances of the crashes and the pilot error involved were categorized and coded without knowledge of pilot gender.
The researchers found that loss of control on landing or takeoff was the most common circumstance for both sexes, leading to 59 percent of female pilots' crashes and 36 percent of males. Experiencing mechanical failure, running out of fuel, and landing the plane with the landing gear up were among the factors more likely with males ,while stalling(失速) was more likely with females.
The majority of the crashes - 95 percent for females and 88 percent for males - involved at least one type of pilot error. Mishandling aircraft kinetics was the most common error for both sexes, but was more common among females( accounting for 81 percent of the crashes)than males (accounting for 48 percent). Males, however, appeared more likely to be guilty of poor decision - making, risk - taking, and inattentiveness, examples of which include misjudging weather and visibility or flying an aircraft with a known defect. Females, though more likely to mishandle or lose control of the aircraft, were generally more careful than their male counterparts