IQ of Ashkenazi Jews 72, NOT 122

IQ of Ashkenazi Jews

:Gould’s most inflammatory allegation consists of blaming IQ testers for magnifying the toll of those lost in the Holocaust (p. 263). Here he has followed the lead of Leon Kamin’s (1974) The Science and Politics of IQ. The Kamin-Gould thesis is that early IQ testers claimed their research proved that Jews as a group scored low on their tests and that this finding was then conveniently used to support passage of the restrictive Immigration Act of 1924 which then denied entry to hapless Jewish refugees in the 1930s. Gould goes so far as to claim (1996, pp. 195-198; 255-258) that Henry H. Goddard (in 1917) and Carl C. Brigham (in 1923) labeled four-fifths of Jewish immigrants as ‘feeble-minded … morons’.”

It’s NOT 122

Correlation Between IQ and Highway Safety Record Puts Israel’s Average IQ at 73.

Correlation Between IQ and Alcohol Consumption Puts Israel’s Average IQ at 68.

Correlation Between IQ and Teachers’ Salaries Puts Israel’s Average IQ at 72.

Correlation Between IQ and PISA Puts Israel’s Average IQ at 89.

Correlation Between IQ and TIMSS Puts the IQ of Israel’s Top Ten Percent at 89.

Jewish Americans Earn 42% Less than African Americans, Putting their Average IQ Lower than 85.

Salaries of Jewish Pilots Puts Their IQ One Standard Deviation Higher than Kenyan Pilots (A Country With an IQ of 72).

Salaries of Jewish Doctors Puts Their IQ Lower than Kenyan Doctors, at 72.

Netherlands Women are Considerably Taller Than Israeli Men.

IQ Too Low To Manage Farms in Birobidjan Or Get Along With Their 12 Year Old Palestinian Neighbors.

IQ of Ashkenazi Jews Closer to 72 than 122

A straight line approximation between Germany at the high end of education spending and of IQ, and Sao Tome at the other end of the scale, indicates that a country which pays it’s teachers a mere $1,092 per month (as Israel does) is in the range of countries which Professor Lynn estimates to have an IQ of 72.

Squat Butts Have Smaller Brains and Lower IQs

Each gridline on the following graph represents 0.7 SD (70% of a standard deviation). In college, we called such short men “squat butts”, and fortunately most of them didn’t last that long.

US Teachers’ Salaries 30 Standard Deviations Higher than Israeli Teachers

On the following, each vertical gridline is ten standard deviations on the low (Israel) end of the graph, and four standard deviations on the high (US) end. So salaries for French teachers are eight standard deviations higher than salaries for Israeli teachers, and salaries for Filipino teachers are 9 standard deviations lower than Israeli teachers.

But the gap between US and UK teachers is only 2 standard deviations, Australian teachers’ salaries are one standard deviation higher than Norwegian teachers, and from the Israeli perspective, Norwegian salaries are 19 standard deviations higher than theirs.

But each gridline on the following graph represents only 8 standard deviations on the low end and 3 standard deviations on the high end. So the gap between Israel and the Philippines is only 8 standard deviations, and Norwegian salaries are only 13 standard deviations higher than Israeli salaries.

The Standard Deviation on the Following Graph is $4,200

The $84,000 gap between Jewish doctors and England doctors represents 20 standard deviations. Salaries for Jewish doctors are about half a standard deviation higher than salaries for woman doctors.

Kenyan Pilots’ Salaries Are One Standard Deviation Lower than Jewish Pilots’ Salaries

Each major gridline on the following graph is 10 standard deviations. So while German pilots’ salaries are more than 30 standard deviations higher than England’s, it’s also true that salaries for Jewish pilots is 4 standard deviations lower than Spanish pilots and only one standard deviation higher than Kenyan pilots.

With rare exceptions, the ability of the free enterprise system to detect and reward excellent performance, and to wean out poor performance, is reflected in the following salaries by profession from Some of those rare exceptions that would not fit this chart are when the government makes political appointments of idiots and pays them orders of magnitude more than they could ever earn in real life [read: could possibly be worth], like Beverly Hall, Jo Boaler, and Limor Livnat:

Pilots’s annual salaries

Airline pilots $131,000
American pilot $78,000
USA pilot $77,000
German pilot $248,000
England pilot $82,000
UK pilot $64,000
English pilot $61,000
French pilot $80,000
China pilot $83,000
Israeli pilot no data
Italian pilot $88,000
Indian pilot $74,000
Jewish pilot $48,000
Polish pilot $46,000
Russian pilot $70,000
Swiss pilot $64,000
Spanish pilot $67,000
Kenyan pilot $40,000
African pilot $69,000
Korean pilot $50,000
Japanese pilot $52,000
Vietnamese pilot $25,000
Taiwan pilot $80,000

Doctors’ annual salaries
England $111,000
Asian $100,000
India $84,000
Hispanic $84,000
Doctor $83,000
Man $83,000
Germany $80,000
Mexican $80,000
Black $69,000
French $51,000
Vietnamese $47,000
Polish $36,000

Kenyan $36,000
Jewish $27,000
Woman $24,000

This underscores the undesirability of Jewish doctors and Jewish pilots by separating them from German pilots by 40 standard deviations and from doctors in England by 31 standard deviations. It’s consistent with how Israel underpays its own teachers (34 standard deviations lower than we pay our teachers). It’s also consistent with the following: and SAT vs Income, Race, and Gender.htm

Speaks Pashto $195,000
Danger pay $120,000
Ph.D. $95,000

Man RN Nurse $91,000
Physicist $89,000
Web Designer $86,000

Female RN Nurse $83,000
RN Nurse $79,000
White $71,000
Bachelor’s $68,000
Black $63,000
White Hispanic $62,000
Cuban $60,000
Hispanic $60,000
Indian $58,000
African American $57,000
Teacher $57,000
Math Teacher $57,000
Puerto Rican $56,000
Asian $54,000
Protestant $54,000
Calculus Teacher $52,000
Mexican $50,000
Jew $46,000
LVN Nurse $45,000
Mormon $45,000
Catholic $43,000
Rabbi $43,000
Jewish $40,000
Journalist $31,000

israeleducation English 2009.pdf

“By the beginning of the 1990s, just 46% of local authorities had implemented the reform and set up junior high schools; and only 56% of Jewish students and 46% of their Arab peers were studying at junior high schools (Gaziel, 1994)

What this means is that 46% of Jews in Israel were not even enrolled in school where they could be counted in the 22.8% exclusion rate of of Israel (50 times higher than many countries), NOR in the unusually low coverage rate of Israeli schools as evidenced by the following footnote on Israel’s TIMSS score:

Of the 56% of Jews (excluding Arabs) who WERE enrolled in Israeli schools, 22.8% of them were excluded, and another 23% were not tested because Israel took the risk of openly and publicly declaring that these lower scoring schools would not be counted in estimating Israel’s TIMSS math score (which at 463 STILL was lower than many third world nations, like Malaysia with an IQ of 92, but who scored 11 points higher).

Who are the remaining (56% – 22.8% – 23% = 10.2%) 10.2% of Israeli Jews and how do they stack up with other Israeli Jews and Palestinians?

Israel’s own internal testing shows that a significant percentage of Israeli Jews scored 20 points lower than the Palestinians they detest and disdain and insult so much (460 vs. 487), and that the highest scoring group (like 10.2% of them) score 543 on this INTERNAL Meizav test, the same group who scores 463 in TIMSS math. The 83 point gap across three different groups of Israeli Jews with a standard deviation of 70 is a gap of 2.4 standard deviations.

Israeli Jews Score 20 Points Lower than the Palestinians they Detest and Disdain and Insult So Much


“In the year 2000, 17.6 percent of Israeli families were defined as poor, meaning that nearly
one out of every five families living in poverty. Yet the bottom two deciles of the country’s
workers earn less than 3 % of the country’s income. Data pertaining to the year disclosed
that, one out of every four children in Israel is living below the poverty line . In
2000, 480,000 children, or 25.2% of all children in Israel were poor.42 Bnei Brak and
Jerusalem, the two areas with the largest concentrations of ultra-Orthodox Jews, are the
two poorest cities in Israel. This poverty translates to direct health effects for children
suffering from it; while malnutrition was once rare within the Israeli child population, school
principals, teachers, and other caretakers now note an increase in cases of malnourished
Unfortunately, in terms of child poverty incidence and the requirements of Articles 26 and
27 of the Convention, Israel no longer has any relative accomplishments to speak of.
Whereas once, Israel had one of the most equitable distributions of wealth in the
democratic world, now economic gaps are growing as a result of privatization and
economic growth paralleled by minimized government redistribution efforts, leaving children
the most affected. Child poverty rates in Israel have been steadily on the rise in recent
years, both before and after redistribution and taxation:”
Table 4
Poverty Rates in Israeli Child Population, 1992-2000 (percentages)
Year Before Redistribution and Transfers”

The table shows that the percent of Israeli children living in poverty increased from 32% in 1992 to 36% in 2000, not a good sign for g-d’s chosen race.


Table 9.

Input and output indicators in Hebrew and Arab education in 2003 Hebrew Sector

Arab Sector

Average number of hours per student




Number of students per FTP




Average number of students per class



Enrolment rates – ages 14-17 (%)



Percentage of Grade 12 students entitled to matriculation certificates



Annual student drop-out rate between Grades 9 and 12 (%)



“In 2003, school-level exclusions consisted of special education schools, Ultra Orthodox schools, Arab schools (East Jerusalem), and very small schools (less than nine eligible students). The overall exclusion rate (school-level exclusions plus within sample exclusion) was equal to 22.5%, which is quite high and is mainly based to the exclusion of Arab schools in East Jerusalem. This can be a reason of upward bias for Israeli results in TIMSS 2003”

Half of Israeli Public Employees Earn Less than $1,366 per Month

Half of Public Sector Makes Under 5000 NIS
Follow Virtual Jerusalem on and

Date Posted: 2010-10-26 17:28:16

Nearly half of public sector employees earn less NIS 5,000 a month; 44% earn NIS 4,960, well below the average national salary of NIS 7,836. 31% of public sector employees receive income support to achieve an average salary of NIS 6,777, according to the Salaries Expenses in the Civil Service and Public Institutions, which Director of Wages Ilan Levin today submitted to Minister of Finance Yuval Steinitz. The report covers 482,970 people.

The best paid public sector employees in 2009 were the ports’ workers, with an average salary of NIS 25,401.

The second best-paid public sector employees in 2009 were at Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd., with an average salary of NIS 21,502, followed by Israel Electric Corporation (IEC) (TASE: ELEC.B22), where the average salary was NIS 20,185. Salaries at all three workplaces are well above the average public sector salary of NIS 11,000.

The average salary of civil servants is NIS 12,752. At NIS 18,784, average salary at the Ministry of Defense was nearly double the average salary of teachers – NIS 9,599. However, there are also wage differentials between teachers, due to the New Horizon program. Teachers participating in the program earned an average salary of NIS 10,165, whereas the average salary of other teachers was NIS 8,509.

In general, public sector salaries eroded 1.4%, for the first time in years, because of the recreation payment was halved in 2009 under a deal reached between the government and the Histadrut (General Federation of Labor in Israel).

For the first time, the Ministry of Finance disclosed the condition of contract employees, whose average salary was NIS 7,532. The best paid contract employees work for Rafael; their average salary was NIS 9,710, mostly in production. The biggest employers of contract employees were the Rishon LeZion and Bnei Brak municipalities – 932 workers and 648 workers, respectively.

Israel Aerospace Industries Ltd. (IAI) (TASE: ARSP.B1) executives joined healthcare fund executives at the top of the public sector salary table for 2009. In 2008, all the ten highest paid public sector employees worked at healthcare funds; in 2009, three IAI executives pushed their way into the charts.

The top-paid public servant in 2009 was Dr. Gideon Sahar, chief of cardiology at Soroka Medical Center, owned by Clalit Health Services, with a salary of NIS 109,918. The top-paid civil servant who is not a doctor was IAI legal advisor Yaakov Glazer, with a salary of NIS 101,384.

Achievements in Mathematics

by Socio-economic Status, By Meizav 2008 scale

Science and Technology

Socio-economic Status of Student

All Students

Hebrew Speakers



5th Grade












8th Grade












Israel’s Teachers Earn Less than Thailand’s Teachers

Per Israeli sources, women teachers in Israel earn $1,624 per month, all teachers earn $1724 per month, and Israel reported to TIMSS that teachers salaries were $1,937. This is almost double the $1092 reported by the international salary data base.
This is one fifth of what a Peruvian pilot nets (at $4,801), one eighth of a German pilot ($8,448), one fourth of an American teacher ($4,055), and less than teachers in Thailand $1,216), Peru ($1,097), Portugal ($1,797), Italy ($1,441), and Kuwait ($1,207). There are not many places where teachers earn less. Teachers in Brazil and Romania earn almost as much ($745 and $588).

Average Salary in Israel – Sector Comparison.


Net Monthly Income constant 2005 US$ (1)


Gross Monthly Average Income (2)

Compulsory Deductions (3)

Weekly Hours (4)

Gas-Electricity-Water average income

PPP $ 3,054

$ 2,475

Employees, 2005.


new shekels



Financial average income

PPP $ 2,628

$ 2,130

Employees, 2005.


new shekels



Transport-Communication average income

PPP $ 1,864

$ 1,511

Employees, 2005.


new shekels



Real Estate average income

PPP $ 1,607

$ 1,302

Employees, 2005.


new shekels



All Sectors average income

PPP $ 1,593

$ 1,291

Employees, 2005.


new shekels



Construction average income

PPP $ 1,389

$ 1,126

Employees, 2005.


new shekels



Education average income

PPP $ 1,347

$ 1,092

Employees, 2005.


new shekels



Hotels-Restaurants average income

PPP $ 923

$ 748

Employees, 2005.


new shekels




The net average income in “constant 2005 US$” is computed using the Interbank nominal exchange rate [a] and the U.S. inflation rate [d]. The net average income in “constant 2005 US$” at PPP is computed using the IMF PPP exchange rate [d] and the U.S. inflation rate [d]. The latter reflects the purchasing power in the United States in 2005.


The gross monthly average income is based on data supplied by the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics to the International Labour Organization [9]. The average income includes the salaries and wages of paid employees. The income includes payments subject to income tax and includes workers from the Judea, Samaria and Gaza areas. Employees include both men and women unless otherwise noted.


The ratio between the deductions and the gross income is provided by an Israel income tax calculator [t] and include social security and income tax. The deductions are for a single-earner Israeli resident with a non-working wife and without child (total of 3.25 allowance points). The deductions on the average wage are confirmed through the difference between the gross and net household income in Israel (20.2% of the gross income, 2004) [11].


The weekly hours are based on data supplied by the Israel Bureau of Statistics to the International Labour Organization [9]. The hours by sector correspond to the hours actually worked.

Teacher Job Average Salary


Net Monthly Income constant 2005 US$ [a] [d]

Notes, Source

Gross MonthlyJob Income

Compulsory Deductions

Weekly Hours

U.S. average salary

PPP $ 4,055

$ 4,055

Full-time and part-time employees, 2005. U.S. Department of Labor, [t].





UK median salary

PPP $ 3,075

$ 3,568

Employees, 2005. UK Employment Department, [9], [t].





Germany average salary

PPP $ 3,065

$ 3,309

Minimum per month, 2005, normal hours of work. Federal Statistical Office of Germany, [9], [t].





Australia average income

PPP $ 2,793

$ 2,742

May 2004. Normal hours from collective agreements. Australian Bureau of Statistics, [9], [t].





Korea average salary

PPP $ 2,643

$ 2,096

Excl. overtime and bonus, June 2005. All teachers, incl. tertiary level. Korea Ministry of Labour, [9].





Norway average income

PPP $ 2,573

$ 3,550

Employees, 2005. Statistics Norway, [9].




Japan average salary

PPP $ 2,518

$ 2,961

Excl. overtime and bonus, June 2005. Women only. Private establishments with 10 or more regular employees. Japan Statistical Yearbook [17], [k].




France median salary

PPP $ 2,483

$ 1,950

All teachers at all levels. Full-time employees, 2002. Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques, [36].




Canada average income

PPP $ 2,238

$ 2,236

Employees, 2005. Statistics Canada, [9], [t].





Finland average salary

PPP $ 1,936

$ 2,311

Normal hours of work, 2004. Men only. Women make 2,586 euros per month. Statistics Finland, [9], [k], [t].





Portugal average salary

PPP $ 1,797

$ 1,441

Employees, 2003. Instituto Nacional de Estatística, [9].





Austria average salary

PPP $ 1,537

$ 1,231

Employees, 2002. Kindergarten teacher, women only. Austrian Central Statistical Office (ÖSTAT), [9], [t].





Italy average salary

PPP $ 1,441

$ 1,555

Normal hours of work, 2005. Istituto Nazionale di Statistica, [9].




Thailand average salary

PPP $ 1,216

$ 388

Men employees, 2005. Women make 17,123 bahts per month. Thailand National Statistical Office, [9], [t], [s].





Kuwait average income

PPP $ 1,207

$ 1,506

Mathematics teacher, secondary level, 2004. Men employees. Kuwait Ministry of Planning, [9].





Peru average salary

PPP $ 1,097

$ 474

Employees, June 2002. Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informatica, [9].




Philippines average salary

PPP $ 1,069

$ 237

Employees, 2004. National Statistics Office, [9], [t].




Czech Republic average income

PPP $ 1,042

$ 681

Excl. bonuses, 2005. Czech Statistical Office, [9].





Mexico average income

PPP $ 1,018

$ 651

Employees, 2005. Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informatica (INEGI), [9], [k].





Poland average income

PPP $ 1,013

$ 543

Employees, incl. kindergarten and tertiary level teachers, 2004. Poland Central Statistical Office, [9], [k].





Hungary average salary

PPP $ 918

$ 583

Employees, May 2005. Hungarian Central Statistical Office, [9], [k].




Latvia average income

PPP $ 804

$ 357

Adult full-time and part-time employees, 2005. Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia, [9], [t].





Lithuania average salary

PPP $ 788

$ 300

Employees, 2002. Statistics Lithuania, [9].





Brazil average income

PPP $ 745

$ 299

Employees, Dec 2004. Ministerio do Trabalho e da Previdência Social, [9].





Slovakia average income

PPP $ 706

$ 363

First-level education teacher. Employees, 2004. Štatistický úrad Slovenskej republiky, [9], [k].





Romania average salary

PPP $ 588

$ 302

Men employees, 2005. Women make 1,143 new lei per month. Romania National Institute of Statistics, [9].


new lei





Interbank nominal exchange rate,; historical currency converter for over 164 currencies and 3 metals.


World Economic Outlook Database, September 2006, International Monetary Fund.


OECD Tax Database. Annual database providing comparative information on personal and corporate income tax and consumption tax systems and rates in OECD countries since 2000. Information on social security contributions levied on employees and their employers is also reported.


Net income from gross income (calculators, tables): Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Germany, Ireland, Israel, New Zealand, UK, U.S., Singapore.


International Labour Organization. Compilation of average salary income worldwide. Classified by country, by employment category, and by gender.


Japan Statistical Yearbook, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, 2006.

Search World Salaries:

The Finest From Jewish Eugenicists


“He pointed out that some genes associated with brain growth are also associated with breast cancer, including in his own family. During the question-and-answer session, someone brought up another tradeoff: Supposedly, Jews are deficient in visio-spatial skills, possibly because their brains allot extra space for verbal intelligence. That might explain the average Ashkenazi Jewish score of 122 on verbal IQ tests.”

“Psychometrics research has found that Ashkenazi Jews have the highest mean score of any ethnic group on standardized tests of general intelligence, at roughly one half to one standard deviation higher than the mean of the general white population.[5] These studies also indicate that this advantage is primarily in verbal and mathematical performance; spatial performance is about 90, if whites are taken as the mean. Estimates vary from 107 to 117.”
“The Ashkenazim are descended from the Jewish communities of Germany, Austria, Poland, and Eastern Europe that date back to the 10th century. Today they make up around 80 percent of the world’s Jews. Ashkenazim have the highest average IQ of any ethnic group, scoring 12 to 15 points above the European average.”

“Their median IQ is calculated at 117 in From Chance to Choice: Genetics and Justice (2000), published by Cambridge University Press. This is 10 points higher than the generally-accepted IQ of their closest rivals—Northeast Asians—and almost 20% higher than the global average.”

“The average IQ of Ashkenazi Jews is 122. Ashkenazim generally do well in IQ tests, scoring 12-15 points above the mean value of ”

“Lynn breaks the Jew Israeli IQ into two components: Ashkenazim (European Jewish) with a IQ 103; Sephardim with IQ 91;…20bk%20rev.pdf”

“According to several studies Ashkenazi Jews score 0.75 to 1.0 standard deviation above the general European average. This corresponds to an IQ of 112-115. Other studies have found somewhat lower values. During the 20th century, they made up about 3% of the US population but won 27% of the US science Nobel Prizes and 25% of the Turing Awards. They have high verbal and mathematical scores. ”

“The theory still sounds arrogant, until you hear the IQ machine’s possible costs. Some scholars now hypothesize that the genes that make Jews smart also give some of them nasty diseases such as Tay-Sachs. Entine finds this plausible. He pointed out that some genes associated with brain growth are also associated with breast cancer, including in his own family. During the question-and-answer session, someone brought up another tradeoff: Supposedly, Jews are deficient in visio-spatial skills, possibly because their brains allot extra space for verbal intelligence. That might explain the average Ashkenazi Jewish score of 122 on verbal IQ tests.”

Jewish IQ: Are Jews Allowed To Be Smart?

The average IQ of Ashkenazi Jews is 107 to 115, well above the human average of 100. This gap and the genetic theories surrounding it stirred discomfort in the room. Zoloth, speaking for many liberals, recalled a family member’s revulsion at the idea of a Jewish race. Judaism is about faith and values, she argued. To reduce it to biology is to make it exclusive, denying its openness to all. Worse, to suggest that Jews are genetically smart is to imply that non-Jews are inherently inferior, in violation of Jewish commitments to equality and compassion.

I love this line: “To reduce it to biology is to make it exclusive, denying its openness to all.” Imagine the sorrow of the dejected hordes who’ll have to make do with the country club, the DAR, and the millennial legacy of world domination. That’s funny. What’s not funny is that Zoloth, a respected academician, is proposing a fictional dilemma. The discovery of markers for Jewish DNA hasn’t a thing to do with the accessibility of the Jewish faith. When rabbis start asking for blood tests, we can revisit the question. Saletan goes on:

“The first is that the Ashkenazi Jews have the highest average IQ of any ethnic group, combined with an unusual cognitive profile, while no similar elevation of intelligence was observed among Jews in classical times nor is one seen in Sephardic and Oriental Jews today.”

“Now for the first time that I am aware of, a study has been published, AND REPORTED ON, that some of the high intelligence of Ashkenazi Jews is due to genes that are unique to them alone. And if Ashkenazim Jews are more intelligent than Whites by 15 IQ points because of genes, it is just as likely that Whites are 15 IQ points above Blacks because of genes also. ”

Even a Critical Thinker Like Kevin McDonald Was Suckered by Jews

“The theory still sounds arrogant, until you hear the IQ machine’s possible costs. Some scholars now hypothesize that the genes that make Jews smart also give some of them nasty diseases such as Tay-Sachs. Entine finds this plausible. He pointed out that some genes associated with brain growth are also associated with breast cancer, including in his own family. During the question-and-answer session, someone brought up another tradeoff: Supposedly, Jews are deficient in visio-spatial skills, possibly because their brains allot extra space for verbal intelligence. That might explain the average Ashkenazi Jewish score of 122 on verbal IQ tests.”

“The focus of the article is Harpending and Cochran’s study of Ashkenazi IQ. Senior is amazingly dismissive of the article: “The paper contained references, but no footnotes. It was not written in the genteel, dispassionate voice common to scientific inquiries but as a polemic. Its science was mainly conjecture.” Now I have problems with C&H’s approach too, but it’s ridiculous to describe their paper as conjecture or as polemic. And standard procedure in the hard sciences is to use references, not footnotes.”

While Saletan never comes to a definitive conclusion about what Jews are, he does quote some impressive statistics such as, “The average IQ of Ashkenazi Jews is 107 to 115, well above the human average of 100,” and the Ashkenazis have an average score of “122 on verbal IQ tests.” He also notes the Ashkenazi predisposition towards poor spatial intelligence and potentially life-threatening illnesses like breast cancer and Tay-Sachs. But the part I found most interesting as a non-Jew loving Heeb is that “the rate of Jewish ‘outbreeding’—procreating with non-Jews—is half a percent. That’s the lowest rate of any population in the world today.”

Published by jacobisrael


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