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The REAL Roadside Studies


One Quarter of Our Youth are Drunk Drivers

Thursday, 30 December 2004, 02:00 CST, WASHINGTON -- More than four million people younger under age 21 drove under the influence of drugs or alcohol last year, according to a government report released Wednesday. That's one in five of all Americans aged 16 to 20. ... Young people were most likely to drink alcohol and then drive, with 17 percent admitting this. Fourteen percent said they had driven under the influence of illicit drugs, and eight percent reported driving after consuming a combination of alcohol and drugs.


About one in five drivers under age 21 reported driving under the influence of alcohol or other drugs, according to research from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).  Examining data from the 2002 and 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, SAMHSA concluded that 21 percent of 16- to 20-year-olds drove under the influence, or 4 million drivers. Fourteen percent reported driving under the influence of illicit drugs, 17 percent reported driving under the influence of alcohol, and eight percent said they drove under the influence of a combination of alcohol and other drugs. Just four percent of the young drivers surveyed said they had been arrested and booked for driving under the influence.

One Half of College Fraternity Members are Drunk Drivers 

Numbers were high for Greeks who drink and drive. Fifty-four percent of Greeks [fraternity members] admitted to drinking and driving, compared with 34 percent of all other students. And more Greeks have been arrested for driving under the influence - 13 percent - compared with just 4 percent of student athletes and 2 percent of freshmen, the study found.


Fraternity and sorority members are likelier than non-members to drink (88 vs. 67 percent), binge drink (64 vs. 37 percent), drink and drive (33 vs. 21 percent), use marijuana (21 vs. 16 percent) or cocaine (3 vs. 1.5 percent), smoke (26 vs. 21 percent).

 49-60% of All College Students are Drunk Drivers

A national sample of university students in the United States over a twelve-year time period from the 1982-1983 to the 1993-1994 academic year was used to test the reduction (control) of consumption model. The total sample size for each of five time periods during the duration of the study was: 10,247 in 1993-1994; 6,751 in 1990-1991; 6,872 in 1987-1988; 4,719 in 1984-1985; and 5,504 in 1982-1983. Students were administered The Student Alcohol Questionnaire for each of the time periods. The results showed a significant (p [is less than] .001) increase in the percent of abstainers (17.7 to 26.8) and a significant (p [is less than] .001) decrease in the mean number of drinks consumed per week among all students (14.3 to 13.1) over the twelve-year period. There was a significant (p [is less than] .001) decrease in the percent of students who exhibited four drinking and driving related variables, an example of which is having driven a car after consuming several drinks. However, there was a significant increase (p [is less than] .001) or stabilization of most health/personal (for example, vomiting as a result of drinking), social/academic (for example, missing a class because of a hangover), and legal/violent (for example, getting into a fight after drinking) problems related to alcohol. It was concluded that the reduction of consumption hypothesis was supported only by the drinking and driving variables.

Only 15% of Oregon's 11th Grade Boys were Drunk Drivers in 1997

The rate of 11th-graders reporting they drink and drive fell to 8.2 percent this year from 13.6 percent in 1997. The decline was greatest for boys, falling to 8.7 percent from 15.7 percent.

Drunk Driving 25-29 Year Olds Plunged from 53% to "Only" 39%

The number of people from 18 to 24 who drink and drive dropped to 31 percent this year from 48 percent in 1985, the poll showed. Among those 25 to 29, the number dropped to 39 percent this year from 53 percent in 1985.  The poll showed that 37 percent of men and 20 percent of women said they drove after drinking. In 1985, the figures were 45 percent for men and 29 percent for women. In the Midwest, 33 percent said they drove after drinking, as opposed to 32 percent in the Northeast, 30 percent in the West and 21 percent in the South. 


12-19% of Canada's Drivers are Drunk Drivers

Figure 1 shows the percent of drivers in three BAC categories as determined by roadside surveys conducted in Canada at four points in time. In 1974, 16.4% of all drivers surveyed had a BAC in excess of 20 mg%. In 1981, the proportion of drinking drivers increased to 19.2%. In both of the subsequent surveys, the proportion of drinking drivers has decreased, reaching its lowest point at 11.7% in 1993. Overall, since 1981, the prevalence of drinking driving has declined by 39%.

Figure 1
Trends in Alcohol Levels among Drinking Drivers in Canada

Since 1981, when drinking and driving was at its highest point, the greatest decreases have been among drivers with low and moderate BACs (i.e., 21 to 80 mg% and 81 to 150 mg%). The proportion of drivers with high BACs (i.e., over 150 mg%) has shown the smallest decrease. This finding supports the contention that the gains in the drinking-driving problem achieved during the 1980s were largely among the more responsible social drinkers and that countermeasure efforts have had relatively little impact on heavier drinkers who comprise the largest proportion of fatally injured drinking drivers (e.g., Simpson and Mayhew, 1991).


45 to 58% of Watertown's Teens Drove or Rode With a Drunk Driver

The percentage of students who drive a vehicle while drinking alcohol was 13 percent, which is the same as in 2006. A total of 45 percent of students said they have been a passenger with another student who was driving and drinking, which increased from 2006 when 41 percent of students said they had ridden with someone who had been drinking.


17% of Late Night Vermont Drivers are Drunk Drivers, With a BAC greater than 1.2!

Perrine, et. al., in a study entitled Roadside BAC, Alcohol Abuse and Driver Record, (Vermont Alcohol Research Center), observed that on 362 late night drivers, the mean BAC in this .08 state was .07 with a standard deviation of .05. While the Perrine study did not necessarily involve an arrest for an alcohol related operating offense, compilation of DWI arrests by the University of Maryland Police Department disclosed that in 1996 the average arrestee had a BAC of .119, although by 1997 that number had crept back up to .128. Facially, each of these trends has created a situation where the validity of conclusions based upon performance of the three test battery could easily be called into question.


70% of West Germans Are Drunk Drivers

"Etymology of German (1993) surveyed the self-reported drinking-driving attitudes and behaviours and found that over 60% of former East Germans reported to never drive under the influence of alcohol, compared to under 30% of the West Germans."


58% of Italian Drivers are Drunk Drivers

Deaths due to road accidents during weekends have become a worrying phenomenon in Italy. With the aim of highlighting the role of psychotropic substances (alcohol, drugs of abuse, psychoactive drugs) in causing road accidents, a survey based on clinical and chemico-toxicological analyses was carried out on car drivers in the Veneto region during the weekends of the three-month period June-August 1994.

Rapid clinical screening was carried out on 1237 drivers. 265 of these, suspected to be under the influence of psychotropic substances, were subjected to complete clinical and toxicological ascertainment involving the following procedures: a) anamnesis, aiming at evidence of possible current or past use of psychotropic substances; b) objective clinical examination, aiming at finding evidence of recent (signs of acute or chronic intoxication) or past use (signs of withdrawal or associated organic pathologies) of psychotropic substances; c) double sampling of blood and urine and chemico-toxicological analysis using immunochemical and GC/MS-SIM techniques.

As well as many data of social and behavioural interest, processing of results demonstrated that: a) 58% of the drivers examined had consumed alcohol beverages; b) 34.8% had BACs higher than the threshold permitted in Italy (80mg% mL); c) 10.56% of drivers were found to be under the influence of drugs of abuse or psychoactive drugs; d) 42.8% of the BACs in the range 50-100mg% mL as ascertained by breathalyser, showed significant discrepancies with respect to direct blood dosage; e) the most frequently found substances were (in order): cannabinoids, cocaine, amphetamines, opiates, benzodiazepines, barbiturates.


Non-drinking German Drivers Have 30% More Accidents than Those With BAC < 0.2 and < 0.8

In 1964, Borkenstein et al. presented the well-known risk function for drivers responsible for causing an accident, which was one basic argument for setting BAC limits in different countries (for example, Germany). Figure 1 shows this risk function compared with the function computed from the Accident Study (both functions were smoothed). The shape as well as the magnitude of the functions are very similar. For drivers with blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) up to 0.04%, the alcohol-related accident risk is nearly identical to or even less than that for sober drivers. Both studies found that, for drivers at BACs ranging from 0.14% to 0.16%, the accident risk is about 25 times as high as it is for sober drivers. However, for nearly all BACs, the 1994 alcohol-related accident risk in Germany was greater than in 1964, a finding that may be a function of today's more complex traffic situations, which in combination with alcohol cannot be handled adequately anymore. At BACs greater than 0.14%, the deteriorating effects of the intoxication may be so great as to make the differences in traffic conditions irrelevant.

Figure 1
Accident risk functions from Borkenstein et al. (gray line) and from our study (black line). At the abscissa, BAC is given in percent, at the ordinate, the odds ratios are given.

Analysis of factors modifying the alcohol-related accident risk showed driver age to be the strongest mediator (see Vollrath, Krüger & Kazenwadel, 1994; Krüger, Kazenwadel & Vollrath, 1995). The global accident risk for drivers between 18 and 24 years is much greater than that for older drivers. In addition, the alcohol-related accident risk for those young drivers increases much faster than it does for older drivers. In light of these findings, we strongly recommend lowering the BAC limit for younger drivers.


Non-drinking Drivers in Finland Are Three TIMES More Dangerous than Drunk Drivers

Non-drinking Drivers in Germany Are Eight TIMES More Dangerous than Drunk Drivers

Table 1
Number of drivers in the Roadside Survey and the Accident Study in the different BAC classes. For the computation of the excess number of accidents, see text.

BAC classes Roadside Accident Excess
0 8438 1638 0
< 0.02 284 53 -2
< 0.04 155 21 -9
< 0.06 64 13 1
< 0.08 40 27 19
< 0.10 12 23 21
< 0.12 16 18 15
< 0.14 9 23 21
< 0.16 4 31 30
< 0.18 6 29 28
< 0.20 5 28 27
>= 0.20 10 64 62
Sum 9043 1968 213





Average person's body eliminates alcohol at the rate of .015 BAC per hour  

 B A C
         	               Prepared by
  	           Montana Highway Traffic Safety Division		
		          Department of Justice

 			     WHAT IS BAC?
     When a person consumes an alcoholic beverage, the alcohol is quickly
and directly absorbed into the bloodstream without being digested, and 
then distributed to the body cells.  As more is taken in, the percentage 
of alcohol in the blood rises.  This alcohol in the blood is called the
blood alcohol concentration or BAC.  The BAC can be measured accurately by
using a breath, urine or blood sample.  This measurement indicates parts 
of alcohol in  relation  to parts  of  blood.   When the  blood alcohol 
concentration reaches a level of .10%, it means that there is one part
alcohol for every thousand parts of blood.  In Montana it is unlawful to
drive or be in actual physical control of a motor vehicle when the BAC 
level is .10% or more.

The percentage of alcohol in the blood depends basically on three things:
1.  BODY WEIGHT: A heavier person has more body fluids; therefore can 
                 consume more alcohol than a lighter person, and still 
		 have the same percentage of alcohol in the blood.
2.  AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL CONSUMED:  "Standard" drinks all contain the SAME
				  AMOUNT OF ALCOHOL. A "standard" drink is
				  a 12 ounce can or bottle of beer, a 5 
				  ounce glass of most wines and 1 1/2 
				  ounces (1 shot) of liquor.  Beer has 5%
				  alcohol, most wines have 12%, and 80 
				  proof liquor has 40%.  Multiply the 
				  volume of the drink by the percentage of
			          alcohol in each, and your answer is the
				  amount of alcohol you body is taking in.
				  In  these "standard"  drinks,  each
				  contains .60 ounces of alcohol.

3.  DRINKING TIME:       The more drinks consumed in a shorter period of 
		    time, the higher the BAC.  Three drinks in one hour 
		    will cause a higher BAC than one drink each hour for 
		    three hours.  
		         Eating before or while drinking tends to slow the
		    absorption rate of the alcohol into the blood stream,
		    but eventually all of the alcohol consumed gets into
		    the blood.
		         The following chart(next 2 screens) is a guide to 
		    determine various blood alcohol percentages.  Use the 
		    weight closest to yours.

	  		      BAC CHART
	  |    1 drink    |    2 drinks   |   3 drinks    |   4 drinks
  After   |---------------------------------------------------------------
  hours   | 4   3   2   1 | 4   3   2   1 | 4   3   2   1 | 4   3   2   1
Weight    |      	  |		  |		  |
  80	  | -   -   -  .02| -   -  .05 .08|.07 .10 .10 .10|.12 .12 .15 .15
 100      | -   -   -  .02| -   -  .04 .06|.05 .07 .08 .09|.09 .10 .12 .13
 120	  | -   -   -  .02| -   -  .03 .04|.03 .04 .06 .08|.06 .08 .09 .11
 140	  | -   -   -  .01| -   -  .02 .04|.02 .03 .05 .06|.04 .06 .08 .09
 160	  | -   -   -  .01| -   -  .02 .03|.01 .02 .04 .05|.03 .04 .06 .08
 180	  | -   -   -  .01| -   -  .01 .03| -  .02 .03 .04|.02 .04 .05 .07
 200	  | -   -   -   - | -   -  .01 .02| -  .01 .03 .04|.01 .03 .04 .06
	(Numbers = % of alcohol in blood.  (-) = a trace of alcohol)	
   		            BAC CHART
	  |    5 drinks   |    6 drinks   |   7 drinks    |   8 drinks
  After   |---------------------------------------------------------------
  hours   | 4   3   2   1 | 4   3   2   1 | 4   3   2   1 | 4   3   2   1
Weight    |      	  |		  |		  |
  80	  |.17 .17 .19 .20|.19 .22 .22 .25|.25 .27 .27 .30|.29 .30 .32 .33
 100      |.13 .14 .16 .17|.16 .18 .19 .21|.20 .22 .23 .25|.24 .25 .27 .28
 120	  |.09 .11 .13 .14|.13 .14 .16 .17|.15 .17 .19 .20|.19 .20 .22 .23
 140	  |.07 .09 .10 .12|.10 .12 .13 .15|.13 .14 .16 .17|.15 .17 .18 .20
 160	  |.06 .07 .09 .10|.08 .09 .11 .13|.10 .12 .13 .15|.13 .14 .16 .17
 180	  |.04 .06 .07 .09|.06 .08 .09 .11|.09 .10 .12 .13|.11 .12 .14 .15
 200	  |.03 .04 .06 .08|.05 .07 .08 .09|.07 .09 .10 .12|.09 .10 .12 .13
	(Numbers = % of alcohol in blood.  (-) = a trace of alcohol)
     When the alcohol in the bloodstream reaches the brain, it immediately
begins to affect the way a person behaves.  The effects are present with
just one drink.  The following BAC levels are based on a 140 pound person
who has consumed the alcohol over a short period of time (1-2 hours) :
  1-2 drinks  (.01 to .04 BAC)
	      Affected first are the outer layers on the cerebrum, which
	      contains the centers of association of the brain,   e.g.
	      judgment, reason and inhibitions.
  3-4 drinks  (.05 to .08 BAC)
	      The alcohol now reaches further into the cerebrum.  At this
	      point higher motor and sensory areas are affected, causing a
	      decrease in fine skills and a person's ability to respond 
	      and perform.   People are  likely to become  noisy,  more
	      talkative and moody, but feel more alert and capable.  Yet in
	      truth, there has been a reduction in their reaction time,
	      judgment, and ability to respond to emergencies.
  5-7 drinks  (.09 to .15 BAC)
	      Now the alcohol extends into the cerebellum, the essential
	      link in coordinating sensory impulses and motor activity.
  	      The drinkers' senses of hearing speech, vision, and balance
	      are altered.  Decreased sense of pain, staggered walk, and 
	      slurred speech may also be evident.
  8-12 drinks  (.16 to .30 BAC)  
	      The entire cerebellum, as well as portions of the medulla,
	      which controls involuntary functions, may be affected.  
	      Reflexes arm depressed, body temperature may go down, and
	      circulation is impaired.  Unconsciousness may occur.  Gross
	      intoxication of all physical and mental faculties is 
  More than 12 drinks (.30 and above BAC)
	      By this time most people are not in a position to drink
	      anymore.  They are usually unconscious and will remain in a
	      coma until the body has disposed of enough alcohol so that
	      the nerve centers controlling consciousness may begin to
	      function again.  It is important to note that persons in 
	      this condition are near the point of death.
     If you drink and drive you automatically increase the risk of 
becoming involved in an accident.  The more you drink, the greater the
risk becomes.  Certain standards have been adopted to identify drinking
drivers.  They are:
	.01 to .05 BAC		A driver is AFFECTED.  Chances of an
				accident increase.
	.05 to .10 BAC		A driver is IMPAIRED.  Chances of an 
				accident double.  At this BAC level the
				driver could be arrested for DUI.
	.10 BAC			A driver is INTOXICATED.  Chances of an
				accident are 6 times greater.  Driver is
				also considered legally drunk.
	.15 BAC			Chances of an accident are 25 times
				greater than when sober.
     In one-half of all highway fatalities, alcohol is involved.  In
alcohol related crashes, about one-half of those killed are not the ones
who had been drinking.
		         (16 to 24 age group)
     When young  drivers drink and drive, they face two relatively new
situations . . . learning to drive and learning to drive after drinking.
Here are the facts: ***
     About one fourth of all drivers are under the age of 25, yet they 
     account for over 40% of all accidents, and 47%of all alcohol-related
     Young drivers are involved in 50% more fatal alcohol-related 
     accidents than other drivers.
     70% of the young persons killed each year are a result of 
     alcohol-related crashes.
(*** source : 1983 Montana Highway Patrol Accident records)
     It takes 20 to 40 minutes after a drink has been consumed for all of
the alcohol to be absorbed into the body.  Because of this, when you stop
drinking, your BAC will continue to rise for a period of time.
     An average person's body will eliminate alcohol at the rate of 
.015 BAC per hour.  This is done through breathing, sweating and through
the liver.  However, the liver must handle 90% of the alcohol elimination,
and the liver never changes speed, so the rate of elimination remains
constant.  As a result of this slow elimination process, a person remains
intoxicated and/or impaired for an extended period of time.
     When the BAC level has reached its highest point and starts to 
decline, people perceive themselves as being more sober than they really
are.  They use their highest BAC level as their reference point-not when
they were sober.  BE CAREFUL!


	Only time will sober up a drunk.
	Cold showers-exercise-black coffee-don't work.
	All you have is a wet drunk-a tired drunk-an awake drunk-


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Modified Thursday, December 24, 2009

Copyright @ 2007 by Fathers' Manifesto & Christian Party