From Mike, [email protected]


This is a letter I recently received from a Jesuit.

I have not sent him(obivously) the latest things

I have sent you but they are in total agreement

with MUCH greater detail proving who he is having this
foreknowledge and understanding; serving his master;

the Jesuit General!


The things he speaks here are truth, in total agreement

with what I have been sending as of late; 

re: the DaVinci Code,(Chapter 55-59) (Holy Bloodline deception)

*(if any desires a copy of this send me an address

(p.o.)*  the Constintine connection, Babylon Mystery Religion,

which is in truth: "{(Christianity) "//(Catholocism) }" the
world's suffocating deception and total darkness... The Sol
Invictus//Pontifex Maximus (who is "TODAY" the "(Pope)!

I do not know, never met, never spoke,

never seen this man in my entire
existence on this planet. I state this before my

Master Jesus Christ and the Father as well

as the Heavenly host! I can only share with all what I
receive and am shown; it is then as always:

all things are in the Lord's
hands. The whole world has been  totally-deceived!

All scream.... da JEWS!!!  but one better soon awaken from sleep.

and seek and by great prayer come to understand and believe

these things as the real truth and thus be not deceived

when it soon occurs; having been "included" in II Thessalonions 2:......

Having made their faith shipwrecked; I say this with the true love

of Christ to all.....MY people "ARE" destroyed for LACK of knowledge!

From: "T Wayne"
To: <[email protected]>; Sent: Friday,

August 25, 2006 6:40 PM

Subject: Pontifex Maximus

Dear Mike,

Hey, I'm involved in reading your full PDF, from your website Vatican Design Exposed. Great stuff !

However, I truly encourage you to go into the scriptures and history and find out how extensive this Roman Pontifex Maximus "rigged" the game, in order to also set up the future/soon coming final Pontifex & his Pope. The facts are actually in the scriptures. But we "Christians" have been wilfully blind, according to prophecy, about the origins of Christianity itself. Until these times that is.

When you describe "true christianity" , you may not be aware that you are also in fact referring to the offspring (daughter) of the Roman (harlot) "church". And, NOT in fact the true original followers of the Messiah. 
They were never called "Chrisitians" , not even in the scriptures. The references of christians in the scriptures are not in reference to the true followers, but another group. I know, or at least I believe that you are likely attempting to reference the followers of Messiah as the true christians. But, it is not possible. There are a myriad of provable spiritual, behavioral and scriptural differences.

The period we know as the "reformation" , was only just that. Reformed Roman Christianity. It was not the original faith of our apostolic fathers. It was more similar to the original faith of the apostles, but it was still deeply involved in the whoring of the Roman origins. By great deception from Rome I might add. I will explain more of this at a later time if you wish.

When the early followers of Messiah and the Jews of the day were 
persecuted. It was, even according to early "christian church fathers",  for their adherences to "outmoded", literally "Roman outlawed" Torah festivals, as well as some of those who had faith in the Messiah (Jesus) who's true Hebrew Name is Yah-u-shua. And, those two were synonomous as well ie: Torah and Messiah. Messiah IS the living Torah/Word. WE have to understand why they were outlawed and why they were persecuted, and not just that they were.


They were persecuted for their faith/works. Because the hebrew mindset does NOT separate faith from actions/works. The 
western gentile mindset can and does. We, and formerly myself, a "born again christian" are/were satisfied with the notion of belief only and that settles it. This is not the hebrew mind. . Belief and Works are synonyms and this is how the hebrew lived. Therefore, they were persecuted because they adhered to "outmoded" Torah festivals. Like, Sabbath and if they held the hebrew new testament letters/text, Passover (rather than pagan Ishtar/Easter) , and Tabernacles/ Purim rather than Tamuz/Christ- mas.


Let me give you an example. We "christians" celebrate and have learned and adhered to "sun-god-day" along with Rome as if it were the "sabbath" rest. Not because it's truly scriptural.
AND the hebrew knows this. It is NOT scriptural. Except for mishandling of scripture and Paulines letters. But because Pontifex Maximus via the Pope, the real Pontifex Maximus of Rome. The Vicar of God on earth, proclaimed it and so ordered all who did not follow the order, to be put to death if caught worshipping on the "Sabbath", owning hebrew new testaments and Torah texts, passover etc. I'm going to list for you below, just a few 
quotes from the Papal decrees over a couple hundred years and you'll get the drift.

We "christians" according to accurate interpretation of Jeremiah 
(YirmeYahu in Hebrew) Chapter 16:19-21, have inherited "only" falsehood from our fathers. A staggering reality that is now coming to complete light.

Terrance Here's the vaticans "Sun-god-day" quotes. Some I found on the vaticans website. (Rev.13:1) "And I saw a beast come up out of the sea, with ten horns and seven heads". On it's horns were ten royal crowns and on it's heads blasphemous names".  Daniel 7:7-8.

 Ok, hold on to your 'tzit tzit' now for some very revealing quotes.

1. Addressed as : "1. " The Lord God The Pope" and declared to be 
"Infallible" . "2. That the Roman pontiff alone is justly styled 
universal". "6. That no person...may live under the same roof with one excommunicated by the Pope". "9. That all princes should kiss his feet only". "19. That he can be judged by no one". "22. That the Roman Catholic Church never erred, nor will it, according to the scripture, ever err ". "27. That he can absolve subjects from their allegiance to unrighteous rulers". Dictates of Hildebrand, under Pope Gregory VII.

(A.) "They have assumed infallibility, which belongs only to God. They profess to forgive sin, which belongs only to God". Clarkes Commentary on Daniel 7:25.(Re: The Pope)

2.  On the Popes official metre is the Latin title: " Vicarius Filii Dei". 
Meaning in English " Vicar of The Son of God". (Rev. 13:18) An interesting side note, if you count the numbers in Latin, each letter of course having what's called an alpha numerical value, it adds up to "666" the system of the number of a man.
V=5,I=1,C=100, A=0,R=0, I=1,U=5, S=0 --- F=0, I=1, L=50, I=1, I=1 ---D=500, E=0, I=1, Totaling 666!

3. " The Pope has power to change times, to abrogate laws, and to dispense with all things, even the precepts of Christ. The Pope has the authority and has often exercised it, to dispense with the command of Christ". Decretal, de Tranlatic Episcop. Cap.
Does this sound familiar?


Please refer to two 'end time prophecies', Dani'el 7:25 " and he speaks words against the Most High, and it wears out the set apart ones of the Most High, and it intends to change the appointed times, and law and they are given into it's hand for a time and times and half a time".


And, YeshaYahu 7:25 ( Isaiah) 24:5 " For the earth has been defiled under it's inhabitants, because they have transgressed  the Torah, changed the law, broken the everlasting covenant".
Both of these scriptures are obvious violations of the 10 commands.
4. "Had she not such power, she could not have done that in which all modern religionists agree with her, she could not have substituted the observance of Sunday, the first day of the week, for the observance of Saturday, the seventh day, a change for which there is no scriptural authority". Doctrinal Catechism,Stephen Keenan.

5.  " The Catholic church by virtue of her divine mission changed the day from Saturday to Sunday."
&6.  " We observe Sunday instead of Saturday because the Catholic Church, in the Council of Laodicea (AD 364) transferred the solemnity from Saturday to Sunday". The Converts Catechism of Catholic Doctrine pg 50, third edition.

7. " By my divine power (Pope) I abolish the sabbath day, and command you to keep the first day of the week. And lo, the entire civilized world bows down in reverent obedience to the command of the holy Catholic Church". History of the Sabbath, pg. 802. Father Enright, C.S.S.R. of the Redemptoral College.

8. " Sunday is our *MARK of authority that the Roman Catholic church has supremacy over canon of scripture, and that the* protestants recognize our authority by keeping the day of the sun as the LORDS DAY OF REST".  The Pope 321 AD. - Zehariah's Scroll, Rabbi Micheal John Rood.

"Christian" Constantine charged Sunday to be the day of rest on the Deis Solis- the day of the sun. Note: now keep that word mark in your mind, as one part for forming part of the mark of the beast.

9. " Let all the judges and town people, and the occupation of all trades rest on the venerable day of the sun".   Edict of March (god of Mars) 7, 321 AD. Corpus Juris Civilis Cod., lib.3, tit.12,Lex.3. (This is from the roman LAW books/the statutes.) During the reign of Constantine shouts of "joy" ermerged up from the streets at the news that Constantine has NOW become "a Christian"! Upon which then all roman civil law was granted unto the Pope. By which:
10. Later Pope Innocent VIII ordered " That malicious and abominable sect of malignants, if they refuse to abjure, (to the sun-day worship law) to be crushed like venomous snakes". History of Romanism, 1871 ed. University of Cambridge. (See below 17**,"The three that were plucked up", exterminated because they refused to worship this way. It was the Vandalls, Ostrogoths, and Heruli destroyed by Rome for their saturday worship or their refusal to worship on the ordered day. Rev 13., Daniel 7:8 ??)

11.  "Tradition is of as great authority as the Bible" Council of Trent 
1545 AD. Faith Of Our Fathers pg 111.(Math. 15:9)

 12. " We observe Sunday instead of Saturday because the Catholic Church in the Council of Laodicea, transferred the solemnity from Saturday to Sunday". The Converts Catechism of Catholic Doctrine, Third Edition, pg 50.

13.  " Sunday is a Catholic Institution, and it's claims to observation 
can be defended only on Catholic principals.. ." The Catholic Press.

14. " Christians must not 'Judaize' by resting on the Sabbath; but must work on that day, honoring rather the Lord's Day ('Sunday') by resting, if possible, as Christians. However, if any (Nazarene) be found "Judaizing', let them be shut out from Christ." The Church of Imperial Rome; Council of Laodicea under Emperor Constantine; Canon 29, 336 CE.

Somehow, the protestants and western evangelicals just insist in being a partner to these, because they ARE Christian principals. I suppose that's because they are in fact, "Christians" .Sleeping with the enemy if you will.

"Who is like unto the beast" ? Rev.

 In lite of all of those cute little trinkets that have the letters, WWJD 
?( What would Jesus Do ?) I'd like to ask, really now honestly here. What day did the Father command His people to worship on ? What day did the early Fathers and the Prophets worship on ? What day did Messiah Yahushua Ben Yoseph worship on ? What day did the Apostles worship on after the risen Messiah spent time with them ? Vs. What day did "Jesus" supposedly worship on and what day are the "Christians" found to be worship on ?  Now a real tough question ? Do you really believe The Messiah worshipped on 
the venerable day of the Babylonian sun-god ? Do you really believe it didn't matter to His Father ? Show me, where He changed it ? HE DIDN'T FOLKS...

15.  "Remember the Sabbath day, to set it apart. Six days you labor, and shall do all your work: But the seventh day is the Sabbath of Yahweh your Elohim: You do not do any work-you, nor your son, nor your daughter, nor your male servant, nor your female servent, nor your cattle, nor your stranger, who is within your gates. For in six days Yahweh made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested the seventh day. Therefore Yahweh blessed the Sabbath day and set it apart." Ex. 20:8-11

Who's Sabbath is it ?

In YeshaYahu (Isaiah) 66:22-24, Set right in the very end of the age and the new one to come. Vs. 23 informs those with eyes to see and ears to hear that, " And it shall be that from New Moon to New Moon, and from Sabbath to Sabbath, all flesh shall come to worship before Me," declares Yahweh'.

 How long will His Sabbath continue ?

16.  Who changed the calender ? Including the Hebrew reckoning of time that God gave for man.
We presently use the Roman calendar in America. Who changed the laws ? Including the commands of God (like the fourth commandment ) on the day of the " Venerable sun"  Codex Justinianus, lib. 3, tit. 12, 3; translated in History of the Christian Church.

Do you know Americans are under Roman Civil and Criminal laws ? Just go read em as I have. Books like Corpus Juris Secundem, Legal definitions ect... they're all Greco/roman.

Who changed the second commandment as well ? What kinds of graven images will you find in the Catholic churches, as well as in virtually ALL other religions, including Christ-insanity ?

17.  Did you know that the Papacy ruled ALL civil law from 538 AD until 1798 AD ?  That's exactly 1260 years...interesting number ( 3 1/2 years of months? Or, will history repeat itself ?). And isn't it funny how this period was called the "Dark Ages".  Scripture was removed from the beginning by the Catholic church !  Only the Pope had the authority to bring the so called "words of god".

18.  **10 see from above, Another interesting note: From the time Roman Civil Law regarding religious worship daze was established in 538 AD, there were ultimately 10 divisions of Rome. ("10 horns" Rev. 13:1, Daniel 7 ? ) 1. Alemani-Germany, 2. Franks-France, 3.Burgundians- Switzerland, 4. Suevi-Portugal, 5.Anglo Saxons-Britain, 6. Visigoths-Spain, 7. Lombards-Italy, 8. Vandals,  9. Ostrogoths,and 10. Heruli. The last 3 were ousted or destroyed by Rome and Emporor Justinian as stated above, therefor do not have modern national titles. These  three "  refused to become christian" (Daniel 7:8 ?). Interesting how they're sort of coming 
back together again under the EU authority and the present global (not euro) "10" regions of the New World Order cabal. ( The one inscribed on your federal reserve one dollar bill ) Is history repeating itself ?

19.   " Christ is the Lord of the whole world. At his departure he left 
his dominion to his representatives, Peter and his successors. Therefore the fullness of all spiritual and temporal power and dominion, the union of all rights and privaledges, lies in the hands of the pope. Every Monarch, even the most powerful, possesses only so much power and territory as the pope has transferred to him of finds good to allow him." 
Further " In excersizing supreme, full, and immediate power in the 
'universal church', the Roman pontiff (Pope) makes use of the departments of the Roman Curia which, therefore, perform their duties in his name and with his authority for the good of the churches in the service of the sacred pastors".

20.  The Vatican (Pope) has diplomatic relations and immunity in 172 nations. Which, was consequently agreed to by Freemason, Ronald Reagan. George Bush II (Son of 33rd Degree Freemason Bush Sr., Freemason himself and lifetime blood oath member of the Masonic "Scull and Bones). has gone on the record (2005) as saying that he obeys the Pope ! Paragraphs 19 and 20 above, I Found at the vatican website in 2002 !

21. "For as much, then, as it is no longer possible to bear with your 
pernicious errors, we give warning by this present stature (code/statute) that noe of you henceforth presume to assemble yourselves together. We have directed, accordingly, that you be deprived of all the houses in which you are accustomed to hold your assemblies: and forbid the holding of you superstitious and senseless Sabbath meetings, not in public merely, but in any private house or place whatsoever.take the far better course of entering the Catholic church.We have commanded.that you be positively 
deprived of every gathering point for your superstitious meetings, I mean all the houses of prayer.and that they abe made over without delay to the Catholic Church; that any other places be confiscated to the public service, and NO FACILITY WHATEVER BE LEFT FOR ANY FUTURE GATHERINGS, in order that from this day forth, none of your unlawful assemblies may presume to appear in any public or private place".Eusubius, "Life Of Constantine" , book 3

22. " Constantine, who was also an anti-Semite, called the council of 
Nicea in 325 C.E. to standardize Christianity. Nazarenes were excluded from the meeting. Jewish practices were banned. For the first time, Gentile Christianity officially labeled the Nazarenes as apostates. From this time forward, Nazarenes begin to be listed in the catalogs of  apostate movements ( the first of these to included the Nazarenes was Epiphanies' 'Panarion", around 370 C.E.)
"What Is Nazarene Judaism.

" Marcel Simon, a renowned expert on first century Christianity, who took issue with Epiphanius' comments on the sect of the Apostles writes:

They (Nazarenes) are characterized essentially by their tenacious 
attachment to Yehudim observances. If they became heretics in the eyes of the Mother Church (Christianity/ Roman Catholicism) , it is because they remained fixed on outmoded positions. (ie: Torah). They well represent, even though Epiphanius( a Christian/Roman Catholic) is energetically refusing to admit it, the very direct descendants of that primitive community, of which our author (Epiphanius) knows that it was designated by the Yehudim, by the same name, of 'Nazarenes'.

23.  First Century Assembly expert Marcel Simon, Judeo-Christianisme , pp 47-48.

Pope Gregory VII (1073-85) :
"The pope cannot make a mistake."

Pope Paschal II: (1099-1118)
"Whoever does not agree with the Apostolic See is without doubt a heretic." Pope Innocent IV (1243-54): described himself as "the bodily presence of Christ."( presumably by a kind of transubstantiation at his election)

Pope Boniface VIII (1294-1303) :
"Every human being must do as the pope tells him."

Pope Leo XIII (1878-1903): "We hold upon this earth the place of God Almighty." ( Encyclical Letter, June 20, 1894 )

As the "infallible" Vicar of Christ and thus, "the Universal Monarch of the World", the Pope, through the religious, political and financial power of the Jesuit Order, fully intended, then and now, to ultimately rule all nations through his loyal kings and dictators from Solomon's rebuilt Temple in Jerusalem.  For when the Pope is crowned during his coronation these words among others (having never been taught to us in the Public Schools) are spoken: "Take thou the tiara adorned with the triple crown, and know that thou art the father of princes and kings, and art the governor of the world."


Thomas Aquinas, Rome's "Angelic Doctor" wrote in his Summa Theologica in 1272: 24.  "The Pope, by Divine Right,
hath spiritual and Temporal Power, as supreme king of the World: ..."


Lucius Ferraris wrote in his Bibliothica Prompta (1763), which has been adopted as a standard of Roman Catholic law, as follows: On account of the excellence of his supreme dignity, he is called Bishop of Bishops, Ordinary of Ordinaries, universal Bishop of the Church, Bishop or Diocesan of the world, divine Monarch, supreme Emperor and King of Kings. Roman Catholic Priest and editor, David S. Phelan paraphrased  those words when he wrote in the Western Watchman, June 27, 1912: "...Why, if the government of the United States were at war with the Church, we would say tomorrow, To Hell with the government of the United States; and if the church and all the governments of the world were at war, we would say: - To Hell with all the governments of the world ...Why is it the Pope has such tremendous power? Why the Pope is the ruler of the World.  All the emperors, all the kings, all the princes, all the presidents of the world are as these alter boys of mine: ..."





Findings from The Condition of Education 1997: Public and Private Schools: How Do They Differ?


July 1997

(NCES 97-983)

About 46 million students are currently enrolled in the Nation’s public schools in kindergarten through grade 12, and another 6 million are enrolled in private schools.\1\  Because private schools are often perceived to be more successful in teaching students, with at least some empirical basis,\2\ many reform proposals for public schools have looked to the private sector for models to emulate. School choice, small schools, and decentralized decision making, for example, are among the features commonly associated with private education that many have suggested might benefit public schools.

Exactly how do public and private schools differ? To address this question, at least in the aggregate, national data are assembled here to compare public and private schools along a number of important dimensions. The discussion begins with an examination of two fundamental differences between public and private schools: their sources of support and the role of choice in determining where students go to school. Next is a description of the characteristics of the key participants in the education process— students and teachers—and how they differ in the public and private sectors. Following that is a comparison of selected aspects of the organization and management of public and private schools, including school and class size and who makes policy decisions for the school and classroom. Next, the varying circumstances under which teaching and learning take place in public and private schools (the school climate) are examined. The final sections describe differences in academic programs and support services.

The data show many systematic differences between public and private schools, and provide a context in which to consider the debates about the relative merits of various aspects of public and private schooling. However, as public and private schools are compared, it is important to keep in mind the enormous variation that exists within each sector and the overlap between the two. As Baker, Han, and Keil point out in their examination of organizational differences between public and private secondary schools, "School sector is not a simple organizational fault line running through the Nation’s schools."\3\  More detail on the nature of the diversity that exists within each sector can be found in other NCES publications.\4\


The defining distinction between public and private schools is their different sources of support. Public schools depend primarily on local, state, and federal government funds, while private schools are usually supported by tuition payments and sometimes by funds from other nonpublic sources such as religious organizations, endowments, grants, and charitable donations. In some states, private schools receive public funds for certain services (e.g., transportation).

Tuition at private schools varies considerably by grade level and whether or not the school has a religious affiliation. In 1993–94, the average tuition paid by private school students was about $3,100, but ranged from a low of about $1,600 in

Average private school tuition:* 1993–94



School level     Total       Catholic      religious     Nonsectarian


Total         $3,116         $2,178        $2,915            $6,631

Elementary       2,138          1,628         2,606             4,693

Secondary        4,578          3,643         5,261             9,525

Combined         4,266          4,153         2,831             7,056


*Tuition weighted by the number of students enrolled in schools.

SOURCE: NCES, Digest of Education Statistics 1996, table 60.  

Catholic elementary schools to a high of about $9,500 in nonsectarian secondary schools. Total public school expenditures were about $6,500 per pupil (computed using average daily attendance) in 1993–94,\5\ but it is impossible to compare public and private school expenditures because tuition often covers only part of the total spent.


The idea of school choice has traditionally been associated with private schools, but many advocate offering at least some choice within the public sector. Having public schools compete for students, the thinking goes, will provide them with a strong incentive to improve and be more responsive to the needs and concerns of students and their parents.

bullet Private schools are attended by choice, but choice is not limited to the private sector.

Private schools provide an alternative for parents who are dissatisfied with public schools or have other reasons for wanting their children to attend a private school. Within the private sector, parents can choose among a range of religiously affiliated and nonsectarian schools (as long as they can afford the tuition charged or receive financial aid). Some private schools are very selective in their admissions, while others are not. In 1993, 9 percent of all students in grades 3–12 attended a private school.

Parents of students in public schools can sometimes choose or exert influence over which schools their children attend. In 1993, 11 percent of students in grades 3–12 attended a public school chosen by their parents. In addition, parents can indirectly choose among public schools for their children to the extent that they can choose where to live. While 80 percent of public school students in grades 3–12 attended an assigned public school in


1993, the parents of 39 percent of the students in these grades indicated that their child attended an assigned school but that their choice of residence was influenced by where their children would go to school. Thus, less than half (41 percent) of the students in grades 3–12 attended assigned public schools over which their parents had exercised no direct or indirect choice.

bullet Families with annual incomes over $50,000 have the most choice.

Higher family income facilitates both public and private school choice. Because most private schools charge tuition, only parents with the personal financial resources or financial aid to afford the tuition truly have the option of selecting a private school. Thus, the rate of private school attendance in 1993 increased with family income. Similarly, because the housing options that realistically can be considered are related to a family’s income, the percentage of parents who reported that their choice of residence was influenced by where their children would go to school also generally increased with family income.

Children from the lowest income families (less than $15,000) were more likely than those from families with incomes over $30,000 to attend a chosen public school. However, the net result of the various types of choice was that children from families with incomes over $50,000 were much less likely than children from families in lower income categories to attend an assigned public school over which they had not exercised any choice.

bullet Parents who exercise some choice over where their children go to school tend to be more sat-isfied than those who do not.

Parents of students in grades 3–12 who attended private schools were more likely than their public school counterparts to be very satisfied with their children’s school overall and with its specific aspects, such as the teachers, academic standards, and discipline. Within the public sector, parents whose children attended a chosen public school were generally more satisfied than those whose children were in an assigned school. Furthermore, among those whose children attended assigned public schools, parents whose choice of residence was school related were more satisfied than those who did not choose their residence for this reason. Parents whose children attended chosen public schools and those whose choice of residence was school related were about equally likely to be very satisfied with their children’s schools.

Percentage of parents of students in grades 3–12 who were very satisfied with aspects
of their child’s school: 1993


School                                            Academic   Discipline 

attended                       School  Teachers  standards     policy


Chosen school                    70.7      67.6       72.1       72.6

 Public                          61.2      61.5       63.0       63.0

 Private                         82.5      75.2       83.4       84.4

Assigned public school           52.3      56.0       55.0       55.1

  Influenced choice              

   of residence                  56.0      58.9       59.3       58.2

 Other                           48.7      53.1       51.0       52.2


SOURCE: NCES, National Household Education Survey (NHES), 1993 (School

Safety and Discipline File).  


Many of the ways in which public and private schools differ reflect differences in their student populations. Students bring with them to school certain background characteristics such as their racial/ethnic and linguistic backgrounds and, sometimes, personal or family problems that affect their ability to learn. Teachers and administrators take these characteristics into account as they organize and manage their schools and plan and implement curriculum and support services. Thus, to the extent that public and private school students differ, one can expect public and private schools to differ as well. Other student characteristics, such as attitudes toward learning and behavior toward teachers, are also taken into account; however, because these are determined by the school environment as well as students’ backgrounds, they are discussed below in the section on school climate.

bullet Public schools tend to have more racially and ethnically diverse student populations.

Racial and ethnic diversity can enrich the school experiences of students and teachers in many ways. However, a heterogeneous school population creates additional challenges for school teachers and administrators, who must be sensitive to different cultural backgrounds and the interactions among individuals (students and teachers) from different backgrounds. In 1993, 28 percent of public school students in grades 1–12 were black or Hispanic, compared to 17 percent of those in private schools. Private schools are changing, however, as evidenced by the increase in the percentage of black and Hispanic students between 1985 and 1993.

Percentage of students in grades 1–12 who were black or Hispanic:
1985, 1990, and 1993




              Central     Other      Nonmetro- 

Year   Total   cities  metropolitan   politan   Private


1985    26.8     56.7     18.1         16.8       11.5

1990    27.8     52.1     19.5         16.4       14.3

1993    28.4     53.8     20.2         16.0       16.7


SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the 

Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-20, 

"School Enrollment: Social and Economic Characteristics 

of Students," October 1985, 1990, and 1993; October 

Current Population Surveys.

bullet Public schools have more students with limited English proficiency.

Students with limited English proficiency create demands on school resources and needs for teacher training that are absent in schools without such students. In 1993–94, 5 percent of all public school students (and 9 percent in central cities) had limited English proficiency, compared to 1 percent of private school students.\6\

bullet Personal problems that interfere with learning are more of a problem in public schools.

When students bring to school personal problems such as those associated with alcohol use, drug abuse, and poverty, both teaching and learning can be seriously compromised. In all types of communities, public school teachers were much more likely than private school teachers to believe that each of these problems was serious in their schools.

Percentage of secondary school teachers who reported that various problems
were serious in their schools: 1993–94


                         Public                 Private

                ----------------------   ----------------------

Student         Central   Urban          Central   Urban 

problems         city    fringe  Rural    city    fringe  Rural


Use of alcohol   19.6     21.7    26.3    12.4      9.4    10.5

Drug abuse       17.1     14.8    12.1     5.1      2.8     3.7

Poverty          24.8      9.6    15.3     3.6      2.5     3.7


SOURCE: NCES, Schools and Staffing in the United States: A

Statistical Profile, 1993–94, 112–113.


Because of the central role teachers play in the educational process, differences between public and private school teachers are an important dimension in which to compare public and private schools. In the aggregate, public and private school teachers come from different racial/ethnic backgrounds, have different qualifications to teach, and are compensated differently.

bullet Private schools have fewer minority teachers and principals.

In public schools, an average of 12 percent of the teachers and 16 percent of the principals were minorities. The percentages were lower in private schools (9 percent minority teachers and 8 percent minority principals). The benefits of having minority teachers as role models have been widely discussed.\7\  Nevertheless, 42 percent of public schools and 66 percent of private schools had no minority teachers in 1993–94.\8\

bullet On certain measures, public school teachers appear to be more qualified than their private school counterparts.

Although many aspects of teacher qualifications are difficult to measure, public school teachers appear to be more qualified than private school teachers in terms of their education and years of teaching experience. In the 1993–94 school year, public school teachers were more likely than private school teachers to have earned a master’s degree (42 versus 30 percent).


In addition, at the secondary level, students in public schools were more likely than those in private schools to be taught English, mathematics, or a foreign language by teachers who majored or minored in the subject as undergraduates. Public school teachers in 1993–94 had more teaching experience, on average, than private school teachers (15 versus 12 years).\9\

Public school teachers were also more likely to participate in professional development activities, which many believe


teachers should do throughout their careers to update and improve their teaching skills. Beginning teachers in public schools (those in their first 3 years of teaching) were much more likely than their private school counterparts to participate in a formal teacher induction program (56 versus 29 percent). \10\  However, induction may be done informally in some schools. Full-time public school teachers were more likely than their private school counterparts to participate in in-service education or professional development on the uses of educational technology for instruction, methods of teaching in a specific subject field, in-depth study in a specific field, student assessment, and cooperative learning in the classroom.

Percentage of full-time public and private school teachers who participated in
certain professional development activities during the 1993–94 school year


Professional development topic                   Public   Private


Uses of educational technology for instruction    50.1      34.3

Methods of teaching in specific subject field     64.4      59.8

In-depth study in specific field                  30.1      25.9

Student assessment                                52.0      40.4

Cooperative learning in the classroom             51.5      43.6


SOURCE: NCES, Schools and Staffing Survey, 1993–94 (Teacher 
bullet On average, public school teachers receive higher salaries and more benefits.

In 1993–94, the average base salary was $34,200 for public school teachers, and $22,000 for private school teachers. Among public districts and private schools with salary schedules, the averages for the highest steps on the schedules were $40,500 and $27,300, respectively.\11\  The difference between principals’ salaries was also large, with public school principals earning an average of $54,900 compared to an average of $32,000 for private school principals. Public school teachers were more likely than private school teachers to be provided with medical insurance (87 versus 60 percent), dental insurance (66 versus 36 percent), group life insurance (61 versus 36 percent), and pension contributions (63 versus 47 percent). One substantial benefit that private school teachers sometimes received (15 percent) was tuition for their children.\12\

bullet Teacher attrition is higher in private schools, but private school teachers are more satisfied with their working conditions.

Teacher attrition tends to be higher in private than public schools: Between the 1993–94 and 1994–95 school years, 10 percent of full-time private school teachers left teaching, compared to 6 percent of their public school counterparts.\13\  Nevertheless, private school teachers were more likely than public school teachers to be highly satisfied with their working conditions (36 versus 11 percent).\14\


Many school reform efforts have focused on the organization and management of schools in the search for ways to increase school effectiveness. Public and private schools, in the aggregate, are organized differently in terms of school and class size and the locus of responsibility for decision making in a number of important policy areas.


The relative merits of various school sizes have been studied extensively as researchers have searched for the ideal school size.\15\  Smaller schools are generally thought to be easier to manage and to promote a greater sense of community among both students and teachers; however, larger schools (within limits) are often more equipped to offer a wider range of academic programs and support services. The advantages of larger schools are more relevant to secondary than elementary schools.

bullet Public schools tend to have larger enrollments.

In the 1993–94 school year, public schools were at least twice the size of private schools, on average. This relationship held across schools in different types of communities at both the elementary and secondary levels.

Average school size: 1993–94


Level and urbanicity         Public   Private


 Total                        516      191


  Central city                 547      210

  Urban fringe/large town      524      201

  Rural/small town             378      112


  Central city               1,083      398

  Urban fringe/large town      973      308

  Rural/small town             468      183


SOURCE: NCES, Schools and Staffing in the

United States: A Statistical Profile, 

1993–94, 23.  


Small classes allow teachers to give students more individual attention and lighten the teacher’s workload and therefore are generally considered desirable,\16\ although research on the relationship between outcomes and class size has not been conclusive. Despite the advantages they may have, small class sizes are also expensive, and invoke trade-offs between small class size and other uses of school resources.

bullet Average class size is larger in public schools.

At both the elementary and secondary levels, private schools, on average, have smaller classes. In the 1993–94 school year, the average class size was 24 in both elementary and secondary public schools, compared to 22 in private elementary schools and 19 in private secondary schools.\17\


Akey aspect of school management is where important decisions are made concerning curriculum, school policies, and classroom practices. While public schools necessarily must take some direction from State Departments of Education, local school boards, and district staff, more site-based management and local decision making are frequently advocated as a means of improving school effectiveness.\18\

bullet Private school principals (or heads) report having more influence over curriculum than their public school counterparts.


When principals were asked to rate the influence of various groups on establishing curriculum in 1993–94, private school principals were more likely to report that they, rather than any other group, had a great deal of influence. Public school principals, on the other hand, attributed more influence to the State Department of Education, school district staff (which private schools do not have), and even to teachers than to themselves.

bullet In a number of school policy areas, private school teachers and principals are more likely than their public school counterparts to believe that they have a great deal of influence.

In the areas of setting discipline policy and establishing curriculum, in particular, private school teachers in the 1993–94 school year were considerably more likely than public school teachers to think that they had a great deal of influence. Only a relatively small percentage of teachers in either sector were likely to think that they had a great deal of influence over certain other important policy areas, such as making budget decisions, hiring, and evaluating teachers.

Percentage of teachers and principals who thought that they had a great deal of
influence* over certain school policies: 1993–94


                                  Teachers          Principals

                              ----------------   ----------------

Policy area                   Public   Private   Public   Private


Setting discipline policy      34.9      59.2     86.9      95.0

Establishing curriculum        34.3      55.7     53.9      84.1

In-service training content    30.6      35.3     72.4      88.4

School budget decisions        10.1       6.2     63.5      84.3

Hiring full-time teachers       8.1       8.4     84.6      90.9

Teacher evaluation              2.7       8.5     94.5      94.6


*Responded 4 or 5 on a scale of 0–5.

SOURCE: NCES, Schools and Staffing in the United States: A

Statistical Profile, 1993–94, 118–119, 120–121.

In the area of teacher evaluation, almost all principals, public or private, thought that they had a great deal of influence. However, in a number of other policy areas—discipline, curriculum, in-service training, budgeting, and hiring—private school principals were more likely than public school principals to think that they had a great deal of influence. Public school principals share authority for many policy decisions with school boards, district personnel, and State Departments of Education.

bullet Private school teachers reported having more autonomy in the classroom.

In both public and private schools, the vast majority of teachers thought that they had a good deal of control over certain classroom practices: evaluating and grading students, determining the amount of homework, and selecting teaching techniques. Relatively fewer in each sector thought that they had a good deal of control over disciplining students; selecting the content, topics, and skills to be taught; or selecting textbooks and other instructional materials. Except in the area of determining the amount of homework, private school teachers were more likely than public school teachers to think that they had a good deal of control.

Percentage of teachers who thought that they had a good deal of control* over
classroom practices: 1993–94


Classroom practice                                 Public    Private


Evaluating and grading students                     86.9       91.6

Determining amount of homework                      86.7       87.4

Selecting teaching techniques                       86.4       91.6

Disciplining students                               69.0       84.3

Selecting content, topics, skills to be taught      60.5       74.6

Selecting textbooks and other materials             55.5       67.9


*Responded 4 or 5 on a scale of 0–5.

SOURCE: NCES, Schools and Staffing Survey, 1993–94 (Teacher and

Administrator Questionnaires).


School climate can significantly affect the quality of the educational experience for students, teachers, and other staff as well as parents’ satisfaction with their child’s school. Neither teachers nor students can perform at their best if their school is unsafe or disrupted by misbehaving students or if there is a lack of cooperation among teachers or between the school and parents. The National Education Goals for the year 2000 call for schools that "will be free of drugs, violence, and the unauthorized presence of firearms and alcohol and will offer a disciplined environment conducive to learning. "The Goals also call for increased "parental involvement and participation in promoting the social, emotional, and academic growth of children."\19\

bullet Exposure to crime or threats is far more common in public schools.

To learn effectively, students must feel safe at school. The learning environment in schools where students have to worry about being threatened or becoming victims of crime may be seriously compromised. Crime occurs in and around both public and private

Percentage of students in grades 6–12 who reported knowing
about, witnessing, worrying about, or being victimized by robbery,
bullying, or physical attack at school: 1993



Robbery, bullying,         -----------------

or physical attack         Assigned   Chosen   Private


Knowledge of occurrence       73        71        45

Witnessed                     58        54        32

Worried about                 26        27        13

Victimized                    12        10         7


SOURCE: NCES, Student Victimization at School, 
NCES 95-204, 1995.

schools, but public school students have a much greater exposure to crime. The percentages of students in grades 6–12 who knew about, witnessed, or worried about being a victim of bullying, physical attack, or robbery were much greater in both assigned and chosen public schools than in private schools. In addition, students in assigned public schools were more likely than private school students to report being victimized personally.

bullet Public school teachers are far more likely to believe that certain negative student attitudes and behavior are serious problems in their schools.

In the 1993–94 school year, teachers were asked to report their perceptions of the seriousness of various problems in their schools, and their responses suggest that there are different climates in public and private schools. Teachers in public schools were far more likely to report that poor attitudes toward learning

Percentage of teachers who perceived various problems as serious in their
schools: 1993–94


                                   Public             Private

                             -----------------   -----------------

                                  Central city        Central city 

                                    secondary           secondary 

Problems                      All    schools      All    schools


Attitudes toward learning

 Come unprepared

  to learn                   28.8      46.6       4.1       7.3

 Apathy                      23.6      46.4       4.5      10.7

 Absenteeism                 14.4      41.9       2.2       4.4

 Tardiness                   10.5      30.1       2.6       3.7

Interactions with teachers

 Verbal abuse of teachers    11.1      22.6       2.3       2.9

 Disrespect for teachers     18.5      32.5       3.4       5.4


SOURCE: NCES, Schools and Staffing in the United States: A

Statistical Profile, 1993–94, 112–113.

and negative interactions with teachers were serious problems in their schools. The contrast between the perceptions of public and private school teachers was particularly striking in central city secondary schools.

bullet Public school teachers are more likely to believe that a lack of parent involvement is a serious problem in their school.

Communication between parents and school personnel promotes a spirit of home-school cooperation, which is important to student success. Public school teachers were much more likely than private school teachers to believe that a lack of parental involvement was a serious problem in their school (28 versus 4 percent).\20\

The nature of the contact between schools and parents tends to differ in public and private schools. For example, high school seniors in private schools were more likely than their public school peers to have their parents contacted about volunteering

Percentage of seniors whose parents reported that school personnel had
contacted them at least once during the current school year: 1992


Reason for contact             Public   Catholic   Other private


Discussion of student’s:

 Academic performance           52.5      48.5         60.8

 Academic program               42.9      46.1         59.0

 Post-high school plans         34.9      50.0         69.1

 Attendance                     38.7      17.5         25.7

 Behavior                       20.5      14.6         18.5

Request parent to volunteer

 time at school                 51.9      82.9         86.2

Inform parent how to help

 student with school work       21.5      29.3         31.8


SOURCE: NCES, National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988,

Second Follow-up, Parent Survey, 1992.

their time at school or about the student’s post-high school plans, while seniors in public schools were more likely to have their parents contacted about their school attendance.

bullet Private school teachers share a greater sense of community within their schools.

When teachers in a school share a strong sense of community, they are likely to be more effective instructors and more satisfied

Percentages of teachers who strongly agreed with items related to their sense of community
at work: 1993–94


                                        Public               Private

                                  -------------------   -------------------

                                    Less      750 or      Less      750 or

                                  than 150     more     than 150     more

Sense of community                students   students   students   students


Goals, beliefs, and expectations

 Colleagues share beliefs

  and values about central

  mission of school                 40.8       26.2       71.4       49.4

 Goals and priorities for

  school are clear                  36.0       33.1       61.7       56.3

Governance procedures

 Staff members recognized

  for good work                     23.5       22.1       48.1       34.7

 Teachers participate in

  most of the important

  educational decisions             23.7       10.1       38.0       22.6

Collegiality and cooperation

 Great deal of cooperative

  effort among staff                41.5       25.9       65.3       46.4

Administration’s behavior

 is supportive and

 encouraging                        42.0       38.5       65.1       57.0


SOURCE: NCES, Teachers' Sense of Community: How Do Public and Private

Schools Compare?, IB-10-96, 1996.

with their working conditions.\21\ In the 1993–94 school year, private school teachers in both large and small schools were more likely than public school teachers to report that they and their colleagues shared goals, beliefs, and expectations (and that the goals and priorities for the school were clear); that they were recognized for good work; that teachers participated in most of the important decisions in their schools; that the staff cooperated; and that the administration was supportive and encouraging.


A major thrust of school reform efforts begun in the 1980s has been setting higher academic standards for elementary and secondary school students. One of the National Education Goals for the year 2000 is to have all students be able to demonstrate in grades 4, 8, and 12 "competency over challenging subject matter" in a range of subjects, including reading, mathematics, science, and social studies.


Key aspects of the instructional program at the elementary level are the amount of time spent on core subjects, the teaching methods used in the classroom, and how homework is handled. Public and private schools exhibit both similarities and differences in these areas.

bullet Elementary public school teachers spend more time than private school teachers on core subjects.

In the 1993–94 school year, public elementary teachers in self-contained classrooms spent more time than their private school

Average hours per week elementary school
teachers spent teaching core subjects: 1993–94


Subject              Public    Private


Total                21.5       18.1

English               10.3        8.5

Mathematics            5.2        4.5

Social studies         3.1        2.7

Science                3.0        2.4


SOURCE: NCES, Schools and Staffing in

the United States: A Statistical 

Profile,1993–94, 76–77.

counterparts teaching each of the four core subjects—English, mathematics, social studies, and science—and more time on all four together. Public elementary teachers spent an average of about 22 hours per week teaching the four core subjects, and private school teachers spent about 3 hours less. Teachers in both sectors divided their time among these subjects in approximately the same way. That is, they spent about half of the time teaching English, the next most time on mathematics, then social studies, and science.

Elementary school students in public and private schools spent virtually identical amounts of time in school (6.4 hours per day and 179 hours per year), which implies that private school elementary teachers allocate more time than public school teachers to non-core subjects such as music, art, physical education, and, sometimes, religion.\22\

bullet Elementary teachers in public and private schools use similar teaching methods.

When asked if they used certain instructional strategies at least once a week during the 1993–94 school year, 90 percent or more of the elementary teachers in both sectors said that they provided instruction to the class as a whole, demonstrated concepts using the board or an overhead projector, worked with individual students, and worked with small groups of students.\23\  Among less commonly used practices, public school teachers were more likely than private school teachers to demonstrate a concept using a computer, videotape, or other electronic medium (75 versus 57 percent), while private school teachers were more likely than public school teachers to lecture (78 versus 69 percent).

bullet Private elementary teachers handle homework differently than public elementary teachers.

Almost all elementary school teachers (94 percent of public school teachers and 98 percent of private school teachers) reported that their students did some homework during an average week in 1993–94.\24\  Forty-six percent of public school teachers and 40 percent of private school teachers assigned 1 hour or less per week. Although the focus is often on how much homework is assigned, how teachers use homework assignments may be more important than quantity. For example, some argue that homework is most useful to students if teachers collect, correct, and return their assignments. At the elementary level, private school teachers were more likely than their public school counterparts to do this (82 versus 72 percent).


In 1983, the National Commission on Education and the Economy (NCEE) proposed in A Nation at Risk that all high school graduates be required to complete at least 4 years of English; 3 years each of social studies, science, and mathematics; and .5 years of computer science. This has become a standard against which high school programs are evaluated.

bullet Private high schools appear to have more rigorous academic programs.

Except in social studies, greater percentages of private than public high school students attended schools with graduation requirements at or above the NCEE recommendations in 1990–91. In addition, private school students were much more likely than their public school peers to be required to take 2 years of a foreign language.

In both sectors, a greater percentage of high school graduates earned the minimum number of units specified in the "New



Basics" curriculum (4 years of English, and 3 years each of social studies, science, and mathematics) in 1994 than in 1982. Although the percentage meeting this standard is still higher for private school graduates, the two sectors are now similar when a less restrictive curriculum (one less year each of science and mathematics) is used as the standard.

bullet Graduates of private high schools are much more likely to have taken advanced mathemat-ics and science courses.

In both 1982 and 1994, virtually all graduates of either public or private high schools earned some credits in mathematics and science. However, in both years, graduates of private high schools were more likely than their public school counterparts to take advanced mathematics courses such as algebra II, trigonometry, analysis/pre-calculus, and calculus; courses in biology, chemistry, and physics; and courses in all three of the major sciences (biology, chemistry, and physics). The percentages of students taking these courses increased between 1982 and 1994 for public high school graduates in all of these subjects and for private high school graduates in most of them.

Percentage of high school graduates taking selected mathematics and science
courses in high school: 1982 and 1994


                                   1982                 1994

                             -----------------    -----------------

Courses (credits)            Public    Private    Public    Private


Any Mathematics               98.4       99.8      99.5       99.9

Algebra II (0.5)              29.7       52.8      56.4       81.8

Trigonometry (0.5)            11.0       21.4      16.2       29.5

Analysis/pre-calculus (0.5)    5.0       12.8      16.2       29.6

Calculus (1.0)                 3.7       12.0       8.8       14.4

Any Science                   96.2       99.0      99.5      100.0

Biology (1.0)                 74.5       91.9      93.5       97.4

Chemistry (1.0)               28.7       49.2      54.4       74.8

Physics (1.0)                 13.3       22.0      23.7       32.1

Biology, chemistry,

physics (3.0)                  9.7       17.5      20.5       30.1


SOURCE: NCES, The 1994 High School Transcript Study Tabulations:

ComparativeData on Credits Earned and Demographics for 1994, 1990, 

1987, and 1982 High SchoolGraduates, 1996.


In addition to their curricular offerings, schools provide various other services to support the academic and health-related needs of their students. The particular services a school provides reflect the needs of the students and the availability of resources as well as the importance that the school places on such services. Federal and state laws require public schools to provide some services that are not required of private schools.

bullet Public schools provide a wide array of academic support and health-related services.

Most support services are found more often in public than private schools. This may occur because private schools do not believe

Percentage of schools in which various services were available
to students: 1993–94


Service                            Public    Private


Academic support

 Remedial                           83.2       54.5

 Gifted and talented                70.7       24.9

 Bilingual                          17.8        4.2

 ESL                                42.7       11.3

 Chapter I                          61.6       22.7

 Disability                         89.2       24.8

 Diagnostic services                82.6       43.5

 Library                            95.6       80.3


 Medical services                   58.7       31.0

 Drug and alcohol prevention        93.6       70.6

 Substance abuse counseling         36.2       14.4

 Free or reduced-price lunches      94.3       22.4


SOURCE: NCES, Schools and Staffing in the United

States: A Statistical Profile, 1993–94, 26–29.

their students need these services or because they do not believe they can afford to provide them. In addition, private schools may meet the special needs of students without formal programs.

bullet Increasing numbers of schools in both sectors are providing extended-day programs, but public schools still lag behind private schools in this area.

Because of the importance of high-quality child care to working parents, extended-day programs have become increasingly common in elementary and combined schools. However, considerably more private than public elementary and combined schools provided this service in the 1993–94 school year (48 versus 30 percent).


bullet Private schools tend to have larger library collections (on a per pupil basis), but public school library/media centers tend to be more technologically advanced.

Library/media center resources provide students with access to materials and equipment that facilitate and promote learning. Public schools were more likely than private schools to have libraries in 1993–94, but among schools with libraries, private schools had larger collections, on average, on a per student basis (37 versus 26 volumes).\25\  Expenditures (excluding federal gifts and grants) were similar in both sectors in 1993–94, however (about $8 per student annually among schools with libraries).

The library/media centers in public schools were more technologically advanced than those in private schools in 1993–94. For example, they were more likely to have an automated catalog and circulation system; computers with modems and connection to the Internet; and broadcast, cable, and closed circuit television facilities.

Percentage of library media centers with various types of
equipment: 1993–94


Equipment                        Public    Private


Automated circulation system      37.9       9.5

Automated catalog                 24.0       9.7

Computer with modem               34.3      19.5

Connection to Internet            12.0       5.3

Cable television                  76.2      39.9

Broadcast television              48.6      39.9

Closed circuit television         25.5       8.8


SOURCE: NCES, Schools and Staffing Survey, 1993–94

(Library Media Center Questionnaire).


Although there is much variation within each sector, in the aggregate, public school students present their schools with greater challenges than do their private school counterparts. Not only do they come from more diverse racial/ethnic and linguistic backgrounds, but also public school teachers are more likely than private school teachers to perceive their students and their families as having problems that can interfere with learning.

Overall, teachers in public schools are more likely than their private school counterparts to have certain attributes that are thought to contribute to effective teaching. These include more schooling, more teaching experience, and greater participation in professional development activities. However, public and private school teachers use similar teaching strategies. On average, public school teachers earn more and receive more benefits, which provides public schools with one advantage when trying to attract and retain the best teachers.

Despite poorer pay, private school teachers as a group are more satisfied than public school teachers with their jobs. In the aggregate, private schools seem to offer a greater sense of community, greater teacher autonomy in the classroom, and more local influence over curriculum and important school policies. In addition, on average, private schools have a climate that would appear to be more conducive to learning, including greater safety and fewer problems caused by students having poor attitudes toward learning or negative interactions with teachers.

Finally, private school students take more advanced courses than do public high school students. They also appear to follow a more rigorous academic program overall, but the differences may be narrowing.

While some systematic differences between public and private education have been outlined here, enormous variation exists within each sector. How successful students are in school does not depend on whether they attend public or private schools, but is related in complex ways to the abilities, attitudes, and problems they bring to school; the skills and expertise of their teachers; and the quality of the learning environment, which is the joint responsibility of students, teachers, school administrators, parents, the larger communities in which the schools are located, and policymaking at the local, state, and federal levels.


1/  U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, The Condition of Education 1997 (NCES 97-388), Washington, D.C.: 1997, 150, based on NCES, Digest of Education Statistics 1996 (based on Common Core of Data).

2/  A.S. Bryk, V.E. Lee, and P.B. Holland, Catholic Schools and the Common Good, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993.

3/  U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, How Different, How Similar? Comparing Key Organizational Qualities of American Public and Private Secondary Schools, by D. Baker, M. Han, and C.T. Keil (NCES 96-322), Washington, D.C.: 1996, 35.

4/  See, for example, U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Schools and Staffing in the United States: A Statistical Profile, 1993–94, by R.R. Henke, S.P. Choy, and S. Geis (NCES 96-124), Washington, D.C.: 1996; Baker, Han, and Keil, How Different, How Similar?; and U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Schools and Staffing in the United States: Selected Data for Public and Private Schools, 1993–94, by S.A. Bobbitt, S.P. Broughman, and K.J. Gruber (NCES 95-191), Washington, D.C.: 1995.

5/  U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics 1996 (NCES 96-133), Washington, D.C.: 1996, 51.

6/  NCES, Schools and Staffing in the United States, 1993–94, 24–25.

7/  P.A. Graham, "Black Teachers: A Drastically Scarce Resource," Phi Delta Kappan 68 (8) (1987): 598–605; and S.H. King, "The Unlimited Presence of African-American Teachers," Review of Educational Research 63 (2) (1993): 115–149.

8/  NCES, Schools and Staffing in the United States, 1993–94, 52–53.

9/  Ibid., 54–55.

10/  Ibid., 56–57.

11/  Ibid., 90–91, 93.

12/  Ibid., 94–95.

13/  The Condition of Education 1997, 182, based on NCES, Schools and Staffing Survey, 1993–94, and the Teacher Follow-up Survey, 1994–95.

14/  NCES, Schools and Staffing in the United States, 1993–94, 107.

15/  V.E. Lee and J.B. Smith, "High School Size: Which Works Best, and for Whom?," paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York, 1996.

16/  F. Mosteller, R. Light, and J. Sachs, "Sustained Inquiry in Education: Lessons from Skill Grouping and Class Size," Harvard Educational Review 66 (4) (1996): 797–842.

17/  The Condition of Education 1997, 136, based on NCES, Schools and Staffing Survey, 1987–88, 1990–91, and 1993–94.

18/  J.E. Chubb and T.M. Moe, Politics, Markets, and America’s Schools, Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1990.

19/  U.S. Department of Education, National Education Goals Panel, The National Education Goals Report: Building A Nation of Learners 1996, Washington, D.C.: 1996.

20/  NCES, Schools and Staffing in the United States, 1993–94, 112–113.

21/  S.J. Rosenholtz, Teachers’ Workplace: The Organizational Context of Schooling, New York: Teachers College, 1991.

22/  U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, The Condition of Education 1993 (NCES 93-290), Washington, D.C.: 1993, 128, based on NCES, Schools and Staffing Survey, 1990–91.

23/  The Condition of Education 1997, 132, based on NCES, Teacher Follow-up Survey, 1994–95.

24/  Ibid., 130, based on NCES, Teacher Follow-up Survey, 1994–95.

25/  Ibid., 58, based on NCES, Schools and Staffing Survey, 1993–94 (Library Media Center Questionnaire).


For more information, see the following NCES publications:

The Condition of Education 1997. Washington, D.C.: 1997 (NCES 97-388)

The Condition of Education 1996. Washington, D.C.: 1996 (NCES 96-304)

The Condition of Education 1995. Washington, D.C.: 1995 (NCES 95-273)

Digest of Education Statistics 1996. Washington, D.C.: 1996 (NCES 96-133)

Digest of Education Statistics 1995. Washington, D.C.: 1995 (NCES 95-029)

Other Findings from the Condition of Education:

No. 1:  High School Students Ten Years After A Nation At Risk (NCES 95-764)

No. 2:  The Educational Progress of Black Students (NCES 95-765)

No. 3:  America’s Teachers Ten Years After A Nation At Risk (NCES 95-766)

No. 4:  The Educational Progress of Hispanic Students (NCES 95-767)

No. 5:  The Educational Progress of Women (NCES 96-768)

No. 6:  The Cost of Higher Education (NCES 96-769)

No. 7:  Teachers’ Working Conditions (NCES 97-371)

No. 8:  Preparation for Work (NCES 97-373)

No. 9:  Minorities in Higher Education (NCES 97-372)

No. 10:  The Social Context of Education (NCES 97-981)

No. 11:  Women in Mathematics and Science (NCES 97-982)

Until supplies are exhausted, a single copy of The Condition of Education 1997 (NCES 97-388), as well as other NCES publications, may be obtained at no cost from either the National Library of Education (NLE), phone (800) 424-1616 or e-mail: [email protected], or the National Education Data Resource Center (NEDRC), phone (703) 845-3151 or e-mail: [email protected] If you need more than one copy of a publication or supplies have been exhausted, copies may be purchased from the Government Printing Office (GPO). To order a copy from GPO see the order form at the end of this document.


NCES constituents with access to the Internet can tap a rich collection of education-related information at the U.S. Department of Education’s (ED) public Gopher/FTP/World Wide Web site, including:

bullet announcements of new publications and data sets
bullet descriptions of NCES and ED programs
bullet statistical tables, charts, and data sets
bullet press releases
bullet general information about the Department
bullet searchable ED staff directory
bullet funding opportunities
bullet event calendars
bullet directories of effective programs
bullet directory of education-related information centers
bullet research findings and synthesis
bullet full-text publications for teachers, parents, and researchers
bullet pointers to public Internet resources at R&D Centers, Regional Laboratories, ERIC Clearinghouses, and other ED-funded insti-tutions.

They can access the information by using:

A Gopher client,; or select North America-->U.S. Department of Education. From the main gopher menu, NCES pro-duced information is available under Educational Research, Improvement and Statistics (OERI & NCES)/National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)/.

An FTP client, ftp to; log on as "anonymous."

A World Wide Web client such as NCSA Mosaic or Lynx;

Dial-in users can access much of the same information through the OERI Toll-Free Electronic Bulletin Board, which provides on-line access to statistical data, research findings, information about Department of Education programs, and, in some cases, full texts of departmental documents. Computer users can retrieve this informa-tion at any hour using a modem (at speeds up to 14,400 baud) and calling (800) 222-4922. Local direct, call (202) 219-1511.