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See replies below in blue:

 

-----Original Message-----
From: Flack Flack [mailto:[email protected]]
Sent: Monday, May 11, 2009 9:37 PM
To: [email protected]
Subject: RE: the facts

 

 

Again, I see no facts.

In regards to the education debate.

Here was my reply:

"���� South Korea has an awesome "high school" graduation rate of 97% but you fail to mention that ONLY 60% of South Korean children go to high school.You also fail to mention that high school isn't mandated by the state, like it is here in the States.The fact that only 60% of children in South Korea go to High School would be like the United States having a drop out rate of 40% for kids age 13 and older.�� In 2003 The United States had a high school graduation rate of 85%.

 

 

My direct observation from having BEEN *taught* in Korean schools, and having TAUGHT in Korean schools, is that your statement would only be partially correct if you�d said that most Korean students never entered a PUBLIC school.The fact is that education is taken much more seriously in Korea than it is amongst you niggers, so the state doesn�t HAVE to step in to force parents to educate their children. What PISA showed is that the HIGHEST SCORING students NEVER went to a public school in Korea, AND constitute more than 52% of all Korean high school students:

 

http://pisa2000.acer.edu.au/interactive_results.php

 

As for your LIE about Germany... it's just that, a lie.Susan Von Below's report - Bildungssysteme und soziale Ungleichheit: Das Beispiel der neuen Bundesl�nder shows that only 14.5% of German Students are A levels.With that seeing how Calculus isn't even a requirement for all A levels students, your LIE about 65% of German students finishing calc is just that... another lie.

 

You�re mixing metaphors.Hedrick Smith in "Rethinking America", July 15, 1995, points out that 6% of U.S. and 40% of German and 94% of Japanese students study calculus in high school.But that is a LOW figure for Germany, as calculus is PART of the German high school curriculum, which is WHY I FINISHED calculus in high school BEFORE coming back to the US where calculus wasn�t even offered [in a WHITE school in the Washington, DC, area].

As far as the students in the United States are concerned, here are some interesting statistics and insight from the Mathematics Association of America:

The same pressures that are pushing Calculus I into the high school curriculum are doing the same for Calculus II. Traditionally, it was a very elite group of students who took BC Calculus, covering the entire two-semester college syllabus. That group of students also grew by 6�8% per year until the mid-1990s. Over the period 1995�98, the rate of growth of BC calculus accelerated to 10�11% per year, a rate that has held up since then. In 2004, the number of students taking the BC Calculus exam exceeded 50,000. It will likely exceed 60,000 by 2005�06, the year of the next CBMS survey.

In 2002, 23% of the students who took BC Calculus did so before their senior year [7]. These high school students are not necessarily well served by taking classes in linear algebra, several variable calculus, or differential equations at a local college. Picking up additional college credits is far less useful for them than deepening and broadening the mathematics they already think they know. These students need to be challenged, but they also need to be prepared for and enticed into a deep study of further mathematics in the company of their peers.

John Knight, you sir are a lair and a horrible one at that."

 

 

What they call �BC Calculus� is PRECISELY the calculus taken by THE MAJORITY of high school students all the way from Germany to Japan to Korea to China.

 

According to the NCES, between 1982 and 1994, the percent of Americans in public schools taking calculus increased from 3.7 to 8.8% [compared to 12% to 14.4% for private high school students]:

 

http://fathersmanifesto.net/catholic.htm

 

If YOUR unidentified source is correct, and if ONLY 60,000 American high school students took calculus in 2006-06, then LESS than one half of one percent [0.42% to be precise] of America�s 14,405,001 high school students now take calculus, FAR less than the 6% I quoted from Hedrick Smith�s article.

In regards to my poor spelling and education:

eh, the misspelling of pagan I'm going to assume it was a brain fart on my part.I will state though that you show a lack of deductive reasoning skills on your part.I still didn't see you refute my claim that Christianity is founded on Sun worship, a pagan practice.I have a private school education funded by my parents, no tax payer dollars here.

 

 

Congratulations.You might be the most literate nigger around.Which is proof positive that niggers are uneducable.

 

In regards to you living with a pedophile that rapes kids under the age of 14:

The guys name is Robert Emmett Henry, Your DNS results for the Christianparty.net site showed that you had a matching address on the California sex offender list at one point.It's probably your father and it looks like he's in some type of rest home now.1428 S MARENGO AVE # 64

ALHAMBRA, CA 91803, it looks like some rest home to me on Google's street view. Did your dad rape your little sister or something and that's why you have so much anger and hatred in you towards women?I wonder when Robert Emmett Henry dies, is he's going to your fictional heaven or if your fictional God is going to send him to your fictional hell. You know.... for raping little kids. I think he's going to Fictional hell.He's pretty old too so he'll probably die soon, the World will be a better place without his kind here.

 

 

Your �research� and �reasoning� here is even more faulty, even more IDIOTIC, than your claim that you �refuted� my statement that only 6% of American high school students take calculus [read: proved that I�m a �liar�], by citing a source which claims that less than 0.5% do!I trust NONE of your cites, but must admit that the figure of 0.5% is much closer to the reality of our current state of �education� than Hedrick Smith�s figure of 6% and the NCES 1994 figure of 8.8%.

 

Your inability to grasp that simple concept is noted, and made a part of the public record for all to see and witness:

 

http://fathersmanifesto.net/calculus.htm

 

John Knight

 

________________________________

> From: [email protected]

> To: [email protected]

> Subject: RE: the facts

> Date: Mon, 11 May 2009 09:56:14 -0700

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> <<< Ok then,

> what "Facts" do you have that "your" God exist? I'll

> even help you out... you have NONE!>>>

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Again,

> it�s NONE of your business. The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob does NOT

> concern you, as you are a mamzer who we are to PROHIBIT from His congregation,

> not to mention a heathen:

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> A mamzer [mongrel] shall not enter into the congregation of the

> LORD; even to his tenth generation shall he not enter into the congregation of

> the LORD, Deuteronomy 23:2

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> �Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for

> what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness?" 2 Corinthians

> 6:14

> 

> 

> 

> "Now we command you, brethren, on the name of our Lord

> Jesus Christ, that ye withdraw yourselves from every brother that walketh

> disorderly, and not after the tradition which he received of us", 2

> Thessalonians 3:6

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Very,

> very clear, right?

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> <<> when I called you out and handed you your ass on the education debate, that you

> ignored when I confronted you with facts and corrected your lies. I'm handing

> you your ass on this one as well.>>>

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> You

> need to post it again, because I�ve never even heard of such a thing.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> <<> many logical fallacies about it that only idiots can concive it to

> be truth. The iorny of a "Christian" calling someone

> a pegan is laughable. Christianity was created on Sun worship, a pegan

> practice.>>>

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Listening

> to a pagan like you, who benefitted from WHITE TAXPAYERS like me funding your �education�,

> and STILL not even being able to SPELL, or form a complete sentence, much less

> critique Scripture, is about like going to my latrino mechanic for a heart

> operation [which he may be able to do better than the jew �doctors� around

> these days, but still you get the point]?

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> <<> Emmery Smith or whatever?>>>

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> I�ve never even heard of such a person. And why on EARTH would

> I live with a �sex offender�? And where on EARTH do you niggers get the idea

> that you prove how �smart� you are by making LIES up out of whole cloth,

> calling it a �truth�, then whining when we bust your sorry .ss?

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> John Knight

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: Flack Flack

> [mailto:[email protected]]

> 

> Sent: Monday, May 11, 2009 7:52 AM

> 

> To: [email protected]

> 

> Subject: RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Ok

> then, what "Facts" do you have that "your" God

> exist? I'll even help you out... you have NONE! Just like you didn't

> answer me when I called you out and handed you your ass on the education debate,

> that you ignored when I confronted you with facts and corrected your lies. I'm

> handing you your ass on this one as well. Your book of fairy tails has so

> many logical fallacies about it that only idiots can concive it to

> be truth. The iorny of a "Christian" calling someone

> a pegan is laughable. Christianity was created on Sun worship, a pegan

> practice.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> By the way are you still living with that sex offender Robert Emmery Smith or

> whatever?

> 

> 

> 

> 

> ________________________________

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: [email protected]

> 

> To: [email protected]

> 

> Subject: RE: the facts

> 

> Date: Sun, 10 May 2009 17:31:09 -0700

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> <<< Where are the

> "Facts" that there is a God. There aren't any!>>>

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Of course not. You niggers have no god. You are

> godless pagans and always will be no matter how much Christians try to explain

> it to you.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob is the God of ONLY the

> House of ISRAEL and House of Judah [who are NOT jews, as jews CLAIM to be

> godless Edomites].

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> He is also NOT the God of many pure Israelite descendants of

> Jacob which people like Catholics MIGHT be, because HE rejected them millennia

> ago.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> You�re absolutely right. You have no god. Just like

> all the cities and buildings and roads and bridges you see around you, it was

> us honkies who built the stars and the planets and Earth and the continents,

> and we just blamed it on Him.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> http://fathersmanifesto.net/pagans.htm

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> John Knight

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: Flack Flack

> [mailto:[email protected]]

> 

> Sent: Sunday, May 10, 2009 3:39 PM

> 

> To: [email protected]

> 

> Subject: RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> ________________________________

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Where are the "Facts" that there is a God. There aren't any!

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: [email protected]

> 

> To: [email protected]

> 

> Subject: RE: the facts

> 

> Date: Sun, 10 May 2009 10:06:12 -0700

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> <<< Exactly. Have

> you noticed how Teri completely IGNORES the fact that he and his idol knight

> have repeatedly demanded that women be STONED to DEATH????>>>

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To simply QUOTE the Word of God is not to DEMAND something, you

> pagan *idiot*.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> It�s YOU, not US, who reject the Word of God, and we�ve gained

> NOTHING and lost MUCH by even entertaining your pagan misery, particularly when

> it comes to embracing niggers!!:

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> http://fathersmanifesto.net/executions.htm

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> John Knight

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From:

> [email protected] [mailto:[email protected]] On

> Behalf Of JPB

> 

> Sent: Monday, May 04, 2009 12:14 AM

> 

> To: [email protected]

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Exactly. Have you noticed how

> Teri completely IGNORES the fact that he and his idol knight have repeatedly

> demanded that women be STONED to DEATH????

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> [http://gfx1.hotmail.com/mail/w3/ltr/i_safe.gif]

> 

> 

> 

> 

> -------Original Message-------

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: Viva Veridad

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Date: 4/30/2009 6:30:16 AM

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To: [email protected]

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Yes,

> Terry will say that the 13-year old, who knew the penalty for adultery, was

> "asking for it."

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Terry

> is a dangerously stupid man to be let loose on society.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> He

> was in the forces, Joseph, in other people's countries. God only knows

> what terror he inflicted on those he looks down on and denigrates. He

> is the type of soldier that brings shame to their own nation.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> ________________________________

> 

> 

> 

> From: isaiah14

> 

> 

> To: [email protected]

> 

> Sent: Thursday, April 30, 2009 8:30:00 AM

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> You are so stupid. This was in a black nation where

> witchcraft abounds. This is what roman catholics do stupid.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> -------Original Message----- --

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: JPB

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Date: 4/30/2009 1:13:41 AM

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To: [email protected] yahoogroups. com

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> And

> here is exactly where their type of insanity ultimately leads - did you

> read this story? Teri will undoubtedly say this girl was 'begging'

> for it, right, Teri?

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> NOVEMBER

> 1, 2008 4:30PM

> 

> 

> 13 Year Old Girl

> Confirmed Dead

> 

> 

> 

> [Tip!]

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Kicking

> and screaming in terror, the girl was carried into the stadium. 1,000

> onlookers watched as her hands and legs were forcefully bound.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> When

> anguished family members broke from the crowd and ran towards her, the

> militia opened fire. A small boy was killed.

> 

> 13 year old Aisha

> Ibrahim Duhulow was buried up to her neck and a cape was placed over her

> head, leaving only her face exposed. 50 men hurled stones at her face from

> the truckload unloaded earlier that day.

> 

> Her crime was being raped

> by 3 men. When she reported the rape to the militia who control

> Kismayo, Somalia, she was charged with fornication (adultery) and sentenced

> to death by stoning. At 13.

> 

> Her father told Amnesty

> International the act of reporting the crime resulted in her accusation.

> 

> �She officially confirmed her

> guilt� Sheikh Hayakalah, the Sharia court judge, said in

> remarks broadcast on Radio Shabelle.

> 

> According to onlookers, 3

> times nurses were instructed to check whether she was still alive. They

> pulled the teen from the ground, declared she was still alive and put her

> back in the hole for the stoning to continue.

> 

> David Copeman of Amnesty

> International said �This

> was not justice, nor was it an execution. This child suffered a horrendous

> death...�

> 

> None of men who raped her were

> arrested.

> 

> 

> [http://gfx1.hotmail.com/mail/w3/ltr/i_safe.gif]

> 

> 

> Reference

> Links:

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> -------Original Message----- --

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: Viva Veridad

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Date: 4/29/2009 7:13:47 PM

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To: [email protected] yahoogroups. com

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> That's

> right, JohnKnight's favourite pastime - stoning people - aided and abetted

> by peon Terry.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> ________________________________

> 

> 

> 

> From: JPB

> 

> 

> To: [email protected] yahoogroups. com

> 

> Sent: Wednesday, April 29, 2009 9:20:53 PM

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> He

> sure would - I can see terry and knight right now, too -

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> [http://gfx1.hotmail.com/mail/w3/ltr/i_safe.gif]

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> -------Original Message----- --

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: Viva Veridad

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Date: 4/29/2009 5:26:57 PM

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To: [email protected] yahoogroups. com

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> And

> he would enjoy butchering Catholics again!

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> ________________________________

> 

> 

> 

> From: JPB

> 

> 

> To: [email protected] yahoogroups. com

> 

> Sent: Wednesday, April 29, 2009 8:05:49 PM

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Read

> how your pagan ancestors butchered Catholics in the apostolic age-

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Blandina and Perpetua

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> "Suffer

> me to become food for the wild beasts, through whose instrumentality it

> will be granted me to attain to God. I am the wheat of God, and let me

> be ground by the teeth of the wild beasts, that I may be found the pure

> bread of Christ."

> 

> 

> Ignatius, Epistle to the

> Romans (IV.1)

> 

> 

> 

> The

> martyrdom of Blandina is presented in the Historia Ecclesiastica

> of Eusebius (V.1), who quotes from a letter written by the Christian

> communities in Lyon and Vienne, recounting the persecutions that had

> occurred there in the summer of AD 177. There was a xenophobic

> prejudice against the Christians of these Gallic towns, many of whom

> were immigrants from Asia Minor. Prohibited from appearing in public

> places and increasingly subject to abuse and imprisonment, the

> Christians of Lyon eventually were arrested.

> 

> Interrogated in the

> forum by the provincial governor, those who professed to being

> Christians and did not save themselves by renouncing their faith were

> horribly tortured and condemned to the beasts of the amphitheater,

> "being made all day long a spectacle to the world in place of the

> gladiatorial contest in its many forms" (V.1.40). Blandina, a

> slave girl, was the last to die. Hung from a post, she was exposed to

> wild animals, but they would not attack. Repeatedly tortured ("the

> heathen themselves admitted that never yet had they known a woman

> suffer so much or so long," V.1.56), she eventually was ensnared

> in a net and trampled beneath the feet of a bull. Her body, and those

> of others who had been martyred, was left unburied, guarded by

> soldiers. After six days, the remains were burnt and the ashes cast

> into the Rh�ne.

> 

> The archetype of all

> later acts of Christian martyrs is that Perpetua, a well-born women of

> Carthage, whose passion (passio) is told by Tertullian. Arrested

> and put in prison, where she was baptized and gave birth, she kept a

> diary. "A few days later we were lodged in the prison; and I was

> terrified, as I had never been in such a dark hole. What a difficult

> time it was! With the crowd the heat was stifling; then there was the

> extortion of the soldiers; and to crown all, I was tortured with worry

> for my baby there" (I.2). The night before she was to die in the

> arena, she dreamed that she fought a diabolic Egyptian and defeated him

> before Christ, her heavenly trainer (lanista), walking

> victorious through the Porta Sanavivaria (Gate of Life). Martyrs often

> were idealized as combatants, the spectacle of the arena transposed to

> the struggle with Satan, imagery which Eusebius, himself, uses in

> speaking of Blandina: "A small, weak, despised woman, who had put

> on Christ, the great invincible champion, and in bout after bout had

> defeated her adversary and through conflict had won the crown of

> immortality. "

> 

> Perpetua awoke, knowing

> that she would triumph the next day. "So much for what I did up

> until the eve of the contest," she writes. "About what

> happened at the contest itself, let him write of it who will"

> (III.2). Indeed, the events of that day were witnessed and recorded. As

> an additional humiliation, Perpetua and her maid-servant Felicitas were

> to be dressed as the priestesses of Ceres, which they refused to do.

> Like Blandina, they then were placed in nets to be trampled to death.

> In her passion, Perpetua did not even realize her ordeal until she saw

> that her tunic had been torn and the marks on her body. Later, in the

> center of the arena, she waited with the others for the thrust of the

> sword and "took the trembling hand of the young gladiator and guided

> it to her throat" (VI.4).

> 

> Perpetua died in March

> AD 203 as part of the birthday celebration of Geta, the younger son of

> Septimius Severus. She was twenty-two years old, the same age as Geta

> when he was murdered by his brother.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> ________________________________

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> "Your blood is the key

> to Paradise."

> 

> 

> 

> Tertullian, De Anima

> (LV.4-5)

> 

> 

> When

> another martyr, Attalus, was paraded in the arena of Lyon, preceded by

> a placard declaring him to be a Christian, it was discovered that he

> was a Roman citizen. Instructions were asked of the emperor Marcus

> Aurelius, which, in due course, arrived. They essentially were the same

> as those of Trajan to Pliny the Younger, when he was governor of

> Bithynia in AD 112 (Letters, X.96-97), complaining about the

> perverse obstinacy of the Christians: those who persisted in professing

> their faith were to be punished and those who recanted and worshiped the

> gods, pardoned. Trajan's other admonition, that Christians were not be

> sought out, seems to have been ignored (cf. Tertullian, Apology,

> II, " forbidden to be sought, he was found"). Accordingly,

> those Christians who were Roman citizens were beheaded and the rest

> condemned ad bestias, including Attalus.

> 

> One is struck by the

> hatred of the people, who furiously had demanded Attalus by name.

> Certainly, the contumacious refusal to recant, even under torture,

> infuriated the populace, as well as the magistrates, who, says Origen,

> "are greatly distressed at seeing those who bear outrage and

> torture with patience, but are greatly elated when a Christian gives

> way under it" (Contra Celsus, VIII.44). To appreciate why,

> one must remember the stern admonition of Jesus that "whosoever

> shall deny me before men, him will I also deny before my Father which

> is in heaven" (Matthew, X.33). Marcus Aurelius, whose Meditations

> were written about this time, also was perturbed by such unreasonable

> stubbornness and regarded a readiness to die to come from judgment,

> "not out of sheer opposition like the Christians, but after

> reflection and with dignity, and so as to convince others, without

> histrionic display" (XI.3), a remark that may have been prompted

> by the events in Lyon.

> 

> To honor the pagan gods

> was to expect their protection and avert the misfortunes, whether

> famine, disease, or drought, that might result from their neglect. It

> therefore seemed inexplicable to the inhabitants of Lyon that martyrs

> would die for their faith, especially since only a worshipful gesture

> of honor and conformity to tradition was all that was required of them.

> "'Where is their god? and what did they get for their religion,

> which they preferred to their own lives?'" (V.1.60). Nor was

> death, itself, sufficient. The bodies of the Christians were denied

> burial, so "'that they may have no hope of resurrection- -the

> belief that has led them to bring into this country a new foreign cult

> and treat torture with contempt, going willingly and cheerfully to

> their death. Now let's see if they'll rise again, and if their god can

> help them and save them from our hands'" (V.1.63). Indeed, the

> very purpose of being sent into the arena to be devoured by beasts or

> to be burned alive or even to be left on a cross for scavengers was to

> ensure the complete annihilation of the victim.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> ________________________________

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The

> picture is The Christian Martyrs' Last Prayer (1883) by

> Jean-L�on G�r�me, the figures smeared in pitch and being set afire

> calling to mind the cruelty of Nero, who set Christians alight in his

> gardens to serve as human torches. The wrapping, itself, was known as tunica

> molesta (Juvenal, VIII.235; Martial, X.25.5; Seneca, Epistles,

> XIV.5).

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> ________________________________

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> References: Eusebius: The History of

> the Church (1965) translated by G. A. Williamson; The Acts of

> the Christian Martyrs (1972) by Herbert Musurillo; Pagans and

> Christians (1986) by Robin Lane Fox; Martyrdom and Persecution

> in the Early Church (1967) by W. H. C. Frend; Pliny: Pliny the

> Younger: Letters and Panegyricus (1969) translated by Betty Radice

> (Loeb Classical Library); The Ante-Nicene Fathers: Translations of

> the Writings of the Fathers Down to A.D. 325 (1885-1896) translated

> and edited by the Rev. Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson; The

> Meditations of the Emperor Marcus Antoninus (1944) translated

> by A. S. L. Farquharson; A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene

> Fathers of the Christian Church, Series II (1890-1896) edited by by

> Philip Schaff and Henry Wace; The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian

> Church (1997) edited by E. A. Livingstone.

> 

> 

> 

> Return

> to Top of Page

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> -------Original Message----- --

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: isaiah14

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Date: 4/29/2009 4:45:11 PM

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To: [email protected] yahoogroups. com

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Jesus Christ, and You can't do that by being a roman

> catholic.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> -------Original Message----- --

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: JPB

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Date: 4/29/2009 6:38:29 PM

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To: [email protected] yahoogroups. com

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Besides

> the pagan antichrist Talmudist John Knight, whom do you worship, Teri?

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> -------Original Message----- --

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: Viva Veridad

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Date: 4/29/2009 3:35:33 PM

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To: [email protected] yahoogroups. com

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Just

> your opinion, Terry.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> it has

> no value.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Proof,

> please.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> ________________________________

> 

> 

> 

> From: isaiah14

> 

> 

> To: [email protected] yahoogroups. com

> 

> Sent: Wednesday, April 29, 2009 5:50:13 PM

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> You have never proven anything except that you are

> in the biggest religious cult in the world today, and that you don't

> have eternal life.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> -------Original Message----- --

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: JPB

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Date: 4/29/2009 4:36:12 PM

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To: [email protected] yahoogroups. com

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts [1

> Attachment]

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Here

> is a very nice and instructive power point presentation which I think

> most will enjoy.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> -------Original Message----- --

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: Viva Veridad

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Date: 4/29/2009 12:50:55 PM

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To: [email protected] yahoogroups. com

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> That may be

> your opinion, erroneous as ever, but we're not interested in your

> diseased mind's opinion.

> 

> If you make a statement, you must back

> it up with proof.

> 

> Saying "I have already

> proven..." means nothing unless you show us the proof.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> ________________________________

> 

> 

> 

> From: isaiah14

> 

> 

> To: [email protected] yahoogroups. com

> 

> Sent: Wednesday, April 29, 2009 3:37:21 PM

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Prove it. I have already proven that the

> roman catholic church is debauchery.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> -------Original Message----- --

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: JPB

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Date: 4/29/2009 1:41:37 PM

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To: [email protected] yahoogroups. com

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> We

> have already proved that Terry is dead wrong on a number of silly

> beliefs he posted during these exchanges, and now it seems we shall

> have to prove him dead wrong again in respect to his comments re

> the Talmud and Judaism. I'll get working on that one soon.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> -------Original Message----- --

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: Viva Veridad

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Date: 4/29/2009 7:39:07 AM

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To: [email protected] yahoogroups. com

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Yes,

> indeed you do, Terry.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> ________________________________

> 

> 

> 

> From:

> isaiah14

> 

> To: [email protected] yahoogroups. com

> 

> Sent: Wednesday, April 29, 2009 8:54:49 AM

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> You continue to support the Talmud and

> Judaism.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> -------Original Message----- --

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: JPB

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Date: 4/28/2009 10:59:27 PM

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To: [email protected] yahoogroups. com

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Well,

> at least now our puppet pal isn't trying to claim Mary

> is based upon Ishtar or Isis, etc. That's a step in the

> right direction. The problem with some of these proddies is

> that they all repeat the same old hoary misconceptions about

> Catholicism that they have been carefully spoon-fed since infancy.

> When they are forced to examine the true facts, their belief

> system crumbles and all that is left is mindless hate. And

> that about sums up CI - AND Talmudic Judaism.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> [http://gfx1.hotmail.com/mail/w3/ltr/i_safe.gif]

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> -------Original Message----- --

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: Viva Veridad

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Date: 4/26/2009 6:39:04 AM

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To: [email protected] yahoogroups. com

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Joseph, it's a waste of time trying to reason

> with Terry.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> He has no reasoning powers. He merely

> parrots the same tired old phrases, which is all that he

> understands. He has no comprehension of anything sensible.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Terry has a childish grasp on that which

> comforts him. He can't agree with the truth that we offer

> him, because then he would have to face the devastating fact that

> he has committed spiritual suicide by leaving the Catholic

> Church. He is in a desperate situation and must continually

> close his eyes to the truth, much like the bird with its head in

> the sands. He is on shaky ground and it will collapse and

> swallow him up.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> ________________________________

> 

> 

> 

> From:

> isaiah14

> 

> To: israelit[email protected] yahoogroups. com

> 

> Sent: Sunday, April 26, 2009 7:53:07 AM

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> You worship the same goddesses. You have

> made Mary a goddess.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> -------Original Message----- --

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> From: JPB

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Date: 4/26/2009 12:03:00 AM

> 

> 

> 

> 

> To: [email protected] yahoogroups. com

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Subject: Re: [israeliteidentity] RE: the facts

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Let's

> get back to Babylon. You keep saying, quite ignorantly,

> that the Catholic Church is pagan - even though it is

> monotheistic and founded by Christ - anyway, all that aside for

> the moment - you keep INSISTING that the Church is the Whore of

> Babylon and that the Church and the Babylonian Religion are one

> and the same. So, take your time and read through the

> following - select and choose anything you like from it - and

> demonstrate to us where you find similarities between what WE

> post here and the ancient Babylonian religion. Go ahead.

> Knock yourself out-

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> THE RELIGION OF

> 

> 

> 

> BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> BY

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> THEOPHILUS G. PINCHES, LL.D.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Lecturer in Assyrian at University College, London,

> 

> 

> 

> Author of "The Old Testament in the Light of the

> 

> 

> 

> Records of Assyria and Babylonia"; "The Bronze

> 

> 

> 

> Ornaments of the Palace Gates of Balewat" etc. etc.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> PREPARER'S NOTE

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The original text contains a

> number of characters that are not

> 

> 

> available even in 8-bit

> Windows text, such as H with a breve below

> 

> 

> it in Hammurabi, S with a

> breve, S and T with a dot below them, U

> 

> 

> with macron, and superscript

> M in Ta�m�tum. These have been left

> 

> 

> in the e-text as the base

> letter.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The 8-bit version of this

> text includes Windows font characters

> 

> 

> like S with a caron above it

> (pronounced /sh/) as in �ama�, etc.

> 

> 

> These may be lost in 7-bit

> versions of the text, or when viewed

> 

> 

> with different fonts.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Greek text has been

> transliterated within brackets "{}" using an

> 

> 

> Oxford English Dictionary

> alphabet table. Diacritical marks have

> 

> 

> been lost.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> THE RELIGION OF THE

> 

> 

> 

> BABYLONIANS AND ASSYRIANS

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> CHAPTER I

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> FOREWORD

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Position, and Period.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The religion of the Babylonians and

> Assyrians was the polytheistic

> 

> 

> faith professed by the peoples

> inhabiting the Tigris and Euphrates

> 

> 

> valleys from what may be regarded as

> the dawn of history until the

> 

> 

> Christian era began, or, at least,

> until the inhabitants were brought

> 

> 

> under the influence of Christianity.

> The chronological period covered

> 

> 

> may be roughly estimated at about

> 5000 years. The belief of the

> 

> 

> people, at the end of that time,

> being Babylonian heathenism leavened

> 

> 

> with Judaism, the country was

> probably ripe for the reception of the

> 

> 

> new faith. Christianity, however, by

> no means replaced the earlier

> 

> 

> polytheism, as is evidenced by the

> fact, that the worship of Nebo and

> 

> 

> the gods associated with him

> continued until the fourth century of the

> 

> 

> Christian era.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> By whom followed.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> It was the faith of two distinct

> peoples--the Sumero-Akkadians, and

> 

> 

> the Assyro-Babylonians. In what

> country it had its beginnings is

> 

> 

> unknown--it comes before us, even at

> the earliest period, as a faith

> 

> 

> already well-developed, and from

> that fact, as well as from the names

> 

> 

> of the numerous deities, it is clear

> that it began with the former

> 

> 

> race--the Sumero-Akkadians- -who

> spoke a non-Semitic language largely

> 

> 

> affected by phonetic decay, and in

> which the grammatical forms had in

> 

> 

> certain cases become confused to

> such an extent that those who study

> 

> 

> it ask themselves whether the people

> who spoke it were able to

> 

> 

> understand each other without

> recourse to devices such as the "tones"

> 

> 

> to which the Chinese resort. With

> few exceptions, the names of the

> 

> 

> gods which the inscriptions reveal

> to us are all derived from this

> 

> 

> non-Semitic language, which

> furnishes us with satisfactory etymologies

> 

> 

> for such names as Merodach, Nergal,

> Sin, and the divinities mentioned

> 

> 

> in Berosus and Damascius, as well as

> those of hundreds of deities

> 

> 

> revealed to us by the tablets and

> slabs of Babylonia and Assyria.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The

> documents.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Outside the inscriptions of

> Babylonia and Assyria, there is but little

> 

> 

> bearing upon the religion of those

> countries, the most important

> 

> 

> fragment being the extracts from

> Berosus and Damascius referred to

> 

> 

> above. Among the Babylonian and

> Assyrian remains, however, we have an

> 

> 

> extensive and valuable mass of

> material, dating from the fourth or

> 

> 

> fifth millennium before Christ until

> the disappearance of the

> 

> 

> Babylonian system of writing about

> the beginning of the Christian era.

> 

> 

> The earlier inscriptions are mostly

> of the nature of records, and give

> 

> 

> information about the deities and

> the religion of the people in the

> 

> 

> course of descriptions of the

> building and rebuilding of temples, the

> 

> 

> making of offerings, the performance

> of ceremonies, etc. Purely

> 

> 

> religious inscriptions are found

> near the end of the third millennium

> 

> 

> before Christ, and occur in

> considerable numbers, either in the

> 

> 

> original Sumerian text, or in

> translations, or both, until about the

> 

> 

> third century before Christ. Among

> the more recent inscriptions- -those

> 

> 

> from the library of the Assyrian

> king A��ur-bani-�pli and the later

> 

> 

> Babylonian temple archives,--there

> are many lists of deities, with

> 

> 

> numerous identifications with each

> other and with the heavenly bodies,

> 

> 

> and explanations of their natures.

> It is needless to say that all this

> 

> 

> material is of enormous value for

> the study of the religion of the

> 

> 

> Babylonians and Assyrians, and

> enables us to reconstruct at first hand

> 

> 

> their mythological system, and note

> the changes which took place in

> 

> 

> the course of their long national

> existence. Many interesting and

> 

> 

> entertaining legends illustrate and

> supplement the information given

> 

> 

> by the bilingual lists of gods, the

> bilingual incantations and hymns,

> 

> 

> and the references contained in the

> historical and other documents. A

> 

> 

> trilingual list of gods enables us

> also to recognise, in some cases,

> 

> 

> the dialectic forms of their names.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The importance of the subject.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Of equal antiquity with the religion

> of Egypt, that of Babylonia and

> 

> 

> Assyria possesses some marked

> differences as to its development.

> 

> 

> Beginning among the non-Semitic

> Sumero-Akkadian population, it

> 

> 

> maintained for a long time its

> uninterrupted development, affected

> 

> 

> mainly by influences from within,

> namely, the homogeneous local cults

> 

> 

> which acted and reacted upon each

> other. The religious systems of

> 

> 

> other nations did not greatly affect

> the development of the early

> 

> 

> non-Semitic religious system of

> Babylonia. A time at last came,

> 

> 

> however, when the influence of the

> Semitic inhabitants of Babylonia

> 

> 

> and Assyria was not to be gainsaid,

> and from that moment, the

> 

> 

> development of their religion took

> another turn. In all probably this

> 

> 

> augmentation of Semitic religious

> influence was due to the increased

> 

> 

> numbers of the Semitic population,

> and at the same period the Sumero-

> 

> 

> Akkadian language began to give way

> to the Semitic idiom which they

> 

> 

> spoke. When at last the Semitic

> Babylonian language came to be used

> 

> 

> for official documents, we find

> that, although the non-Semitic divine

> 

> 

> names are in the main preserved, a certain

> number of them have been

> 

> 

> displaced by the Semitic equivalent

> names, such as �ama� for the

> 

> 

> sun-god, with Kittu and M�aru

> ("justice and righteousness" ) his

> 

> 

> attendants; Nab� ("the

> teacher" = Nebo) with his consort Ta�m�tu ("the

> 

> 

> hearer"); Addu, Adad, or Dadu,

> and Rammanu, Ramimu, or Ragimu = Hadad

> 

> 

> or Rimmon ("the

> thunderer"); B�l and B�ltu (Beltis = "the lord"

> and

> 

> 

> "the lady" /par

> excellence/) , with some others of inferior rank. In

> 

> 

> place of the chief divinity of each

> state at the head of each separate

> 

> 

> pantheon, the tendency was to make

> Merodach, the god of the capital

> 

> 

> city Babylon, the head of the

> pantheon, and he seems to have been

> 

> 

> universally accepted in Babylonia,

> like A��ur in Assyria, about 2000

> 

> 

> B.C. or earlier.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The uniting of two pantheons.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> We thus find two pantheons, the

> Sumero-Akkadian with its many gods,

> 

> 

> and the Semitic Babylonian with its

> comparatively few, united, and

> 

> 

> forming one apparently homogeneous

> whole. But the creed had taken a

> 

> 

> fresh tendency. It was no longer a

> series of small, and to a certain

> 

> 

> extent antagonistic, pantheons

> composed of the chief god, his consort,

> 

> 

> attendants, children, and servants,

> but a pantheon of considerable

> 

> 

> extent, containing all the elements

> of the primitive but smaller

> 

> 

> pantheons, with a number of great

> gods who had raised Merodach to be

> 

> 

> their king.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> In Assyria.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Whilst accepting the religion of

> Babylonia, Assyria nevertheless kept

> 

> 

> herself distinct from her southern

> neighbour by a very simple device,

> 

> 

> by placing at the head of the

> pantheon the god A��ur, who became for

> 

> 

> her the chief of the gods, and at

> the same time the emblem of her

> 

> 

> distinct national aspirations- -for

> Assyria had no intention whatever

> 

> 

> of casting in her lot with her

> southern neighbour. Nevertheless,

> 

> 

> Assyria possessed, along with the

> language of Babylonia, all the

> 

> 

> literature of that country--indeed,

> it is from the libraries of her

> 

> 

> kings that we obtain the best copies

> of the Babylonian religious

> 

> 

> texts, treasured and preserved by

> her with all the veneration of which

> 

> 

> her religious mind was capable,--and

> the religious fervour of the

> 

> 

> Oriental in most cases leaves that

> of the European, or at least of the

> 

> 

> ordinary Briton, far behind.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The later period in Assyria.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Assyria went to her downfall at the

> end of the seventh century before

> 

> 

> Christ worshipping her national god

> A��ur, whose cult did not cease

> 

> 

> with the destruction of her national

> independence. In fact, the city

> 

> 

> of A��ur, the centre of that

> worship, continued to exist for a

> 

> 

> considerable period; but for the

> history of the religion of Assyria,

> 

> 

> as preserved there, we wait for the

> result of the excavations being

> 

> 

> carried on by the Germans, should

> they be fortunate enough to obtain

> 

> 

> texts belonging to the period

> following the fall of Nineveh.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> In Babylonia.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Babylonia, on the other hand,

> continued the even tenor of her way.

> 

> 

> More successful at the end of her

> independent political career than

> 

> 

> her northern rival had been, she

> retained her faith, and remained the

> 

> 

> unswerving worshipper of Merodach,

> the great god of Babylon, to whom

> 

> 

> her priests attributed yet greater

> powers, and with whom all the other

> 

> 

> gods were to all appearance

> identified. This tendency to monotheism,

> 

> 

> however, never reached the

> culminating point--never became absolute--

> 

> 

> except, naturally, in the minds of

> those who, dissociating themselves,

> 

> 

> for philosophical reasons, from the

> superstitious teaching of the

> 

> 

> priests of Babylonia, decided for

> themselves that there was but one

> 

> 

> God, and worshipped Him. That

> orthodox Jews at that period may have

> 

> 

> found, in consequence of this

> monotheistic tendency, converts, is not

> 

> 

> by any means improbable-- indeed,

> the names met with during the later

> 

> 

> period imply that converts to

> Judaism were made.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The picture presented by the study.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Thus we see, from the various

> inscriptions, both Babylonian and

> 

> 

> Assyrian--the former of an extremely

> early period--the growth and

> 

> 

> development, with at least one

> branching off, of one of the most

> 

> 

> important religious systems of the

> ancient world. It is not so

> 

> 

> important for modern religion as the

> development of the beliefs of the

> 

> 

> Hebrews, but as the creed of the

> people from which the Hebrew nation

> 

> 

> sprang, and from which, therefore,

> it had its beginnings, both

> 

> 

> corporeal and spiritual, it is such

> as no student of modern religious

> 

> 

> systems can afford to neglect. Its

> legends, and therefore its

> 

> 

> teachings, as will be seen in these

> pages, ultimately permeated the

> 

> 

> Semitic West, and may in some cases

> even had penetrated Europe, not

> 

> 

> only through heathen Greece, but

> also through the early Christians,

> 

> 

> who, being so many centuries nearer

> the time of the

> 

> 

> Assyro-Babylonians, and also nearer

> the territory which they anciently

> 

> 

> occupied, than we are, were far

> better acquainted than the people of

> 

> 

> the present day with the legends and

> ideas which they possessed.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> CHAPTER II

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> THE RELIGION OF THE BABYLONIANS AND ASSYRIANS

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The Sumero-Akkadians and the Semites.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> For the history of the development

> of the religion of the Babylonians

> 

> 

> and Assyrians much naturally depends

> upon the composition of the

> 

> 

> population of early Babylonia. There

> is hardly any doubt that the

> 

> 

> Sumero-Akkadians were non-Semites of

> a fairly pure race, but the

> 

> 

> country of their origin is still

> unknown, though a certain

> 

> 

> relationship with the Mongolian and

> Turkish nationalities, probably

> 

> 

> reaching back many

> centuries--perhaps thousands of years--before the

> 

> 

> earliest accepted date, may be

> regarded as equally likely. Equally

> 

> 

> uncertain is the date of the entry

> of the Semites, whose language

> 

> 

> ultimately displaced the non-Semitic

> Sumero-Akkadian idioms, and

> 

> 

> whose kings finally ruled over the

> land. During the third millennium

> 

> 

> before Christ Semites, bearing

> Semitic names, and called Amorites,

> 

> 

> appear, and probably formed the last

> considerable stratum of tribes of

> 

> 

> that race which entered the land.

> The name Martu, the Sumero-Akkadian

> 

> 

> equivalent of Amurru,

> "Amorite", is of frequent occurrence also before

> 

> 

> this period. The eastern

> Mediterranean coast district, including

> 

> 

> Palestine and the neighbouring

> tracts, was known by the Babylonians

> 

> 

> and Assyrians as the land of the

> Amorites, a term which stood for the

> 

> 

> West in general even when these

> regions no longer bore that name. The

> 

> 

> Babylonians maintained their claim

> to sovereignty over that part as

> 

> 

> long as they possessed the power to

> do so, and naturally exercised

> 

> 

> considerable influence there. The

> existence in Palestine, Syria, and

> 

> 

> the neighbouring states, of creeds

> containing the names of many

> 

> 

> Babylonian divinities is therefore

> not to be wondered at, and the

> 

> 

> presence of West Semitic divinities

> in the religion of the Babylonians

> 

> 

> need not cause us any surprise.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The Babylonian script and its evidence.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> In consequence of the determinative

> prefix for a god or a goddess

> 

> 

> being, in the oldest form, a picture

> of an eight-rayed star, it has

> 

> 

> been assumed that Assyro-Babylonian

> mythology is, either wholly or

> 

> 

> partly, astral in origin. This,

> however, is by no means certain, the

> 

> 

> character for "star" in

> the inscriptions being a combination of three

> 

> 

> such pictures, and not a single

> sign. The probability therefore is,

> 

> 

> that the use of the single star to

> indicate the name of a divinity

> 

> 

> arises merely from the fact that the

> character in question stands for

> 

> 

> /ana/, "heaven." Deities

> were evidently thus distinguished by the

> 

> 

> Babylonians because they regarded

> them as inhabitants of the realms

> 

> 

> above--indeed, the heavens being the

> place where the stars are seen, a

> 

> 

> picture of a star was the only way

> of indicating heavenly things. That

> 

> 

> the gods of the Babylonians were in

> many cases identified with the

> 

> 

> stars and planets is certain, but

> these identifications seem to have

> 

> 

> taken place at a comparatively late

> date. An exception has naturally

> 

> 

> to be made in the case of the sun

> and moon, but the god Merodach, if

> 

> 

> he be, as seems certain, a deified

> Babylonian king, must have been

> 

> 

> identified with the stars which bear

> his name after his worshippers

> 

> 

> began to pay him divine honours as

> the supreme deity, and naturally

> 

> 

> what is true for him may also be so

> for the other gods whom they

> 

> 

> worshipped. The identification of

> some of the deities with stars or

> 

> 

> planets is, moreover, impossible,

> and if �a, the god of the deep, and

> 

> 

> Anu, the god of the heavens, have

> their representatives among the

> 

> 

> heavenly bodies, this is probably

> the result of later development. [*]

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> [*] If there be any historical

> foundation for the statement that

> 

> 

> Merodach arranged

> the sun, the moon, the planets, and the stars,

> 

> 

> assigning to them

> their proper places and duties--a tradition

> 

> 

> which would make

> him the founder of the science of astronomy

> 

> 

> during his life

> upon earth--this, too, would tend to the

> 

> 

> probability that

> the origin of the gods of the Babylonians was not

> 

> 

> astral, as has

> been suggested, but that their identification with

> 

> 

> the heavenly

> bodies was introduced during the period of his reign.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Ancestor and hero-worship. The deification of kings.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Though there is no proof that

> ancestor-worship in general prevailed at

> 

> 

> any time in Babylonia, it would seem

> that the worship of heroes and

> 

> 

> prominent men was common, at least

> in early times. The tenth chapter

> 

> 

> of Genesis tells us of the story of

> Nimrod, who cannot be any other

> 

> 

> than the Merodach of the

> Assyro-Babylonian inscriptions; and other

> 

> 

> examples, occurring in

> semi-mythological times, are /En-we-dur-an- ki/,

> 

> 

> the Greek Edoreschos, and

> /Gilgame�/, the Greek Gilgamos, though

> 

> 

> Aelian's story of the latter does

> not fit in with the account as given

> 

> 

> by the inscriptions. In later times,

> the divine prefix is found before

> 

> 

> the names of many a Babylonian

> ruler--Sargon of Agad�,[*] Dungi of Ur

> 

> 

> (about 2500 B.C.), Rim-Sin or

> Eri-Aku (Arioch of Ellasar, about 2100

> 

> 

> B.C.), and others. It was doubtless

> a kind of flattery to deify and

> 

> 

> pay these rulers divine honours

> during their lifetime, and on account

> 

> 

> of this, it is very probable that

> their godhood was utterly forgotten,

> 

> 

> in the case of those who were

> strictly historical, after their death.

> 

> 

> The deification of the kings of

> Babylonia and Assyria is probably due

> 

> 

> to the fact, that they were regarded

> as the representatives of God

> 

> 

> upon earth, and being his chief

> priests as well as his offspring (the

> 

> 

> personal names show that it was a

> common thing to regard children as

> 

> 

> the gifts of the gods whom their

> father worshipped), the divine

> 

> 

> fatherhood thus attributed to them

> naturally could, in the case of

> 

> 

> those of royal rank, give them a

> real claim to divine birth and

> 

> 

> honours. An exception is the

> deification of the Babylonian Noah,

> 

> 

> Ut-napi�tim, who, as the legend of

> the Flood relates, was raised and

> 

> 

> made one of the gods by Aa or Ea,

> for his faithfulness after the great

> 

> 

> catastrophe, when he and his wife

> were translated to the "remote place

> 

> 

> at the mouth of the rivers."

> The hero Gilgame�, on the other hand, was

> 

> 

> half divine by birth, though it is

> not exactly known through whom his

> 

> 

> divinity came.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> [*] According to Nabonidus's date

> 3800 B.C., though many

> 

> 

> Assyriologists

> regard this as being a millennium too early.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The earliest form of the Babylonian religion.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The state of development to which

> the religious system of the

> 

> 

> Babylonians had attained at the

> earliest period to which the

> 

> 

> inscriptions refer naturally

> precludes the possibility of a

> 

> 

> trustworthy history of its origin

> and early growth. There is no doubt,

> 

> 

> however, that it may be regarded as

> having reached the stage at which

> 

> 

> we find it in consequence of there

> being a number of states in ancient

> 

> 

> Babylonia (which was at that time

> like the Heptarchy in England) each

> 

> 

> possessing its own divinity--who, in

> its district, was regarded as

> 

> 

> supreme--with a number of lesser gods

> forming his court. It was the

> 

> 

> adding together of all these small

> pantheons which ultimately made

> 

> 

> that of Babylonia as a whole so

> exceedingly extensive. Thus the chief

> 

> 

> divinity of Babylon, as has already

> been stated, as Merodach; at

> 

> 

> Sippar and Larsa the sun-god �ama�

> was worshipped; at Ur the moon-god

> 

> 

> Sin or Nannar; at Erech and D�r the

> god of the heavens, Anu; at Muru,

> 

> 

> Ennigi, and Kakru, the god of the

> atmosphere, Hadad or Rimmon; at

> 

> 

> �ridu, the god of the deep, Aa or

> �a; at Niffur[*] the god Bel; at

> 

> 

> Cuthah the god of war, Nergal; at

> Dailem the god Ura�; at Ki� the god

> 

> 

> of battle, Zagaga; Lugal-Amarda, the

> king of Marad, as the city so

> 

> 

> called; at Opis Zakar, one of the

> gods of dreams; at Agad�, Nineveh,

> 

> 

> and Arbela, I�tar, goddess of love

> and of war; Nina at the city Nina

> 

> 

> in Babylonia, etc. When the chief

> deities were masculine, they were

> 

> 

> naturally all identified with each

> other, just as the Greeks called

> 

> 

> the Babylonian Merodach by the name

> of Zeus; and as Zer-pan�tum, the

> 

> 

> consort of Merodach, was identified

> with Juno, so the consorts, divine

> 

> 

> attendants, and children of each

> chief divinity, as far as they

> 

> 

> possessed them, could also be

> regarded as the same, though possibly

> 

> 

> distinct in their different

> attributes.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> [*] Noufar at present, according to

> the latest explorers. Layard

> 

> 

> (1856) has

> Niffer, Loftus (1857) Niffar. The native spelling is

> 

> 

> Noufer, due to

> the French system of phonetics.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> How the religion of the Babylonians developed.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The fact that the rise of Merodach

> to the position of king of the gods

> 

> 

> was due to the attainment, by the

> city of Babylon, of the position of

> 

> 

> capital of all Babylonia, leads one

> to suspect that the kingly rank of

> 

> 

> his father �a, at an earlier period,

> was due to a somewhat similar

> 

> 

> cause, and if so, the still earlier

> kingship of Anu, the god of the

> 

> 

> heavens, may be in like manner

> explained. This leads to the question

> 

> 

> whether the first state to attain to

> supremacy was D�r, Anu's seat,

> 

> 

> and whether D�r was succeeded by

> �ridu, of which city �a was the

> 

> 

> patron--concerning the importance of

> Babylon, Merodach's city, later

> 

> 

> on, there is no doubt whatever. The

> rise of Anu and �a to divine

> 

> 

> overlordship, however, may not have

> been due to the political

> 

> 

> supremacy of the cities where they

> were worshipped-- it may have come

> 

> 

> about simply on account of renown

> gained through religious enthusiasm

> 

> 

> due to wonders said to have been

> performed where they were worshipped,

> 

> 

> or to the reported discovery of new

> records concerning their temples,

> 

> 

> or to the influence of some renowned

> high-priest, like En-we-dur-an- ki

> 

> 

> of Sippar, whose devotion

> undoubtedly brought great renown to the city

> 

> 

> of his dominion.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Was

> Animism its original form?

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> But the question naturally arises,

> can we go back beyond the

> 

> 

> indications of the inscriptions? The

> Babylonians attributed life, in

> 

> 

> certain not very numerous cases, to

> such things as trees and plants,

> 

> 

> and naturally to the winds, and the

> heavenly bodies. Whether they

> 

> 

> regarded stones, rocks, mountains,

> storms, and rain in the same way,

> 

> 

> however, is doubtful, but it may be

> taken for granted, that the sea,

> 

> 

> with all its rivers and streams, was

> regarded as animated with the

> 

> 

> spirit of �a and his children,

> whilst the great cities and

> 

> 

> temple-towers were pervaded with the

> spirit of the god whose abode

> 

> 

> they were. Innumerable good and evil

> spirits were believed in, such as

> 

> 

> the spirit of the mountain, the sea,

> the plain, and the grave. These

> 

> 

> spirits were of various kinds, and

> bore names which do not always

> 

> 

> reveal their real character--such as

> the /edimmu/, /utukku/, /��du/,

> 

> 

> /a�akku/ (spirit of fevers),

> /namtaru/ (spirit of fate), /�l�/

> 

> 

> (regarded as the spirit of the south

> wind), /gallu/, /rabisu/,

> 

> 

> /labartu/, /labasu/, /ahhazu/ (the seizer),

> /lilu/ and /lilithu/ (male

> 

> 

> and female spirits of the mist),

> with their attendants.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> All this points to animism as the

> pervading idea of the worship of the

> 

> 

> peoples of the Babylonian states in

> the prehistoric period--the

> 

> 

> attribution of life to every

> appearance of nature. The question is,

> 

> 

> however, Is the evidence of the

> inscriptions sufficient to make this

> 

> 

> absolutely certain? It is hard to

> believe that such intelligent

> 

> 

> people, as the primitive Babylonians

> naturally were, believed that

> 

> 

> such things as stones, rocks,

> mountains, storms, and rain were, in

> 

> 

> themselves, and apart from the

> divinity which they regarded as

> 

> 

> presiding over them, living things.

> A stone might be a /b�t �li/ or

> 

> 

> bethel--a "house of god,"

> and almost invested with the status of a

> 

> 

> living thing, but that does not

> prove that the Babylonians thought of

> 

> 

> every stone as being endowed with

> life, even in prehistoric times.

> 

> 

> Whilst, therefore, there are traces

> of a belief similar to that which

> 

> 

> an animistic creed might be regarded

> as possessing, it must be

> 

> 

> admitted that these seemingly

> animistic doctrines may have originated

> 

> 

> in another way, and be due to later

> developments. The power of the

> 

> 

> gods to create living things

> naturally makes possible the belief that

> 

> 

> they had also power to endow with a

> soul, and therefore with life and

> 

> 

> intelligence, any seemingly

> inanimate object. Such was probably the

> 

> 

> nature of Babylonian animism, if it

> may be so called. The legend of

> 

> 

> Tiawthu (Tiawath) may with great

> probability be regarded as the

> 

> 

> remains of a primitive animism which

> was the creed of the original and

> 

> 

> comparatively uncivilised

> Babylonians, who saw in the sea the producer

> 

> 

> and creator of all the monstrous

> shapes which are found therein; but

> 

> 

> any development of this idea in

> other directions was probably cut

> 

> 

> short by the priests, who must have

> realised, under the influence of

> 

> 

> the doctrine of the divine rise to

> perfection, that animism in general

> 

> 

> was altogether incompatible with the

> creed which they professed.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Image-worship and Sacred Stones.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Whether image-worship was original

> among the Babylonians and Assyrians

> 

> 

> is uncertain, and improbable; the

> tendency among the people in early

> 

> 

> times being to venerate sacred

> stones and other inanimate objects. As

> 

> 

> has been already pointed out, the

> {diopetres} of the Greeks was

> 

> 

> probably a meteorite, and stones

> marking the position of the Semitic

> 

> 

> bethels were probably, in their

> origin, the same. The boulders which

> 

> 

> were sometimes used for

> boundary-stones may have been the

> 

> 

> representations of these meteorites

> in later times, and it is

> 

> 

> noteworthy that the Sumerian group

> for "iron," /an-bar/, implies that

> 

> 

> the early Babylonians only knew of

> that metal from meteoric ironstone.

> 

> 

> The name of the god Nirig or

> �nu-r�tu (Ninip) is generally written

> 

> 

> with the same group, implying some

> kind of connection between the two

> 

> 

> --the god and the iron. In a

> well-known hymn to that deity certain

> 

> 

> stones are mentioned, one of them

> being described as the "poison-

> 

> 

> tooth"[*] coming forth on the

> mountain, recalling the sacred rocks at

> 

> 

> Jerusalem and Mecca. Boundary-stones

> in Babylonia were not sacred

> 

> 

> objects except in so far as they

> were sculptured with the signs of the

> 

> 

> gods.[�] With regard to the

> Babylonian bethels, very little can be

> 

> 

> said, their true nature being

> uncertain, and their number, to all

> 

> 

> appearance, small. Gifts were made

> to them, and from this fact it

> 

> 

> would seem that they were

> temples--true "houses of god," in fact--

> 

> 

> probably containing an image of the

> deity, rather than a stone similar

> 

> 

> to those referred to in the Old

> Testament.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> [*] So called, probably, not because

> it sent forth poison, but on

> 

> 

> account of its

> likeness to a serpent's fang.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> [�] Notwithstanding medical opinion,

> their phallic origin is doubtful.

> 

> 

> One is sculptured

> in the form of an Eastern castellated fortress.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Idols.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> With the Babylonians, the gods were

> represented by means of stone

> 

> 

> images at a very early date, and it

> is possible that wood was also

> 

> 

> used. The tendency of the human mind

> being to attribute to the Deity a

> 

> 

> human form, the Babylonians were no

> exception to the rule. Human

> 

> 

> thoughts and feelings would

> naturally accompany the human form with

> 

> 

> which the minds of men endowed them.

> Whether the gross human passions

> 

> 

> attributed to the gods of Babylonia

> in Herodotus be of early date or

> 

> 

> not is uncertain--a late period,

> when the religion began to

> 

> 

> degenerate, would seem to be the

> more probable.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The adoration of sacred objects.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> It is probable that objects

> belonging to or dedicated to deities were

> 

> 

> not originally worshipped-- they

> were held as divine in consequence of

> 

> 

> their being possessed or used by a

> deity, like the bow of Merodach,

> 

> 

> placed in the heavens as a

> constellation, etc. The cities where the

> 

> 

> gods dwelt on earth, their temples,

> their couches, the chariot of the

> 

> 

> sun in his temple-cities, and

> everything existing in connection with

> 

> 

> their worship, were in all

> probability regarded as divine simply in so

> 

> 

> far as they belonged to a god.

> Sacrifices offered to them, and

> 

> 

> invocations made to them, were in

> all likelihood regarded as having

> 

> 

> been made to the deity himself, the

> possessions of the divinity being,

> 

> 

> in the minds of the Babylonians,

> pervaded with his spirit. In the case

> 

> 

> of rivers, these were divine as

> being the children and offspring of

> 

> 

> Enki (Aa or �a), the god of the

> ocean.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Holy places.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> In a country which was originally

> divided into many small states, each

> 

> 

> having its own deities, and, to a

> certain extent, its own religious

> 

> 

> system, holy places were naturally

> numerous. As the spot where they

> 

> 

> placed Paradise, Babylonia was

> itself a holy place, but in all

> 

> 

> probability this idea is late, and

> only came into existence after the

> 

> 

> legends of the creation and the rise

> of Merodach to the kingship of

> 

> 

> heaven had become elaborated into

> one homogeneous whole.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> An interesting list.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> One of the most interesting

> documents referring to the holy places of

> 

> 

> Babylonia is a tiny tablet found at

> Nineveh, and preserved in the

> 

> 

> British Museum. This text begins

> with the word Tiawthu "the sea," and

> 

> 

> goes on to enumerate, in turn,

> Tilmun (identified with the island of

> 

> 

> Bahrein in the Persian Gulf);

> Engurra (the Abyss, the abode of Enki or

> 

> 

> �a), with numerous temples and

> shrines, including "the holy house,"

> 

> 

> "the temple of the seer of

> heaven and earth," "the abode of Zer-

> 

> 

> pan�tum," consort of Merodach,

> "the throne of the holy place," "the

> 

> 

> temple of the region of Hades,"

> "the supreme temple of life," "the

> 

> 

> temple of the ear of the

> corn-deity," with many others, the whole list

> 

> 

> containing what may be regarded as

> the chief sanctuaries of the land,

> 

> 

> to the number of thirty-one.

> Numerous other similar and more extensive

> 

> 

> lists, enumerating every shrine and

> temple in the country, also exist,

> 

> 

> though in a very imperfect state,

> and in addition to these, many holy

> 

> 

> places are referred to in the

> bilingual, historical, and other

> 

> 

> inscriptions. All the great cities

> of Babylonia, moreover, were sacred

> 

> 

> places, the chief in renown and

> importance in later days being the

> 

> 

> great city of Babylon, where

> �-sagila, "the temple of the high head,"

> 

> 

> in which was apparently the shrine

> called "the temple of the

> 

> 

> foundation of heaven and

> earth," held the first place. This building

> 

> 

> is called by Nebuchadnezzar

> "the temple-tower of Babylon," and may

> 

> 

> better be regarded as the site of

> the Biblical "Tower of Babel" than

> 

> 

> the traditional foundation, �-zida,

> "the everlasting temple," in

> 

> 

> Borsippa (the Birs

> Nimroud)--notwithst anding that Borsippa was called

> 

> 

> the "second Babylon," and

> its temple-tower "the supreme house of

> 

> 

> life."

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The Tower of Babel.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Though quite close to Babylon, there

> is no doubt that Borsippa was a

> 

> 

> most important religious centre, and

> this leads to the possibility,

> 

> 

> that its great temple may have

> disputed with "the house of the high

> 

> 

> head," �-sagila in Babylon, the

> honour of being the site of the

> 

> 

> confusion of tongues and the

> dispersion of mankind. There is no doubt,

> 

> 

> however, that �-sagila has the prior

> claim, it being the temple of the

> 

> 

> supreme god of the later Babylonian

> pantheon, the counterpart of the

> 

> 

> God of the Hebrews who commanded the

> changing of the speech of the

> 

> 

> people assembled there. Supposing

> the confusion of tongues to have

> 

> 

> been a Babylonian legend as well as

> a Hebrew one (as is possible) it

> 

> 

> would be by command of Merodach

> rather than that of Nebo that such a

> 

> 

> thing would have taken place.

> �-sagila, which is now the ruin known as

> 

> 

> the mount of Amran ibn Ali, is the

> celebrated temple of Belus which

> 

> 

> Alexander and Philip attempted to

> restore.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> In addition to the legend of the

> confusion of tongues, it is probable

> 

> 

> that there were many similar

> traditions attached to the great temples

> 

> 

> of Babylonia, and as time goes on,

> and the excavations bring more

> 

> 

> material, a large number of them

> will probably be recovered. Already

> 

> 

> we have an interesting and poetical

> record of the entry of Bel and

> 

> 

> Beltis into the great temple at

> Niffer, probably copied from some

> 

> 

> ancient source, and Gudea, a king of

> Laga� (Telloh), who reigned about

> 

> 

> 2700 B.C., gives an account of the

> dream which he saw, in which he was

> 

> 

> instructed by the gods to build or

> rebuild the temple of Nin-Girsu in

> 

> 

> his capital city.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> �-sagila according to Herodotus.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> As the chief fane in the land after

> Babylon became the capital, and

> 

> 

> the type of many similar erections,

> �-sagila, the temple of Belus,

> 

> 

> merits just a short notice.

> According to Herodotus, it was a massive

> 

> 

> tower within an enclosure measuring

> 400 yards each way, and provided

> 

> 

> with gates of brass, or rather

> bronze. The tower within consisted of a

> 

> 

> kind of step-pyramid, the stages

> being seven in number (omitting the

> 

> 

> lowest, which was the platform

> forming the foundation of the

> 

> 

> structure). A winding ascent gave

> access to the top, where was a

> 

> 

> chapel or shrine, containing no

> statue, but regarded by the

> 

> 

> Babylonians as the abode of the god.

> Lower down was another shrine, in

> 

> 

> which was placed a great statue of

> Zeus (Bel-Merodach) sitting, with a

> 

> 

> large table before it. Both statue

> and table are said to have been of

> 

> 

> gold, as were also the throne and

> the steps. Outside the sanctuary (on

> 

> 

> the ramp, apparently) were two

> altars, one small and made of gold,

> 

> 

> whereon only unweaned lambs were

> sacrificed, and the other larger, for

> 

> 

> full-grown victims.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> A Babylonian description.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> In 1876 the well-known

> Assyriologist, Mr. George Smith, was fortunate

> 

> 

> enough to discover a Babylonian

> description of this temple, of which

> 

> 

> he published a /pr�cis/. According

> to this document, there were two

> 

> 

> courts of considerable extent, the

> smaller within the larger--neither

> 

> 

> of them was square, but oblong. Six

> gates admitted to the temple-area

> 

> 

> surrounding the platform upon which

> the tower was built. The platform

> 

> 

> is stated to have been square and

> walled, with four gates facing the

> 

> 

> cardinal points. Within this wall

> was a building connected with the

> 

> 

> great /zikkurat/ or tower--the

> principal edifice--round which were

> 

> 

> chapels or temples to the principal

> gods, on all four sides, and

> 

> 

> facing the cardinal points--that to

> Nebo and Ta�m�t being on the east,

> 

> 

> to Aa or �a and Nusku on the north,

> Anu and Bel on the south, and the

> 

> 

> series of buildings on the west,

> consisting of a double house--a small

> 

> 

> court between two wings, was

> evidently the shrine of Merodach (Belos).

> 

> 

> In these western chambers stood the

> couch of the god, and the golden

> 

> 

> throne mentioned by Herodotus,

> besides other furniture of great value.

> 

> 

> The couch was given as being 9

> cubits long by 4 broad, about as many

> 

> 

> feet in each case, or rather more.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The centre of these buildings was

> the great /zikkurat/, or temple-

> 

> 

> tower, square on its plan, and with

> the sides facing the cardinal

> 

> 

> points. The lowest stage was 15

> /gar/ square by 5 1/2 high (Smith, 300

> 

> 

> feet by 110), and the wall, in

> accordance with the usual Babylonian

> 

> 

> custom, seems to have been

> ornamented with recessed groovings. The

> 

> 

> second stage was 13 /gar/ square by

> 3 in height (Smith, 260 by 60

> 

> 

> feet). He conjectured, from the

> expression used, that it had sloping

> 

> 

> sides. Stages three to five were

> each one /gar/ (Smith, 20 feet) high,

> 

> 

> and respectively 10 /gar/ (Smith,

> 200 feet), 8 1/2 /gar/ (170 feet),

> 

> 

> and 7 /gar/ (140 feet) square. The

> dimensions of the sixth stage are

> 

> 

> omitted, probably by accident, but

> Smith conjectures that they were in

> 

> 

> proportion to those which precede.

> His description omits also the

> 

> 

> dimensions of the seventh stage, but

> he gives those of the sanctuary

> 

> 

> of Belus, which was built upon it.

> This was 4 /gar/ long, 3 1/2 /gar/

> 

> 

> broad, and 2 1/2 /gar/ high (Smith,

> 80 x 70 x 50 feet). He points out,

> 

> 

> that the total height was,

> therefore, 15 /gar/, the same as the

> 

> 

> dimensions of the base, i.e., the

> lowest platform, which would make

> 

> 

> the total height of this

> world-renowned building rather more than 300

> 

> 

> feet above the plains.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Other temple-towers.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Towers of a similar nature were to

> be found in all the great cities of

> 

> 

> Babylonia, and it is probable that

> in most cases slight differences of

> 

> 

> form were to be found. That at

> Niffer, for instance, seems to have had

> 

> 

> a causeway on each side, making four

> approaches in the form of a

> 

> 

> cross. But it was not every city

> which had a tower of seven stages in

> 

> 

> addition to the platform on which it

> was erected, and some of the

> 

> 

> smaller ones at least seem to have

> had sloping or rounded sides to the

> 

> 

> basement-portion, as is indicated by

> an Assyrian bas-relief. Naturally

> 

> 

> small temples, with hardly more than

> the rooms on the ground floor,

> 

> 

> were to be found, but these

> temple-towers were a speciality of the

> 

> 

> country.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Their origin.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> There is some probability that, as

> indicated in the tenth chapter of

> 

> 

> Genesis, the desire in building

> these towers was to get nearer the

> 

> 

> Deity, or to the divine inhabitants

> of the heavens in general--it

> 

> 

> would be easier there to gain

> attention than on the surface of the

> 

> 

> earth. Then there was the belief,

> that the god to whom the place was

> 

> 

> dedicated would come down to such a

> sanctuary, which thus became, as

> 

> 

> it were, the stepping-stone between

> heaven and earth. Sacrifices were

> 

> 

> also offered at these temple-towers

> (whether on the highest point or

> 

> 

> not is not quite certain), in

> imitation of the Chald�an Noah,

> 

> 

> Ut-napi�tim, who, on coming out of

> the ark, made an offering /ina

> 

> 

> zikkurat �ad�/, "on the peak of

> the mountain," in which passage, it is

> 

> 

> to be noted, the word /zikkurat/

> occurs with what is probably a more

> 

> 

> original meaning.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> CHAPTER III

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> THE BABYLONIAN STORY OF THE CREATION

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> This is the final development of the

> Babylonian creed. It has already

> 

> 

> been pointed out that the religion

> of the Babylonians in all

> 

> 

> probability had two stages before

> arriving at that in which the god

> 

> 

> Merodach occupied the position of

> chief of the pantheon, the two

> 

> 

> preceding heads having been,

> seemingly, Anu, the god of the heavens,

> 

> 

> and �a or Aa, also called Enki, the

> god of the abyss and of deep

> 

> 

> wisdom. In order to show this, and

> at the same time to give an idea of

> 

> 

> their theory of the beginning of

> things, a short paraphrase of the

> 

> 

> contents of the seven tablets will

> be found in the following pages.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> An Embodiment of doctrine.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> As far as our knowledge goes, the

> doctrines incorporated in this

> 

> 

> legend would seem to show the final

> official development of the

> 

> 

> beliefs held by the Babylonians,

> due, in all probability, to the

> 

> 

> priests of Babylon after that city

> became the capital of the federated

> 

> 

> states. Modifications of their creed

> probably took place, but nothing

> 

> 

> seriously affecting it, until after

> the abandonment of Babylon in the

> 

> 

> time of Seleucus Nicator, 300 B.C.

> or thereabouts, when the deity at

> 

> 

> the head of the pantheon seems not

> to have been Merodach, but Anu-B�l.

> 

> 

> This legend is therefore the most

> important document bearing upon the

> 

> 

> beliefs of the Babylonians from the

> end of the third millennium B.C.

> 

> 

> until that time, and the

> philosophical ideas which it contains seem to

> 

> 

> have been held, in a more or less

> modified form, among the remnants

> 

> 

> who still retained the old

> Babylonian faith, until the sixth century

> 

> 

> of the present era, as the record by

> Damascius implies. Properly

> 

> 

> speaking, it is not a record of the

> creation, but the story of the

> 

> 

> fight between Bel and the Dragon, to

> which the account of the creation

> 

> 

> is prefixed by way of introduction.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Water the first creator.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The legend begins by stating that,

> when the heavens were unnamed and

> 

> 

> the earth bore no name, the prim�val

> ocean was the producer of all

> 

> 

> things, and Mummu Tiawath (the sea)

> she who brought forth everything

> 

> 

> existing. Their waters (that is, of

> the prim�val ocean and of the sea)

> 

> 

> were all united in one, and neither

> plains nor marshes were to be

> 

> 

> seen; the gods likewise did not

> exist, even in name, and the fates

> 

> 

> were undetermined- -nothing had been

> decided as to the future of

> 

> 

> things. Then arose the great gods.

> Lahmu and Lahame came first,

> 

> 

> followed, after a long period, by

> An�ar and Ki�ar, generally

> 

> 

> identified with the "host of

> heaven" and the "host of earth," these

> 

> 

> being the meanings of the component

> parts of their names. After a

> 

> 

> further long period of days, there

> came forth their son Anu, the god

> 

> 

> of the heavens.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The gods.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Here the narrative is defective, and

> is continued by Damascius in his

> 

> 

> /Doubts and Solutions of the First

> Principles/, in which he states

> 

> 

> that, after Anos (Anu), come Illinos

> (Ellila or Bel, "the lord" /par

> 

> 

> excellence/) and Aos (Aa, Ae, or

> �a), the god of Eridu. Of Aos and

> 

> 

> Dauk� (the Babylonian Aa and

> Damkina) is born, he says, a son called

> 

> 

> Belos (Bel-Merodach) , who, they

> (apparently the Babylonians) say, is

> 

> 

> the fabricator of the world--the

> creator.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The

> designs against them.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> At this point Damascius ends his

> extract, and the Babylonian tablet

> 

> 

> also becomes extremely defective.

> The next deity to come into

> 

> 

> existence, however, would seem to

> have been Nudimmud, who was

> 

> 

> apparently the deity Aa or �a (the

> god of the sea and of rivers) as

> 

> 

> the god of creation. Among the

> children of Tauth� (Tiawath) enumerated

> 

> 

> by Damascius is one named Moumis,

> who was evidently referred to in the

> 

> 

> document at that philosopher' s

> disposal. If this be correct, his name,

> 

> 

> under the form of Mummu, probably

> existed in one of the defective

> 

> 

> lines of the first portion of this

> legend--in any case, his name

> 

> 

> occurs later on, with those of

> Tiawath and Apsu (the Deep), his

> 

> 

> parents, and the three seem to be

> compared, to their disadvantage,

> 

> 

> with the progeny of Lahmu and

> Lahame, the gods on high. As the ways of

> 

> 

> these last were not those of

> Tiawath's brood, and Apsu complained that

> 

> 

> he had no peace by day nor rest by

> night on account of their

> 

> 

> proceedings, the three

> representatives of the chaotic deep, Tiawath,

> 

> 

> Apsu, and Mummu, discussed how they

> might get rid the beings who

> 

> 

> wished to rise to higher things.

> Mummu was apparently the prime mover

> 

> 

> in the plot, and the face of Apsu

> grew bright at the thought of the

> 

> 

> evil plan which they had devised

> against "the gods their sons." The

> 

> 

> inscription being very mutilated

> here, its full drift cannot be

> 

> 

> gathered, but from the complete

> portions which come later it would

> 

> 

> seem that Mummu's plan was not a

> remarkably cunning one, being simply

> 

> 

> to make war upon and destroy the

> gods of heaven.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> Tiawath's preparations.

> 

> 

> 

> 

> 

> The preparations made for this were

> elaborate. Restlessly, day and

> 

> 

> night, the powers of evil raged and

> toiled, and assembled for the

> 

> 

> fight. 'Mother Hubur," as

> Tiawath is named in this passage, called her

> 

> 

> creative powers into action, and

> gave her followers irresistible

> 

> 

> weapons. She brought into being also

> various monsters--giant serpents,

> 

> 

> sharp of tooth, bearing stings, and

> with poison filling their bodies

> 

> 

> like blood; terrible dragons endowed

> with brilliance, and of enormous

> 

> 

> stature, reared on high, raging

> dogs, scorpion-men, fish-men, and many

> 

> 

> other terrible beings, were created

> and equipped, the whole being

> 

> 

> placed under the command of a deity

> named Kingu, whom she calls her

> 

> 

> "only husband," and to

> whom she delivers the tablets of fate, which

> 

> 

> conferred upon him the godhead of

> Anu (the heavens), and enabled their

> 

> 

> possessor to