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Up: Mortality Change and Forecasting: Previous: 10 Literature Cited


J. M. Alho.
Stochastic methods in population forecasting.
International Journal of Forecasting, 6, 1990.

J. M. Alho.
Effect aggregation on the estimation of trends in mortality.
Mathematical Population Studies, 3(1), 1991a.

J. M. Alho.
Estimating the strength of expert judgement: The case of us mortality forecasts.
Journal of Forecasting, 10, 1991b.

J. M. Alho and B. D. Spencer.
Uncertain population forecasting.
Journal of the American Statistical Association, 80, 1985.

J. M. Alho and B. D. Spencer.
The practical specification of the expected error of population forecasts.
Symposium presentation 1027, 1995.

E. E. Arriaga.
Measuring and explaining the change in life expectancies.
Demography, 21(1):83-96, 1984.

S. M. Bah and F. Rajulton.
Has Canadian mortality entered the fourth stage of the epidemiologic transition?
Canadian Studies in Population, 18(2): 18-41, 1991.

F. R. Bayo and J. F. Faber.
Mortality experience around age 100.
Transactions of the Society of Actuaries, 35:37-64, 1983.

N. G. Bennett and S. J. Olshansky.
Forecasting US age and structure and the future of social security.
Population and Development Review, 22, 1996.

W. Brass.
On the scale of mortality.
In W. Brass, editor, Biological Aspects of Demography. Taylor and Francis, London, 1971.

D. R. Brillinger.
The natural variability of vital rates and associated statistics.
Biometrics, 42: 693-734, 1986.

R. A. Bulatao, E. Bos, P. W. Stephens, and M. T. Vu.
Projecting mortality for all countries.
Policy, Research, and External Affairs Working Paper 500, World Bank, 1989.

J. Carey, P. Liedo, D. Orozco, and J. Vaupel.
Slowing down of mortality rates at older ages in large medfly cohorts.
Science, 258: 457-463, 1992.

HIV & AIDS trends-the changing landscape of the epidemmic: A closer look.
Centers for Disease Control/ National Aids Clearinghouse, 1996.

A. Coale and G. Guo.
Revised regional model life tables at very low levels of mortality.
Population Index, 55: 613-643, 1989.

A. J. Coale and E. E. Kisker.
Mortality crossovers: Reality or bad data?
Population Studies, 40(November): 389-401, 1986.

A. J. Coale and E. E. Kisker.
Defects in data on old-age mortality in the United States: New procedures for calculating mortality schedules and life tables at the highest ages.
Asian and Pacific Population Forum, 4(1): 1-31, 1990.

G. A. Condran, C. L. Himes, and S. H. Preston.
Old-age mortality patterns in low-mortality countries: An evaluation of population and death data at advanced ages, 1950 to the present.
Population Bulletin of the United Nations, 30: 23-60, 1991.

Consejo Nacional de Poblaci�n (CONAPO).
Proyecciones de la poblaci�n de M�xico y de las entidades federativas 1990-2030, 1996.

E. Corder, L. Lannfelt, M. Vittanen, L. Corder, K. Manton, B. Winblad, and H. Basun.
Apolipoprotein E genotype determines survival in the oldest old (85 years or older) who have good cognition.
Archives of Neurology, 53 (5): 418-422, 1996.

E. M. Crimmins, M. D. Hayward, and Y. Saito.
Changing mortality and morbidity rates and the health status and life expectancy of the older population.
Demography, 31(1): 159-175, 1994.

S. Crystal and D. Shea.
Cumulative advantage, cumulative disadvantage, and inequality among elderly people.
The Gerontological Society of America, 30 (4), 1990a.

S. Crystal and D. Shea.
The economic well-being of the elderly.
Review of Income and Wealth, 1990b.

J. Curtsinger, H. Fukui, A. Kazaeli, A. Kirscher, S. Pletcher, D. E. Promislow, and M. Tatar.
Genetic variation and aging.
Annual Reviews of Genetics, 29: 553-75, 1995.

J. Curtsinger, H. Fukui, D. Townsend, and J. Vaupel.
Demography of genotypes: Failure of the limited life-span paradigm in drosophila melanogaster.
Science, 258: 461-463, 1992.

P. Das Gupta.
Standardization and decomposition of rates: A user's manual.
Current Population Reports P23-186, US Department of Commerce, 1993.

L. Demetrius.
Demographic parameters and natural selection.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 71(12): 4645-4647, 1974.

I. Elo and S. Preston.
Racial and ethnic differences in American mortality at older ages.
In Workshop on racial and ethnic differences in health in late life in the United States, pages 1-41, Washington D.C., 1994a. National Research Council. Committee on Population.

I. T. Elo and S. H. Preston.
Effects of early-life conditions on adult mortality: a review.
Population Index, 58 (2): 186-212, 1992.

I. T. Elo and S. H. Preston.
Estimating African-American mortality from inaccurate data.
Demography, 31 (3): 427-458, 1994b.

I. T. Elo and S. H. Preston.
Educational differentials in mortality: United states, 1979-85.
Social Science and Medicine, 42 (1): 47-57, 1996.

D. Ewbank, J. Gomez de Le�n, and M. Stoto.
A reducible four-parameter system of model life tables.
Population Studies, 37: 105-128, 1983.

D. C. Ewbank and S. J. Clark.
Apolipoprotein-E genotypes and the demography of Alzheimer's disease and ischemic heart disease.
Presentation, Population Association of America, New Orleans, 1996.

C. Finch.
Longevity, Senescence, and the Genome.
The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1991.

R. W. Fogel.
Economic growth, population theory, and physiology: the bearing of long-term processes on the making of economic policy.
American Economic Review, 84 (3): 369-95, 1994.

J. Fries.
The compression of morbidity, near or fear.
The Milbank Quarterly, 67: 208-232, 1989.

L. A. Gavrilov and N. S. Gavrilova.
The Biology of Life Span : a quantitative approach.
Harwood Academic Publishers, Chur [Switzerland] New York, 1991.

A. M. Gittelsohn.
On the distribution of underlying causes of death.
American Journal of Public Health, 72 (2): 133-140, 1982.

J. G. Gobalet.
World Mortality Trends Since 1870.
Garland Studies in Historical Demography. Garland Publishing Inc., New York, 1989.

J. Gomez de Le�n.
Empirical EDA models to fit and project time series of age specific mortality rates, 1990.

J. Gomez de Le�n and V. Partida Bush.
Estimaci�n de la Poblaci�n Base Para Las Proyecciones de Poblaci�n 1990-2030.
Consejo Nacional de Poblaci�n, 1996.

S. Goss, A. Wade, F. Bell, and B. Dussault.
Historical mortality data and projections for Mexico, Canada, and the United States, for Phase 1 of the Study.
Report for the Mortality Improvement Study, Society of Actuaries, 1997.

D. Harman.
The aging process: major risk factor for disease and death.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 88: 5360-5363, 1991.

T. Hastie and R. Tibshirani.
Generalized Additive Models.
Chapman and Hall, London, 1990.

L. Heligman and J. H. Pollard.
The age pattern of mortality.
Journal of the Institute of Actuaries, 107: 49-75, 1980.

A. Herskind, M. McGue, N. Holm, T. Sorensen, B. Havald, and J. Vaupel.
The heritability of human longevity: A population based study of 2872 Danish twin pairs born 1870-1900.
Human Genetics, 97: 319-323, 1996.

C. Himes.
Age patterns of mortality and cause of death structures in Sweden, Japan, and the United States.
Demography, 31 (4): 633-650, 1994.

C. L. Himes, S. H. Preston, and G. A. Condran.
A relational model of mortality at older ages in low mortality countries.
Population Index, 48: 269-291, 1994.

M. Hodge, G. Dougherty, and I. Pless.
Pediatric mortality and hospital use in Canada and the United State.
American Journal of Public Health, 85 (9): 1276-9, 1995.

M. R. Holmer.
Demographic results from SSASIM, a long-run stochastic simulation model of social security.
In Report of the 1994-1995 Advisory Council on Social Security: Reports of the Technical Panel on Assumptions and Methods; Technical Panel on Trends and Issues in Retirement Savings and Presentations to the Council, pages 183-222. United States Social Security Administration, 1995.

S. Horiuchi and A. Coale.
Age patterns of mortality for older women: An analysis using age-specific rate of mortality change with age.
Mathematical Population Studies, 2 (4): 245-267, 1990.

S. Horiuchi and J. Wilmoth.
Aging of mortality decline.
In Annual Meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, 1995.

S. Horiuchi and J. Wilmoth.
Age patterns of the life-table aging rate for major causes of death: Aging, disease and mortality in Japan, 1951-1990.
Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 52 (1): B67-77, 1996.

Y. Hu and N. Goldman.
Mortality differentials by marital status: An international comparison.
Demography, 27 (2): 233-250, 1990.

W. A. Jenkins and E. A. Lew.
A new mortality basis for annuities.
Transactions of the Society of Actuaries, I, 1949.

R. J. Johansen.
Review of adequacy of 1983 individual annuity mortality table.
Transactions of the Society of Actuaries, XLVII, 1995.

K. Joseph and M. Kramer.
Recent trends in Canadian infant mortality rates: effect of changes in registration of live newborns weighing less than 500 g.
Canadian Medical Association Journal, 155 (8): 1047-52, 1996.

V. Kannisto.
Development of oldest-old mortality, 1950-1990 : evidence from 28 developed countries.
Odense University Press, [Odense], 1994.

V. Kannisto, J. Lauritsen, A. R. Thatcher, and J. Vaupel.
Reductions in mortality at advanced ages: Several decades of evidence from 27 countries.
Population and Development Review, 20 (4): 793-810, 1994.

W. Kermack, A. McKendrick, and P. McKinlay.
Death rates in Great Britain and Sweden: Some general regularities and their significance.
Lancet, 226: 698-703, 1934.

B. Kestenbaum.
A description of the extreme aged population based on improved medicare enrollment data.
Demography, 29 (4): 565-580, 1992.

N. Keyfitz.
Introduction to the Mathematics of Population.
Addison Wesley, Reading, 1968.

N. Keyfitz.
Applied Mathematical Demography.
Wiley, New York, 1977.

N. Keyfitz.
Choice of function for mortality analysis: effective forecasting depends on a minimum parameter representation.
Theoretical Population Biology, 21: 329-352, 1982.

E. Kitagawa.
Components of a difference between two rates.
Journal of the American Statistical Association, 50: 1168-1194, 1955.

E. M. Kitagawa and P. M. Hauser.
Differential Mortality in the United States: A Study of Socioeconomic Epidemiology.
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1973.

S. J. Kunitz.
Explanations and ideologies of mortality patterns.
Population and Development Review, 13 (3): 379-408, 1987.

R. Lee and S. Tuljapurkar.
Death and taxes: Longer life, consumption, and social security.
Demography, 34 (1): 67-81, 1997.

R. D. Lee.
Stochastic demographic forecasting.
International Journal of Forecasting, 8: 315-327, 1992.

R. D. Lee.
The formal demography of population aging, transfers and the economic life cycle.
In L. G. Martin and S. H. Preston, editors, Demography of Aging. National Academy Press, Washington DC, 1994.

R. D. Lee and L. Carter.
Modeling and forecasting the time series of us mortality.
journal of the American Statistical Association, 87: 659-671, 1992.

R. D. Lee and F. Nault.
Modeling and forecasting Canadian mortality: An application of the Lee-Carter approach, with extensions.
World Congress of the IUSSP, Montreal, 1992.

R. D. Lee and J. Skinner.
Assessing forecasts of mortality, health status and health costs during baby bommers' retirement.
In E. A. Hanushek and N. L. Maritato, editors, Assessing Knowledge of Retirement Behavior, pages 195-243. National Academy Press, Washington DC, 1996.

E. A. Lew and L. Garfinckel.
Mortality at ages 65 and over in a middle-class population.
Transactions of the Society of Actuaries, 36: 257-308, 1984.

A. D. Lopez.
The sex mortality differential in developed countries.
In A. Lopez and L. Ruzicka, editors, Sex Differentials in Mortality: Trends, Determinants, and Consequences, pages 53-120. Department of Demography, Australia National University, Canberra, 1981.

D. G. Manton and E. Stallard.
Recent Trends in Mortality Analysis.
Academic Press, 1984.

K. Manton, E. Stallard, and J. Vaupel.
Alternative estimates of the heterogeneity of mortality risks among the aged: Analysis of medicare data for 1968-1978.
Journal of the American Statistical Association, 81: 635-645, 1986.

K. G. Manton.
Forecasting life expectancy and active life expectancy, 1986.

K. G. Manton.
The dynamics of population aging: Demography and policy analysis.
The Milbank Quarterly, 69 (2), 1991.

K. G. Manton, C. H. Patrick, and E. Stallard.
Mortality model based on delays in progression of chronic diseases: Alternative to cause elimination model.
Public Health Reports, 96 (6): 580-588, 1980.

K. G. Manton and E. Stallard.
Medical demography: Interaction of disability dynamics and mortality.
In L. G. Martin and S. H. Preston, editors, Demography of Aging, pages 217-278. National Academy Press, Washington DC, 1994.

K. G. Manton and E. Stallard.
Longevity in the u.s.: Age and sex specific evidence on life span limits from mortality patterns 1960-1990.
Technical Report JG-0321 BS, Center for Demographic Studies Duke University, 1995.

K. G. Manton, E. Stallard, and B. H. Singer.
Methods for projecting the future size and health status of the US elderly population.
In D. A. Wise, editor, Studies in the Economics of Aging. The Univ. of Chicago Press, 1993.

K. G. Manton, E. Stallard, and D. H. Tolley.
Limits to human life expectancy.
Population and Development Review, 17 (4), 1991.

K. G. Manton, E. Stallard, M. A. Woodbury, and E. J. Dowd.
Time-varying covariates in models of human mortality and aging: Multidimensional generalizations of the Gompertz.
Journal of Gerontology, 4, 1994.

K. G. Manton, M. A. Woodbury, and E. Stallard.
Forecasts of the theoretical limits to human life expectancy.
Workshop on Estimating an Upper Limit to Human Life Expectancy, University of California, Berkeley, 1988.

T. McKeown.
The Modern Rise of Population.
Academic Press, New York, 1976.

R. McNown.
Modeling and forecasting us mortality: Comment.
Journal of the American Statistical Association, 1992.

R. McNown and A. Rogers.
Forecasting mortality: A parametrized time series approach.
Demography, 26: 645-660, 1989.

R. McNown and A. Rogers.
Forecasting cause-specific mortality using time series methods.
International Journal of Forecasting, 8: 413-432, 1992.

P. Menchik.
Economic status as a determinant of mortality among black and white older men: Does poverty kill?
Population Studies, 47 (3): 427-436, 1993.

M. Morgan.
Marital status, health, illness and service use.
Social Science and Medicine, 17 (6): 321-333, 1980.

G. C. Myers and K. G. Manton.
Compression of mortality: Myth or reality?
The Gerontologist, 24 (4): 346-353, 1984.

R. J. Myers.
United States life tables for 1969-71.
Transactions of the Society of Actuaries, 28: 93-125, 1976.

R. J. Myers and F. R. Bayo.
United States life tables for 1979-1981.
Transactions of the Society of Actuaries, 37 (1): 303-350, 1985.

D. Nagnur.
Rectangularization of the survival curve and entropy: The Canadian experience 1921-1981.
Canadian Studies in Population, 13 (1): 83-102, 1986.

D. Nagnur and M. Nagrodski.
Epidemiologic transition in the context of demographic change: the evolution of Canadian mortality patterns.
Canadian Studies in Population, 17 (1): 1-24, 1990.

National Center for Health Statistics.
United States Life Tables. US Decennial Life Tables for 1979-1981, volume 1.
US Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 1985.

National Center for Health Statistics.
Methodology of the National and State Life Tables. US Decennial Life Tables for 1979-1981.
US Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 1987.

National Center for Health Statistics.
NCHS Monthly Vital Statistics Report.
Report of Final Mortality Statistics, 45 (11 Supp. 2), 1995.

E. Ng.
Reductions in age-specific mortality among children and seniors in Canada and the United States, 1971-1989.
Health Reports/Rapports sur la Sante,, 4 (4): 367-78, 1992.

J. M. Olichney, M. N. Sabbagh, C. R. Hofstetter, D. Galasko, M. Grundman, R. Katzman, and L. J. Thal.
The impact of apolipoprotein E4 on cause of death in Alzheimer's disease.
Neurology, 49 (1): 76-81, 1997.

J. S. Olshansky.
On forecasting mortality.
The Milbank Quarterly, 66 (3): 482-530, 1988.

J. S. Olshansky, B. A. Carnes, and C. Cassel.
In search of Methuselah: Estimating the upper limits to human longevity.
Science, 250 (November 2): 634-640, 1990.

S. Olshansky and B. A. Carnes.
Demographic perspectives on human senescence.
Population and Development Review, 20 (1), 1994.

S. J. Olshansky and A. B. Ault.
The fourth stage of the epidemiologic transition: The age of delayed degenerative diseases.
Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, 65: 355-391, 1986.

S. J. Olshansky, B. Carnes, R. G. Rogers, and L. Smith.
Infectious diseases-new and ancient threats to world health.
Population Bulletin, 52 (2): 1-52, 1997.

A. A. Omran.
The epidemiologic transition: A theory of the epidemiology of population change.
Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, 49: 509-38, 1971.

R. Pearl.
The Rate of Living.
Alfred Knopf, New York, 1923.

J. Pollard and K. Streathfield.
Factors Affecting Mortality And The Length of Life.
Number 197. School of Economic and Financial Studies, Macquarie University, North Ryde, Australia, 1979.

J. H. Pollard.
Some methodological issues in the measurement of sex mortality patterns.
In A. D. Lopez and L. T. Ruzicka, editors, Sex Differentials In Mortality: trends, determinants and consequences. PB Consulting Service, Canberra, 1983.

J. H. Pollard.
Projection of age-specific mortality rates.
Population Bulletin of the United Nations, 21 (22): 55-69, 1987.

J. H. Pollard.
On the decomposition of changes in expectation of life and differentials in life expectancy.
Demography, 25 (2): 265-276, 1988.

S. Preston, N. Keyfitz, and R. Schoen.
Causes of death: Life tables for national populations.
Populations, 1972.

S. H. Preston.
Mortality Patterns in National Populations, with special reference to recorded cause of death.
Academic Press, New York, 1976.

S. H. Preston.
Sources of variation in vital rates: An overview.
In J. Adams, D. Lam, A. Hermalin, and P. Smouse, editors, Convergent Issues in Genetics and Demography, pages 335-350. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1990.

S. H. Preston.
Demographic change in the united states, 1970-2050.
In K. G. Manton, B. H. Singer, and R. M. Suzman, editors, Forecasting The Health of Elderly Populations, pages 51-77. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1991.

S. H. Preston and I. T. Elo.
Are educational differentials in mortality increasing in the United States?
Journal of Aging and Health, 74 (4): 476-496, 1995.

S. H. Preston, I. T. Ilo, I. Rosenwaike, and M. Hill.
African-American mortality at older ages: results of a matching study.
Demography, 33 (2): 193-209, 1996.

S. H. Preston and P. Taubman.
Socioeconomic differences in adult mortality and health status.
In L. Martin and S. Preston, editors, Demography of Aging, pages 279-318. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1994.

S. Queen, G. Pappas, H. W, and G. Fisher.
The widening gap between socioeconomic status and mortality.
MetLife Statistical Bulletin, pages 31-50, 1994.

A. Rogers and F. Planck.
Model: A general program for estimating parameterized model schedules of fertility, mortality, migration, and marital and labor force status transitions.
Working paper 83-102, International Institute for Applied System Analysis, 1983.

A. Rogers, R. G. Rogers, and A. Belanger.
Longer life but worse health? measurement and dynamics.
Gerontologist, 30 (5): 640-649, 1990a.

A. Rogers, R. G. Rogers, and L. G. Branch.
A multistate analysis of active life expectancy.
Public Health Reports, 104 (3), 1989.

R. Rogers, A. Rogers, and A. Belanger.
Disability-free life among the elderly in the United States: Sociodemographic correlates of functional health.
Journal of Aging and Health, 4 (1): 19-42, 1992.

R. G. Rogers and R. Hackenberg.
Extending epidemiologic transition theory: a new stage.
Social Biology, 34 (3-4): 234-43, 1987.

R. G. Rogers, A. Rogers, and A. Belanger.
Active life among the elderly in the United States: Multistate life-table estimates and population projections.
Milbank Quarterly, 64 (3-4): 370-411, 1990b.

M. Rose.
Evolutionary Biology of Aging.
Oxford University Press, New York, 1991.

I. Rosenwaike.
A new evaluation of us census data on the extreme aged.
Demography, 16 (2), 1979.

I. Rosenwaike.
A note on new estimates of the mortality of the extreme aged.
Demography, 18 (2), 1981.

I. Rosenwaike and B. Logue.
Accuracy of death certificates for the extreme aged.
Demography, 20 (4), 1983.

R. Rothenberg, H. R. Lentzner, and R. A. Parker.
Population aging patterns: The expansion of mortality.
Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 46 (2): s66-70, 1991.

C. Scriver.
The Canadian Rutherford lecture: An evolutionary view of disease in man.
Proc. R. Soc., 220: 273-298, 1984.

D. W. Smith.
Human Longevity.
Oxford University Press, New York, 1993.

J. P. Smith and R. Kington.
Race, socioeconomic status, and health in late life. Workshop on racial and ethnic differences in health in late life in the United States.
Technical report, Committee on Population, National Research Council, 1995.

Society of Actuaries.
Mortality trends and projections.
Transactions of the Society of Actuaries, 19: D428-493, 1967.

Society of Actuaries.
Mortality trends.
Transactions of the Society of Actuaries, 21: D895-D910, 1969.

Society of Actuaries.
Report of the committee to recommend a new mortality basis for individual annuity valuation (derivation of the 1983 table a).
Transactions of the Society of Actuaries, 33: 675-750, 1981.

Society of Actuaries Group Annuity Valuation Table Task Force.
1994 group annuity mortality table and 1994 group annuity reserving table.
Transactions of the Society of Actuaries, XLVII: 865-919, 1996.

G. Spencer.
Projections of the population of the United States by age, sex and race: 1988-2080.
Current Population Reports p-25, U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1989.

M. Stoto and J. Durch.
National health objectives for the year 2000: the demographic impact of health promotion and disease prevention.
American Journal of Public Health, 81: 1456-1465, 1991.

M. A. Stoto.
Dealing with uncertainty: Statistics for an aging population.
The American Statistician, 42 (2): 103-110, 1988.

M. Sze.
Stochastic simulation of the financial status of the social security trust funds in the next 75 years.
In Report of the 1994-1995 Advisory Council on Social Security: Reports of the Technical Panel on Assumptions and Methods; Technical Panel on Trends and Issues in Retirement Savings and Presentations to the Council, pages 223-250. United States Social Security Administration, 1995.

F. Trovato.
Mortality differentials in Canada by marital status.
Canadian Studies in Population, 19 (2): 111-143, 1992.

J. Tsevat, M. Weinstein, L. Williams, T. ANA, and L. Goldman.
Expected gains in life expectancy from various coronary heart disease risk factor modifications.
Circulation, 83: 1194-1201, 1991.

S. Tuljapurkar.
Forecasting mortality change: Questions and assumptions.
Report Part C for the Mortality Improvement Study, Society of Actuaries, 1997a.

S. D. Tuljapurkar.
Taking the measure of uncertainty.
Nature, 387: 760-761, 1997b.

S. D. Tuljapurkar.
Theoretical Perspectives on the Evolution of Senescence.
In , Wachter and Finch [], 1997c.

United Nations.
Mortality trends among the elderly, 1960-1990.
In Demographic Yearbook, pages 29-38. United Nations, New York, 1992.

U.S. Bureau of the Census.
Population estimates by race and Hispanic origin for states, metropolitan areas, and selected counties.
Current Population Reports, Series P-25, (1040-RD-1), 1989.
Washington, DC.

U.S. Department of Commerce.
Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1996, 116 edition, 1996.

U.S. Social Security Administration.
Life tables for the united states social security area 1900-2080.
Actuarial Study No. 107, 1992.
SSA Pub. No. 11-11536.

U.S. Social Security Administration.
Social security area population projections:1996.
Actuarial Study No. 110, 1996.

J. Vallin.
Mortality in europe from 1720 to 1914: Long-term trends and changes in patterns by age and sex.
In R. Schofield, D. Reher, and A. Bideau, editors, The Decline of Mortality in Europe, pages 38-67. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1991.

J. Vallin.
Can sex differentials in mortality be explained by socio-economic mortality differentials?
In A. Lopez, G. Caselli, and T. Valkonen, editors, Adult Mortality in Developed Countries: From Description to Explanation, pages 179-200. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1995.

J. Vaupel, K. Manton, and E. Stallard.
The impact of heterogeneity in individual frailty on the dynamics of mortality.
Demography, 16: 439-454, 1979.

J. Vaupel and A. Yashin.
The deviant dynamics of death in heterogenous populations.
In N. B. Tuma, editor, Sociological Methodology 1985, pages 179-211. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1985.

J. W. Vaupel.
How change in age-specific mortality affects life expectancy.
Population Studies, 40: 147-157, 1986.

J. W. Vaupel, T. E. Johnson, and G. J. Lithgow.
Rates of mortality in populations of caenorhabditis elegans.
Science, 1994.

J. W. Vaupel and H. Lundstrom.
The future of mortality at older ages in developed countries.
Population and Development Review, 1993.

J. W. Vaupel, A. Yashin, and K. G. Manton.
Debilitation's aftermath: Stochastic process models of mortality.
Mathematical Population Studies, 1 (1): 21-48, 1988.

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horizontal rule

Shripad Tuljapurkar and Carl Boe
Mountain View Research, Inc.


jewn McCain

ASSASSIN of JFK, Patton, many other Whites

killed 264 MILLION Christians in WWII

killed 64 million Christians in Russia

holocaust denier extraordinaire--denying the Armenian holocaust

millions dead in the Middle East

tens of millions of dead Christians

LOST $1.2 TRILLION in Pentagon
spearheaded torture & sodomy of all non-jews
millions dead in Iraq

42 dead, mass murderer Goldman LOVED by jews

serial killer of 13 Christians

the REAL terrorists--not a single one is an Arab

serial killers are all jews

framed Christians for anti-semitism, got caught
left 350 firemen behind to die in WTC

legally insane debarred lawyer CENSORED free speech

mother of all fnazis, certified mentally ill

10,000 Whites DEAD from one jew LIE

moser HATED by jews: he followed the law Jesus--from a "news" person!!

1000 fold the child of perdition


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