Parts 25 through 30
By Willie Martin

Jew Watch

Vipers - Part 25

   1464: (Apr. 12) Jews plundered and murdered by soldiers in Cracow.

   1467: Eighteen Jews Burned at Nuremberg.

   1468: Jews Expelled from Neisse by the gilds. Blood Accusation brought against Jews of Sepulveda.

   1469: Jews plundered and slain at Posen.

   1470: Jews Expelled from Bishopric of Mayence.

   1473: Marranos of Valladolid and Cordoba Massacred. Expulsion from Mains.

   1474: Marranos of Segovia Massacred.

   1475: Bernardinus of Feltre preaches against the Jews in Italy. The Jews charged with the murder of Simon of Trent for ritual purposes. Riots in padua and elsewhere in Italy and Sicily. Jews expelled from several towns. Blood Libel; (Ritual Murder) of Trent. Beginning of Hebrew printing (Rashi printed in Reggio di Calabria).

   1476: Blood Accusation in Regensburg through the convert Wolfram.

   1477: Jews plundered at Colmar and burned at Passau; The rest expelled through Bishop.

   1478: Jews Expelled from Diocese of Bamberg on account of Simon of Trent affair.

   1479: Castile and Aragon united.

   1480: Inquisition established in Spain.

   1481: The inquisition against the Maranos established in Seville and at other places in Castile.

   1482: Inquisition established in Aragon; The Jew Thomas de Torquemada, chief inquisitor.

   1483: Torquemada appointed inquisitor general. Expulsion from Warsaw.

   1484: Jews Expelled from Eries.

   1486: (Feb. 12) Auto de f. at Toledo at which 740 were absolved. (Dec. 10) Another auto at same place; 900 Jews "reconciled."

   1488: (Jan. 25) First auto at Barcelona. (May 24 and July 30) Autos da f. at Toledo: at former, 21 Jews burned, 400 punished; and latter, 76 burned.

   1490: (Dec.) Jews Expelled from Geneva.

   1490-91: La Guardia Blood Libel; (Ritual Murder).

   1492: (Aug. 2) Expulsion of the Jews from Spain. Expulsion from Castile and Aragon. Conquest of Granada; discovery of America. Onward, the sultans open the gates of the Ottoman Empire for the refugees from Spain.

   1492-93: Expulsion from Sicily.

   1494: Jews plundered in Naples. Blood accusation at Tyrnau.

   1495: Jews Expelled from Florence, but readmitted after a few months on account of their utility; Jews Expelled from Lithuania.

   1496: Expulsion of Jews from Styria. Manoel of Portugal orders the Jews to accept baptism of leave the country.

   1497: Onward, refugees from Portugal welcomed by the sultans.

   1498: The exiles settled in Navarre banished. Jews Expelled from Nuremberg and Ulm.

   1501: (July) Fifty-four Jews burned at Seville.

   1502: Appearance of the Pseudo-Messiah Asher L�mmlein. Dialcghi di Amore by Judah Abrabanel.

   1503: Pfefferkorn denounces Reuchlin. (March 22) Jews permitted to return to Lithuania. (Dec. 27) Judaizing followers of Zechariah of Kiev burned at Moscow.

   1504: Sefer ha-Yuhasin by Abraham Zacuto.

   1505: Jews Expelled from Orange. All slain at Budweis on a child-murder accusation.

   1506: Massacre of Marranos in Lisgon.

   1508: Burning of Jewish books at Frankfort. Thirty-eight Jews burned in Berlin for host-desecration and child-murder (Gr�tz, ix. 94).

   1510: Burning of Jewish books at Frankfort. Thirty-eight Jews burned in Berlin for host-desecration and Child-Murder (Gr�tz, ix.94). Expulsion from Brandenburg.

   1514: Abraham Judaeus Bohemus appointed tax collector of the Jews of Poland.

   1515-16: Jacob ibn Habib's Ein Ya'akov published.

   1516: (March) Venice sets apart a special quarter for a ghetto (first use of the term). Palestine conquered by the Turks.

   1517: Martin Luther publishes his 95 theses.

   1519: Expulsion from Regensburg.

   1520-23: First complete editions of the Talmuds printed.

   1524: The Jews of Cairo threatened with destruction by Ahmad Shaitan, viceroy of Egypt. Jews return to Genoa.

   1524-25: Mikra Gedolot edition of the Bible.

   1526: Battle of Mohacs; Turks rout Hungarians.

   1529: (May 21) Thirty Jews Burned at P�sing on Blood Accusation. Solomon Molko (Diogo Pires, 1501-32 Begins His Messianic Agitation).

   1530: (Aug. 12) Josel of Rosheim obtains extension of Alsatian privileges from Charles V.

   1531: Clement VII. issues a bull establishing the Portuguese Inquisition for Maranos.

   1532: Solomon Molcho Burned at Mantua.

   1534-36: Sigismund I absolves Jews from wearing the badge. Calvin publishes Institution Chretienne.

   1538: Jacob Berab renews semikhah in Safed.

   1541: Jews Expelled from Naples. Expulsion from Prague and crown cities.

   1542: Jews Expelled from Bohemia because of fires in Prague and other towns. Pseudo-Messiah (David Reuveni?) burned at Evora.

   1543: Luther publishes his attack on the Jews.

   1545-63: Council of Trent.

   1548: (July 10) Eighteen hundred Maranos released from the prisons of the Inquisition in Portugal.

   1549: Obadiah of Bertinoro's commentary on the Mishnah published.

   1550: (April 2) Jews Banished from Genoa.

   1551: Jews Expelled from Bavaria and W�rttenberg. Community leaders given wide juridical and administrative powers.

   1554: (June 21) Rabbinical synod at Ferrars. Censorship of Hebrew books introduced. Solomon ibn Verga's Shevet Yehudah published.

   1555: Paul IV. issues the bull "Cum Nimis Absurdum." that Jews be confined to ghettos. Jews Expelled from the Palatinate. Peace of Augsburg. Joseph Caro's Beit Yosef published.

   1556: Twenty-four Jews of Ancona Hanged and Burned by order of Paul IV. Burning of Marranos in Ancona.

   1558-60: The Zohar printed.

   1564: Joseph Caro's Shulhan Arukh published.

   1566: Joseph Nasi created duke of Naxos.

   1567: Don Joseph Nassi appointed ruler of Naxos and eleven other islands of the Grecian archipelago. (June 15) Jews Expelled from Genoese Territory.

   1568: Isaac Luria Levi (1534-72), cabalist, Pretends to be the Messiah, son of Joseph.

   1569: (Feb. 26) Bull of Pius V. "Hebraeorum Gens." Expels Jews from Papal States except Rome, Bologna, and Ancona.

   1569-72: Isaac Luria in Safed. Moses Isserles' Mappah published.

   1570: Solomon Ashkenaze sent as an envoy to Venice by Sultan Selim II.

   1572: Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day.

   1573: (Jan. 28) The Jew Lippold executed at Berlin; All Jews Expelled from Brandenburg.

   1576: Stephen Bathori allows the Jews of Poland to carry on trade without restrictions. Stephen Bathory issues decrees against Blood Libel; (Ritual Murder).

   1580: First extant takkanah of the Council of Four Lands.

   1581: The Netherlands proclaim independence from Spain.

   1582: Jews Expelled from Silesia.

   1584: Gregory XIII orders compulsory sermons to Jews.

   1586: The Jews of Poland establish the Council of Four Lands; Mordecal Jafe probably its first president.

   1588: Destruction of the Spanish Armada.

   1590: Marranos settle in Amsterdam.

   1592: (Aug. 17) Papal edict forbids Jews to admit Christians into synagogues, etc. David Gans publishes Zemah David.

   1593: Clement VIII. Expels the Jews from all the Papal States except Rome and Ancona. The first Marrano settlement in Holland made at Amsterdam under Jacob Tirado.

   1596: Persecution of The Persian Jews by Shah Abbas the Great.

   1597: Shalshelet ha-Kabbalah by Gedaliah b. Joseph ibn Yahia published. Expulsion from Milan.

   1598: Bet Jacob synagogue consecrated at Amsterdam. Edict of Nantes.

   1603: Takkanot of the Synod at Frankfort.

   1612: Portuguese Jews granted right of residence in Hamburg.

   1612-21: Hiddushei Halakhot of Samuel Edels published.

   1613: First Romanov Czar.

   1614: (Sept. 2) Vincent Fettmilch's attack upon the Jews of Frankfort. Fettmitch's attack upon the Jews of Frankfort.

   1615: Jews of Worms Banished.

   1616: Jews return to Frankfort and Worms.

   1617: "Neue St�ttigkeit" for Frankfort makes right of domicil for Jews perpetual. Yom Tov Lipmann Heller completes Tosefot Yom Tov.

   1618: Beginning of Thirty Years' War.

   1620: Mayflower arrives at Plymouth Rock; Battle of the White Mountain.

   1623: Separate council for Lithuania established (Poland-Lithuania).

   1624: Ghetto established at Ferrara. Excommunication of Uriel da Costa.

   1629: (June 26) Lippman Heller forced to leave his post as rabbi in Prague.

   1632: (April 20) Proselyte Nicolas Antoine burned at Geneva. (July 4) Auto da f. at Madrid.

   1639-40: Dutch West India Company grants Jews of Guiana full religious liberty.

   1642: Six hundred Jews of Amsterdam with Isaac Aboab as hakam settle at Pernambuco.

   1646: The Jews in Brazil side with the Dutch in their war with the Portuguese.

   1648: The beginning of the Cossack persecutions of the Jews in Poland under Chmielnicki. Treaty of Westphalia.

   1648-49: Chmielnicki Massacres (Poland-Lithuania).

   1649-60: The Commonwealth in England. Expulsion from Hamburg.

   1650-52: Manasseh Ben Israel publishes Hope of Israel. Two leagues along the coast of Curacao granted to David Nassi for a Jewish colony.

   1654: (July 8) Twenty-four Jews land at New Amsterdam from Brazil. Portuguese recapture Brazil. Jews arrive in New Amsterdam (New York) and found congregation; refugees from Brazil found communities in West Indies.

   1655: (Oct.) Menasseh ben Israel goes to London to obtain from Cromwell the readmission of Jews into England.

   1655-56: Massacres during Wars of Poland against Sweden and Russia (Poland-Lithuania).

   1656: Readmission of Jews to England. Baruch Spinoza excommunicated.

   1657: (Feb. 4) Resettlement Day; Oliver Cromwell grants Carvajal right of residence for Jews in England.

Vipers - Part 26

   1658: Congregation founded at Newport (America).

   1659: (Feb. 26) Jews Expelled from all the Papal States except Rome and Ancona.

   1660: Jews Expelled from Kiev by Alexis.

   1664: Riot in Lemberg (Lvov) (Poland-Lithuania).

   1665: Shabbethai Zebi (1626-1676) publicly accepted as the Messiah at Smyrna; fervor spreads throughout the Jewish world. (Ottoman  Empire).

   1666: Great Fire of London. Shabbetai converts to Islam. (Ottoman Empire).

   1667: (Feb. 14) Jews run races at the Roman carnival for the last time.

   1670: Jews Banished from Vienna and Lower Austria by Emperor Leopold I. Synod of Lithuanian rabbis and deputies settle spheres of jurisdiction in relation to central kahals. Blood Libel; (Ritual Murder) in Mets.

   1671: Frederick William, the Great Elector, grants a privilege for twenty years to fifty families driven from Austria. Jews permitted to settle in the Mark of Brandenburg.

   1677: Death of Spinoza in The Netherlands.

   1678: Appearance of the pseudo-Messiah Mordecai Moshiah of Eisenstadt.

   1680: (June 30) Auto da f. at Madrid. Riots in Brest-Litovsk (Poland-Lithuania).

   1682: (May 10) Auto da f. at Lisbon. Riots in Cracow (Poland-Lithuania).

   1683: Siege of Vienna by Turks.

   1685: Jews given religious freedom in England.

   1686: Jews the victims of the Imperialist soldierly at the recapture of Buda from Turks.

   1687: Jews of Poznan Attacked (Poland-Lithuania).

   1689-1725: Peter the Great Czar of Russia.

   1690: Ninety Jews from Curaco settle at Newport. R.I.

   1695: Jews forbidden to enter Sweden by Charles IX. Jews settle in Charleston, S.C.

   1700: The house of Oppenheimer in Vienna attacked by a mob. Eisenmenger attempts to publish his "entdecktes Judenthum." Judah Hasid and his group arrive in Jerusalem in Palestine.

   1701: Bevis Marks Synagogue built in England.

   1703: Jonas Aaron settles in Philadelphia. Death of Samuel Oppenheimer in Austria.

   1710: The "Judenordnung" of Hamburg determines the social condition of the Jews of that city.

   1711: Eisenmenger's Endecktes Judenthum published.

   1712: First public synagogue in Berlin. Jews of Sandomierz expelled after Blood Libel; (Ritual Murder) (Poland-Lithuania).

   1716: (July 24-25) Serious uprising against the Jews at storming of Posen.

   1723: Residence of Portuguese Jews legalized by a letter patent in France. General Council of Jews of Piedmont in Italy.

   1726: Familiants Laws of Austria.

   1727: (April 26) Jews Expelled from Russia and the Ukraine by Catharine. (Nov. 15) Act passed by General Assembly of New York permitting Jews to omit "on the faith of a Christian" from oath of abjuration.

   1730: First public synagogue in New York (America).

   1732: (Sept. 2) 'Editto sopra gil Ebrei' of Clement III. renews all restrictions against Jews of Rome.

   1733: (July) Forty Jews from Lisbon arrive at Savannah, Ga. (America)

   1734-36: Attacks by the Haidamacks (Poland-Lithuania).

   1738: (Feb. 4) Joseph S�ss Oppenheimer executed at Vienna Germany.

   1740: (Feb. 3) Charles the Burgon, King of Naples and of the two Sicilies, invites the Jews back for fifty years. (July 11) Jews Expelled from Little Russia by Czarina Anne. Act passed by English Parliament naturalizing Jews settled in the American colonies.

   1742: (Dec. 2) Jews Expelled from Great Russia by Czarina Elizabeth. Hayyim Attar and his group arrive in Jerusalem in Palestine. Congregation founded at Philadelphia (America).

   1743: Moses Hayyim Luzzatto publishes La-Yesharim Tehillah.

   1744: (Dec. 18) Expulsion of Jews from Bohemia and Moravia.

   1747: Bull of Benedict XIV. decides that a Jewish child baptized even against canonical law, must be brought up under Christian influences.

   1748: Jews permitted to remain in Bohemia on payment of a "Judensteuer" of 216,000 florins. Prague Jews allowed to return.

   1749: Congregation founded at Charleston (America).

   1750: (April 17) Frederick the Great issues a "generaiprivilegium" for Prussian Jews. Severe legislation against the Jews in Prussia.

   1751: Beginning of Eybeschuetz emden controversy.

   1753: Act passed by England Parliament permitting Jews to be naturalized. "No Jews, no wooden shoes" riots in England.

   1754: Act granting naturalization to English Jews repealed.

   1755: First work of Moses Mendelssohn published.

   1756: Blood Accusation in Jampol, Poland.

   1756-63: Seven Years' War.

   1757: Jacob Frank becomes leaders of the Shabbethaians. Bishop of Kamenitz-Podolsk orders Talmuds to be burned. Disputation with the Frankists at Kamenets-Podolski (Poland-Lithuania).

   1759: Disputation with the Frankists at Lemberg (Lvov). (Poland-Lithuania).

   1760: Board of Deputies of British Jews established in England. Death of Israel b. Eliezer Ba'al Shem Tov, formation of Hassid sect.

   1761: Persecution of Jews in Yemen. Cardinal Ganganelli's memorandum against the Blood Libel; (Ritual Murder) in Italy.

   1762: Isaac de Pinto's Apologie pour la Nation Juive in answer to Voltaire's defamation of Judaism.

   1764: Maria Theresa's Judenordnung (Austria-Hungary). Council of Four Lands abrogated.

   1767: (June 20) Cossacks slay thousands of Jews at Homel.

   1768: Haidamack massacres (Poland-Lithuania).

   1769: Mendelssohn-Lavater controversy in Germany.

   1772: Jews settle in Stockholm, Kariskrona, and Gothenburg, by favor of Gustavus III. First partition of Poland. First herem on the Hasidim; Jews of eastern Poland under Russian rule (Russia).

   1776: (Oct. 17) Senatorial decree of Russia grants freedom of settlement and other rights to baptized Jews. American Declaration of Independence.

   1777: Menahem Mendel of Vitebsk and his group of Hasidim settle in Galilee in Palestine.

   1778: Deaths of Rousseau and Voltaire.

   1780: Jacob Joseph of Polonnoye's Toledot Ya'akov Yosef published.

   1780-83: Publication of Mendelssohn's Biur.

   1781: Joseph II. of Austria abolishes the Jewish poll-tax, and grants civil liberties to the Jews. C.W. von Gohm's Ueber die buergerliche Verbesscrung der Juden Christian plea for Jewish emancipation. Second herem on the Hasidim (Poland-Lithuania).

   1782: Joseph II. issues his Toleration Edict. Joseph II's Toleranzpatent; Naphtali Herz Wessely's Divrei Shalom ve-Emert.

   1783: Jews eligible for municipal councils in Russia. Mendelssohn publishes Jerusalem; Ha-Me'assef founded.

   1784: Body tax abolished in France.

   1786: Death of Moses Mendelssohn in Germany.

   1787: Frederick William II. removes the "Leibzoll" in Prussia.

   1789: Beginning of the French Revolution. Sur la Regeneration Physique, Morale et Politique des Juifs by Abbe Gregoire in France. U.S. Constitution; George Washington first president of U.S.

   1790: The French National Assembly grants citizenship to the Sephardic Jews of Bordeaux in France. New constitution for Jews of Silesia; a few receive general privileges, etc.

   1791: The French National Assembly grants full civil rights to the Jews of France. Pale of Settlement established in Russia.

   1792: "Judenamt" opened in Vienna.

   1793: Second partition of Poland. Attack on the ghetto of Rome in Italy.

   1793-97: First Coalition against France.

   1794: Berek Joselewicz colonel under Kosciuszko.

   1795: Third partition of Poland.

   1796: Jews of Holland declared by the National Assembly to be full citizens of the Batavian Republic.

   1797: (Aug. 1) Two Jews, Bromet and De Lemon, elected members of the second National Assembly of Holland. Peace of Campo Formio. Tanya (likkutei Amarim) of Shneur Zalman of Lyady published.

   1797-99: Temporary emancipation brought by French revolutionary army in Italy.

   1799: Napoleon becomes First Consul. Napoleon's campaign in Palestine.

   1801: "Leibzoll" removed in Nassau. Peace of Luneville.

   1803: Israel Jacobson and Wolff Breidenbach agitate the ablution of the poll-tax for Jews in Germany. Louisiana Purchase (America).

   1804: (Dec. 9) "Enactment concerning the Jews" passed by Alexander I. of Russia. Napoleon crowned emperor.

   1805: Battles of Traflgar and Austerlitz.

   1806: End of Holy Roman Empire.

   1806-07: Assembly of Jewish Notables in France.

   1807: The Great Sanhedrin convened by Napoleon; Jeseph David Sinzheim president. Treaty of Tilsit. French Sanhedrin in France.

   1808: (Jan. 27) Jerome Napoleon issues decree giving full civil rights to Jews of Westphalia. (Dec. 11) Napoleon at Madrid issues decree dividing the French empire into Jewish consistories. Emancipation in Westphalia consistory in Kassel in Germany.

   1808-10: Disciples of Elijah Gaon settle in Palestine.

   1809: Law of Baden forms Jews into special religious community will all privileges.

   1811: The Jews of Hamburg and Frankfort Germany emancipated. Jews of Vienna allowed to build a synagogue.

   1812: The Jews of Prussia emancipated. Napoleon's retreat from Moscow. Emancipation in Prussia. Death of Meyer Amshel Rothschild in Germany.

   1813: (Feb. 18) The Jews of Mecklenburg emancipated. Bavarian Jewry edict (Germany). Battle of Leipzig. Bavarian Jewry edict in Germany.

   1814-15: Congress of Venna.

   1815: (June 8) "Bundesakte" passed at the Congress of Vienna decrees maintenance of status quo in the political condition of the Jews. Congress of Vienna permits the abolition of emancipation laws in the German states.

   1818: First Reform Temple in Hamburg consecrated and opened in Germany. "Infamous Decree" abolished in France.

   1819: The beginning of the "Hep, hep!" riots and persecutions in Germany. Formation of the Society for the Culture and Science of the Jews, by Zunz, Gans, and Moser. Verein fuer Kultur und Wissenschaft des Judentums founded.

   1820: Jews admitted again at Lisbon. Isaac Marcus Jost begins to publish his Geschichte der Israeliten.

   1821: Greek War of Independence begins. Isaac Bernays opposes the Reform Temple in Germany.

   1823: Monroe Doctrine.

   1824: Rabbinical seminary established at Metz in France. Expulsion from the villages of Russia. Reformed Society of Israelites in Charleston, S.C.; Isaac Lesser arrives in U.S.

   1825: Jews Expelled from St. Petersburg through influence of gilds. M.M. Noah Ararat project (America).

   1826: Jews obtain full civic rights in the state of Maryland, U.S.A. Decree issued in Russia enrolling Jews for military service. Maryland "Jew Bill" removes political disabilities. Jews settle in New Orleans.

Vipers - Part 27

  1826-35: Velizh Blood Libel; (Ritual Murder).

   1827: Battle of Navarino Bay. Cantonist legislation introduced.

   1828: Wuerttembeg Jewry law in Germany. Removal of disabilities of Maryland Jews.

   1829: Emancipation of Catholics in England. Instituto Rabbinico opened at Padua, Italy.

   1830: July revolution in France; Uprising in Poland.

   1831: Louis Philippe orders salaries of rabbis to be paid by the state. Independence of Belgium recognized. Judaism given equal status with other religions. Palestine taken by Muhammad Ali.

   1832: Leopold Zunz publishes his Die gotterdienstlichen Vortraege.

   1833: (Oct. 29) Jews of Kur-Hessen granted full emancipation. Turkey recognizes independence of Egypt. Emancipation in Hesse-Kassel. Beginning of parliamentary debates on the emancipation of the Jews of England.

   1835: (April 13) General Jewish regulations issued in Russia Edict of Nicholas I. founding agricultural colonies in Russia. David Salomons sheriff of London, England. Oppressive constitution for the Jews.

   1836: Law refusing Jews the right to bear Christian names renewed in Prussia. Death of Nathan Mayer Rothschild in England.

   1837: Moses Montefiore knighted in England. Disastrous earthquake in Safed and Tiberias. Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums founded in Berlin, Germany. Jews settle in Cleveland.

   1839: Sultan 'Abd al-Majid grants citizenship to Turkish Jews. Turkey invades Syria. Entire community of Meshed (Persia) forced to convert to Islam (Asia).

   1840: (Feb. 5) Damascus Blood Accusation (Ritual Murder). (Nov. 6) Firman issued by sultan against blood accusation (Ritual Murder). Damascus Blood Libel; (Ritual Murder); restoration of Turkish rule in Palestine.

   1841: Jews settle in Chicago. Jewish Chronicle founded in London.

   1842: First English Reform synagogue opened in London, England. Bruno Bauer's Judenfrage (Germany). Compulsory military service for the Jews of Russia.

   1843: B'nai B'rith founded in America.

   1844: (May 25) Louis Philippe issues regulations for the internal organization of French Jews. (June) Rabbinical conference at Brunswick. Autonomy of the kahal abolished government supervised schools for the Jews founded (Russia & Poland).

   1845: (April) Ukase issued ordering Russian and Polish Jews to adopt ordinary costume. Jews admitted to municipal offices in England. Rabbinical conference at Frankfort; Reform Society formed in Berlin, Germany.

   1846: U.S. War with Mexico. Abolition of "Jewish Oath." (France). Rabbinical conference in Breslau, Germany. Montefiore visits Russia. I.M. Wise arrives in America.

   1847: Lionel de Rothschild elected to parliament but refuses to take the Christian oath (England). Anti-Jewish riots in Prussia. Jews settle in Washington, D.C.

   1848: Emancipation Year; most of the countries of central Europe grant full civic and political rights to Jews - in the majority of cases, repealed the next year. Riots in Presburg. Year of Revolutions. Liberal constitution of Piedmont, Italy. Adophe Cremieux minister of Justice. Anti-Jewish riots. Influx of Jews from Germany (America).

   1849: (July 3) Baron Lionel de Rothschild, previously returned as M.P. for city of London, not allowed to take seat. Jews settle in San Francisco and Los Angeles (America).

   1852: (Sept. 3) Violent Anti-Jewish riots at Stockholm. Conformation of "Status Quo" in Holy Places in Palestine.

   1853: Publication of Philippson's Bible completed; Ahavat Ziyyon by Abraham Mapu. Saratov Blood Libel; (Ritual Murder) (Russia & Poland).

   1854: Breslau Jewish Theological Seminary opened in Germany. First YMHA founded (America).

   1854-56: Crimean War.

   1855: David Salomons lord mayor London, England. Cleveland Conference.

   1856: (Feb. 18) "Hatti-Humayun" issued, granting full civic rights to Turkish Jews Treaty of Paris. Jews' College founded in England. Cantonist legislation abrogated (Russia & Poland). Ha-Maggid, first Hebrew weekly, founded in Lyck.

   1858: (June 24) Edgar Mortara in Ancona forcibly taken from his family by Bishop of bologna on plea that he had been baptized when an infant by a Roman Catholic servant. The oath "on the true faith of a Christian" abolished in England; Jewish disabilities removed. Lionel de Rothschild takes his seat in parliament after amendment of parliamentary oath (England). Mortara case in Italy.

   1859: Independence of Rumania. Rabbinical seminary transferred to Paris, France. Merchants of the first class permitted to live outside the Pale.

   1860: Alliance Isra�lite Universelle founded in France. Sicily and Naples occupied by Garibaldi. Jews allowed to own real estate in Austria.

   1861: Jews with academic diplomas permitted to live outside the Pale (Russia & Poland). Proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy.

   1861-65: U.S. Civil War.

   1862: Moses Hess publishes Rom und Jerusalem (Zionism). Grant's General Order No. 11; first Jewish military chaplain.

   1863: (July) Emancipation of Swiss Jews. Society for the Promotion of Culture among the Jews of Russia founded.

   1863-64: Polish revolution.

   1864: Jews admitted to the bar (Russia & Poland).

   1865: Jewish craftsmen permitted to live outside the Pale (Russia).

   1866: Rumanian constitution, clause 7, makes all Rumanian Jews "aliens." Austro-Prussian War.

   1867-68: Constitution abolishes Jewish disabilities; Jews permitted to return to Spain. The law of the North German Federation of July 3 decrees that no state shall retain restrictions on the ground of religious belief.

   1868-69: General Congress of Hungarian Jews.

   1868-85: Ha-Shahar published in Vienna.

   1869-70: Philadelphia Conference. (March) Thirteen hundred and sixty Jews Expelled from districts of Falciu and Vaslui, Rumania. Mikveh Israel founded (Palestine). United Synagogue founded in England. Adolphe Cremieux minister of justice; Jews of Algeria granted French citizenship (France). Ghetto of Rome abolished end of Jewish disabilities in Italy. Unification of Italy.

   1871: Pogrom in Odessa (Russia & Poland). Unification of Germany. Anglo-Jewish Association founded (England). Constitution abolishes Jewish disabilities (Germany). A Rohling publishes his anti-Semitic Der Talmudjude (Austria-Hungary).

   1872: Hochschule fuer die Wissenschaft des Judentums opened at Berlin, Germany. Israelitische Ailiance founded in Vienna (Austria- Hungary).

   1871-72: Attacks on Jews in Rumania.

   1873: Union of American Hebrew Congregations established. Rabbinical Seminary opened in Berlin, Germany.

   1874-76: Publication of George Eliot's Daniel Deronda (England).

   1875: Hebrew Union college opened in Cincinnati.

   1876: (July 28) E. Lasker procures the passing of the "Austrittgesetz," permitting Jews to change their congregation. Heinrich Graetz completes Geschichte der Juden; Goldfaden established Yiddish Theater in Rumania. Orthodox Jews permitted to found independent congregation in Prussia (Germany).

   1877-78: Rabbinical seminary in Budapest opened (Austria-Hungary). (July 13) The Berlin Congress inserts clause 44, that distinction of religion shall not be a bar to civil and political rights in Rumania. Petah Tikvah founded; Congress of Berlin. Beginning of the political anti-Semitic movement in Berlin.

   1879-80: Citizenship granted to a number of Jews as individuals; Kutais Blood Libel; (Ritual Murder) (Russia & Poland). Anti-Semitic articles by H. von Treitschke (Germany).

   1880: (Nov. 20-22) Debate in Prussian Diet on Kantorowicz incident.

   1881: Atrocities against Jews in South Russia. (April 25) Anti-Semitic league in Germany presents petition with 255,000 signatures to Prince Bismarck. (April 27) Riot at Argenau. Ben-Yehuda arrives in Palestine. Beginning of mass immigration from Eastern Europe (America). Czar Alexander II assassinated. Death of Benjamin Disraeli (England). Anti-Semitic petition (Germany).

   1881-82. Pogroms sweeps southern Russia; beginning of mass emigration (Russia & Poland). (April 7) Disappearance of Esther Solymosi causes a trial on Blood Accusation (Ritual Murder) at Tisza-Esziar. (May 3) "May Laws" issued by General Ignatief confining the Jews in the Pale of Settlement to the towns. "May Laws" (Russia & Poland). Beginning of First Aliyah (Bilu); Rishon le-Zion founded (Palestine). Leon Pinsker publishes Autoemanzipation; Bilu organized in Russia (Zionism). Gompers a founder and president of A.F. of L.; first Yiddish play performed in N.Y. British occupation of Egypt. Tiszaesziar Blood Libel; (Ritual Murder); Kadimah society founded at Vienna (Austria-Hungary).

   1883: Beginning of Baron Edmond de Rothschild's help to Jewish settlements (Palestine).

   1884: (March 7) Rumanian law prohibiting hawking puts 5,000 Jewish families out of employment. (July 9) Lord Rothschild takes his seat as first Jewish peer in the British House of Lords. Gederah founded (Palestine). Kattowitz conference of Hibbat Zion (Zionism).

   1885-86: Pittsburg Conference of American Rabbis establishes a platform for Reform Judaism. Pittsburgh Platform (America). Nathaniel de Rothschild raised to peerage (England). Expulsion of Russian refugees (Germany). Drumont publishes "La France Juive." Jewish Theological Seminary opened in New York (America). E-A. Drumont publishes his anti-Semitic La France Juive (France).

   1887: (Feb. 28) Rumanian law excluding Jews from public service and from tobacco trade and from employment in retail trade. Small percentage of Jews admitted to high schools and universities (Russia & Poland). Druzgenik Conference of the Hovevei Zion (Zionism).

   1888: Jewish Publication Society of America established; United Hebrew Trades founded (America). Suez Canal Convention.

   1889: (May 12) Rumanian law limiting number of Jewish factory hands to one-third. Vilna Conference; Benei Moshe founded by Ahad Ha-Am (Zionism). Central Conference of American Rabbis established; Rabbi Jacob Joseph arrives as "Chief Rabbi" of New York City.

   1890: (Dec. 10) Guildhall meeting against persecution of Russian Jews by May Laws. Rehovot and Haderah founded (Palestine). Odessa Conference (Zionism).

   1890-91: Large number of immigrants from Russia (Palestine). (June 29) Blood Accusation (Ritual Murder) at Xanten. Expulsion from Moscow; Immigration to Argentina with help of Baron Maurice de Hirsch. Jewish Colonization Association (ICA) incorporated (England). Xanten Blood Libel; (Ritual Murder); Thirteen anti-Semitic members enter Austrian Reichsrat.

   1892: Jewish Colonization Association founded by Baron de Hirsch.

   1893:(Jan. 14) Rumanian law prohibiting Jews from being employed in public medical department. Fifteen anti-Semites elected to the Reichstag; Central-Verein Deutscher Staatsbuerger Juedischen Glaubens founded (Germany).

   1894: Dreyfus Affair. Dreyfus' trial (France).

   1895: Capt. Alfred Dreyfus condemned and degraded as a spy and deported to Devil's Isle, Cayenne. Anti-Semitic League organized (Rumania).

   1896-97: Herzl publishes Der Judenstaat (Zionism). Jews settle in Miami (America). Cairo Genizah discovered. (Aug. 29-31) First Zionist Congress at Basel, Herzl president (Zionist). Bund founded (Russia & Poland). Federation of American Zionists founded; Jewish Daily Forward begins publication.

   1898: (Oct.) Eleven thousand two hundred Jewish children refused admission to public schools in Rumania. 2nd Zionist Congress (Zionism). Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations founded in America. Emile Zola's J'accuse (France).

Vipers - Part 28

   1899: (March 31) Rumanian law excluding Jews from agricultural and professional schools. (Sept. 2) Dreyfus condemned a second time, but "pardoned" on Sept. 19. 3rd Zionist Congress; Jewish Colonial Trust founded (Zionism). Dreyfus retried and pardoned in France. H.S. Chamberlain's anti-Semitic book (Germany). Hilsner Case (Austria-Hungary).

   1899-1902: Boer War.

   1900: (Aug. 13-16) Fourth Zionist Congress at London. (Sept. 8) Israeisky, accused of (Ritual Murder) at Konitz, acquitted. 4th Zionist Congress (Zionism). Death of I.M. Wise; I.L.G.W.U. founded (America). Konitz Blood Libel; (Ritual Murder) (Germany).

   1901: (Dec.) Rumanian law prohibiting Jews from holding saloons or stores in rural districts. 5th Zionist Congress; Jewish National Fund established (Zionism). S. Schechter goes to New York (America). Hilfsverein der Deutschen Juden founded (Germany).

   1902: (March) Rumanian law prohibiting employment of Jewish working men. Mizrachi founded (Zionism). Jewish Religious Union founded (England). (The Jewish Encyclopedia, Chazars, & Chronology, pp. 1-75; Encyclopedia Judicia (1971))

   1903: Pogrom in Kishinev (Russia & Poland). 6th Zionist Congress Uganda project (Zionism).

   1904: Vaad ha-Lashon organized; Habimah Theater founded; Jewish Telegraphic agency founded. Beginning of Second Aliyah (Palestine). Verband der deutschen Juden founded (Germany).

   1904-05: Russo-Japanese War.

   1905: Pogroms mass emigration (Russia & Poland). Joseph Vitkin's Kol Kore; Ha-Poel Ha-Zair founded (Palestine). 7th Zionist Congress rejects Uganda project; Wolffsohn president (Zionism). Abortive revolution in Russia; separation of Church and State in France. Aliens Act; Herbert Samuel first Jewish cabinet minister in England.

   1906: Pogroms; Po'alei Zion founded (Russia & Poland). Hebrew high school established in Jaffa; Bezalel founded in Palestine. Helsingfors program (Zionism). American Jewish Committee established. Jewish Encyclopedia completed. Dreyfus rehabilitated in France.

   1907: 8th Zionist Congress (Zionism).

   1908: Young Turk revolution.

   1909: Deganyah founded; Ha-Shomer organized; Tel Aviv founded in Palestine.

   1909-10: Polish boycott against Jews.

   1910: Expulsion from Kiev.

   1910-11: L. Luzzatti prime minister in Italy.

   1911-13: Beilis trial (Russia & Poland). 10th Zionist Congress; Warburg president (Zionism).

   1912: Agudat Israel founded (Russia & Poland).

   1913: U.S. - Russian Treaty of 1832 abrogated because Russia does not recognize rights of American Jews under it; United Synagogue founded; Anti-Defamation League founded. Yevreskaya Entsiklopedia completed.

   1914: American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee established; Brandeis assumes Zionist leadership.

   1914-18: World War I.

   1915: Refugees from Palestine form Zion Mule Corps (Egypt). Menorah Journal, first (known) Jewish literary organ; Leo Frank lynched.

   1916-17: L. Brandeis appointed to Supreme Court (America). Anti-Jewish laws abrogated; The British capture Jerusalem. American Jewish Congress election. JPS version of the Bible. Balfour Declaration (England). U.S. enters the War; Russian Revolutions.

   1918: Zionist Commission appointed (Palestine).

   1919: Pogroms in Ukraine and Poland; abolishment of community organization and Jewish institutions in Russia (Russia & Poland). Canadian Jewish Congress founded; American Jewish delegation at Versailles. Peace of Versailles. Comite des Delegations Juives (France). pogroms in Hungary (Austria-Hungary).

   1919-23: Third Aliyah (Palestine).

   1920: British Mandate over Palestine; Tel Hai; Arabs riot in Jerusalem (Palestine). Keren Ha-Yesod established (Zionism). Henry Ford begins exposing Jews in the Dearborn Independent. Histadrut founded; the Haganah founded (Palestine). Polish Russian War. Britain granted Palestine mandate (England).

   1920-25: Sir Herbert Samuel High Commissioner (Palestine).

   1921: Arabs riot in Jaffa (Palestine). 12th Zionist Congress; Weizmann president. Brandeis-Weismann split divides American Zionism. U.S. Immigration Act 3% quota by 1910 Census.

   1922: Churchill White Paper. Advent of Fascism in Italy. Assassination of Walter Rathenau (Germany). (Encyclopedia Judicia (1971))

The Jewish Bankers

The great Jewish banking monopolies have been interwoven by marriage like a rug. Note three things about the Rothschilds, from the Jewish Encyclopedia of 1905:

        1). That of the 58 Rothschild marriages to that date, exactly half, or 29, had been to first cousins.

        2). That the Rothschilds were the first to make use of journalistic methods to arouse the interest of the public in their loans. They have, however, consistently kept the secret of their own operations!

        3). A major reason why Russia collapsed and went under the Communist Red heel during World War I was because the Rothschilds consistently refused to have anything to do with loans to Russia owing to anti-Jewish legislation.

The Warburg International Jewish banking family has also been closely connected with the Schiffs and Rothschilds. James Paul Warburg, in his sketch in Who's Who in American Jewry - 1938-39 states: "Born Hamburg, Germany, August 18, 1896...paternal ancestors through six generations have been bankers as members of the banking house of M.M. Warburg & Co., founded in Hamburg, 1798...maternal grand father, Solomon, founder of international banking house of Kuhn, Loeb & Co...Came to U.S., 1902..."

Paul M. Warburg had married Jenny Nina Loeb, mother of James Paul. Jacob Schiff, after coming to the U.S. had married Theresa Loeb, sister of Nina, and daughter of the Kuhn, Loeb founder. Schiff's daughter, Frieda, married Felix M. Warburg, Hamburg-born banker who headed the agro joint work for Jewry in Russia to help keep them in power after the Red Revolution.

Their daughter, Carola, married Walter M. Rothschild. Felix M. Warburg and Paul M. Warburg of Kuhn, Loeb & Co., partners of Jacob Schiff, were brothers of Max Warburg of Hamburg, Germany, the pay-off man, in power with the Kaiser, who funnelled funds to Lenin (Lenin's real name was Ulyanov. His father was of Mongol origin, his mother a German Jewess) and Trotsky during World War I to undermine and destroy the Russian Government.

Jacob Schiff received his banking training in his father's business, he being a Rothschild agent and associate. The basement of the two-in-a-row houses of Schiff and Rothschild in Frankfort-on-Main, Germany, was one room-in-common, with a joint "get-away" which formerly had led beyond a ghetto wall. The little shack at the back was where Kings, hat-in-hand, would come to get Jewish loans.

The original name of Bauer had been abandoned for "Red Shield" (Rothschild) and a Red Shield hung out as an address sign at the front of the house. "When the Kehilla (i.e. the Jewish community) of New York was organized in 1909, the control rested with a group of German Jews, including Jacob Schiff, president of Kuhn Loeb and Co., a branch of the Bleichroeder Mendelssohn Bank, affiliated with the big 'D' banks in Germany: Deutsche Bank, Disconto Gesellschaft, Dresdener Bank, Darmstadter Bank." (From Waters Flowing Eastward, by L. Fry, published by the R.I.S.S. of Paris, founded by Monsignor Jouin)

Also: "In Germany the leading private bankers included the Mendelssohns...and the Bleichroeders...who were bankers to Emperor William I. Bismarck, and the early industrialists...Frankfort, the 'mother city' of Jewish bankers...produced its Lazards, Speyers, Sterns, Dreyfuses, and Sulzbachs as well as sending abroad one Jacob H. Schiff." (The Jews of Germany, Marvin Lowenthal, Longmans Green and Co., N.Y. 1936)

And, says the same source: "Toward the end of that period the house of Warburg in Hamburg played an important part not only in the finances but destines of Germany. Max Warburg was adviser to the government at the Versailles Peace Conference. Carl M. Melchoir, another member of the firm...headed the financial section of the Armistice Commission in 1918-1919 and was one of the six German delegates to Versailles."

Elsewhere therein, through State Department documents, one will note the role played by the M.M. Warburg banking firm in financing the Red Russian Revolution. And, when Max Warburg came here from Hamburg in 1939, the American Jewish Committee placed him on its "Post-War" committee for reorganization of the World which, in turn, set up the propaganda clique for the ensuing United Nations. And so, down through the decades, Kuhn, Loeb, and international bankers, "Princes of Jewry" remold the World toward the ultimate aim - World Jewish dictatorship, now so rapidly coming about.

The Kaiser

Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany and his Government were used during World War I by Jews such as Max Warburg to channel funds into Russia to breed disaffection in the Russian Army and Navy, and to set the stage for the ultimately successful Bolshevik Revolution. When Kaiser Wilhelm realized that he had been made a tool of Jewry, it was after the War was over, and he was sawing or chopping wood at Doorn, Holland. It was too late.

Henry Ford's Dearborn Independent carried this article on July 9, 1921: "It is a most significant fact that, as in Washington, the most constant and privileged visitors to the White House were Jews, so in Berlin the only private telephone wire to the Kaiser was owned by Walter Rathenau (who later wrote the constitution of the post-war Jew-controlled Weimar 'Republic'). Not even the Crown Prince could reach the Kaiser except through the ordinary telephone connections...

        It was a family enterprise, this international campaign, Jacob Schiff swore to destroy Russia. Paul M. Warburg was his brother-in-law; Felix Warburg was his son-in-law. Max Warburg, of Hamburg, banker of the Bolsheviks, was thus brother-in-law to Jacob Schiff's wife and daughter...Max Warburg represents the family in its native land. Max Warburg has as much to do with the German war government as his family and financial colleagues had to do with the United States war government.

        As has been recounted in the press the world over, the brother from America and the brother from Germany both met at Paris as government representatives in determining the peace. There were so many Jews in the German delegation that it was known by the term 'kosher,' also as 'the Warburg delegation,' and there were so many Jews in the American delegation that the delegates from the minor countries of Europe looked upon the United States as a Jewish country which through unheard-of-generosity had elected a Jew as its president (Woodrow Wilson)...The Jews had several objectives in the war, and one of them was to 'Get Russia'...In this work Max Warburg was a factor.

        His bank is noted in a dispatch published by the United States government as being one whence funds were forwarded to Trotsky for use in destroying Russia. Always against Russia, not for German reasons, but for Jewish reasons, which in this particular instance coincided.

        Warburg and Trotsky - against Russia! While Otto Kahn, another partner in Kuhn, Loeb & Co. denounced 'pro-German propaganda,' his partner Paul was playing the German symphony string! It is a great international orchestra, this Jewish financial firm; it can play the Star Spangled Banner, Die Wacht am Rhein, the Marseillaise, and God Save the King in one harmonious rendering, paying obsequious attention to the prejudices of each."

Jews In The Russian Revolution of 1905

The New York Communal Register of 1917-18 related the actions of the American Jewish Committee in the U.S. to protect Russian Jewish revolutionaries. In 1909, so many red revolutionary criminals had fled to this country from the Jewish war against Christian Russia that the Committee fought to keep two of them, Pourea and Rudovitz, here. "The Committee appreciated the bearing of their cases upon a large number of Jews who had taken part in the Russian Revolution (i.e. 1905) and who had sought or might seek, an asylum in this country, and in cooperation with others succeeded in defeating the attempt of Russia."

The "others" referred to included Secretary of State Elihu Root, who despite the fact that "no substantial evidence was produced before the committee magistrate that the offenses charged against Pourea were political (therefore under the law he could be extradited) delayed in deciding the case until it could be changed in Pourea's favor." (Letter of Root to Jacob Schiff. Socialist Jew Samuel Gompers was also among those who intervened for Pourea)

Rutenberg And The Revolution

The Jewish Kehillah report boasted of Pinchas Rutenberg as a founding force in the American Jewish Congress as well as his being the right hand man to Jewish Premier Kerensky in the 1917 Russian Revolution.

Mourning the death of its founder, Pinchas Rutenberg, the American Jewish Congress publication, The Congress Weekly (1/16/42) stated in an article, Rutenberg's Mission to America: "His role in the birth of the American Jewish Congress was immense...the young Russian intellectual, in other words, revolutionist, soon made his influence felt in the underground council of the Social Revolutionary Party. Rutenberg was the man who, in 1905, piloted the revolutionary activities of the notorious Father Gapon and then sat in judgment and brought about his execution. In Italy, during the first World War, he got in touch with Vladimir Jabotinsky, founder of the Jewish Legion. In New York in 1915 he got in touch with the representatives of the Social Revolutionary Party there, Dr. Chaim Zitlowsky and Dr. Samuel Ellsberg, who were now interested in the Poale Zion party, Palestine, and Jewish rights."

Father Gapon

The above Father Gapon incident is typical of applied Judaism. The dramatic prayer addressed by Gapon to the Czarist government with the threat that if it were not granted. "we shall die here on the Square before thy Palace," combined with mutinies, strikes involving more than 2-million people, are related in William Henry Chamberlin's The Russian Revolution 1917-1921 (1935).

Where we read: "Gapon himself was doubtful about the wisdom of bringing large present this petition." (The Russian Revolution 1917-1921 (1935), Vol. 1, p. 48)

Yet Gapon was pushed ahead as the leader. Then, "when the demonstrators refused to obey orders to disperse and go home volleys of rifle fire poured on them...The casualties of Bloody Sunday (January 22, 1905) are estimated at from two hundred to fifteen hundred."

That the Jew Rutenberg "piloted the revolutionary activities of the notorious Father Gapon, then sat in judgment and brought about his execution," is not mentioned by historian Chamberlin, who was correspondent for 12 years in Russia for the leftist-oriented Christian Science Monitor, and later wrote for the Jewish-line "Anti-Communist" Human Events. He also served as Contributing Editor of the Socialist Social Democratic Federation party's magazine, New Leader.

Rutenberg was chose in 1937 as one of the 120 leading Jews of the world, along with Litvinov (Finkelstein), the Soviet Commissar, and Rabbi Louis Finkelstein, head of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. He died in Palestine in 1942, much mourned, having set up the Palestine Electric Corporation, using huge water rights, issued under British protection, for the use of Jewry.

More Jewish Manipulations In The U.S.

No corner of the earth has been too remote to manipulate for Jewry. We note the activities of the American Jewish Committee concerning: "The Jews in the Balkans," after 1913. And our government was used again to pressure for Jewish power. The restrictions of immigration from Russia was fought by the American Jewish Committee after 1906, so that the flow of revolutionaries might not be curbed.

Vipers - Part 29

The literacy test was fought so that illiterate Jews might swarm here - as they did. Of three literacy test bills, we are told, President Taft vetoed one and President Wilson two, under pressure of the American Jewish Committee. And then when one of them was passed, despite the veto, the Committee "succeeded in procuring adoption of a clause which excluded...those who came to the country to avoid religious persecution, whether induced by overt acts, oppressive laws, or by governmental relations."

The cry of "persecution," has always been used to cover the crimes of the only people on earth whose very religion teaches them that murder and enslavement and cheating of all other peoples is a sacred right. We are told in The New York Jewish Communal Register, that the American Jewish Committee considered it "one of its most important functions to bend every effort toward the solution of the passport question."

This "solution" was to circumvent Russia, which sought to bar Russian-born Communist Jews, who came to the U.S.A. to get citizenship so as to return to Russia as American citizens, from using their immunity to steer the Communist Revolutionary overthrow of the Russian Christian government.

Russia had instructed its consuls to inquire of any applicants for passports to enter Russia from the U.S. and if they were Russian-born Jews, not to give them an entrance visa. The U.S. was at that time full of jailbird revolutionaries wanted in Russia, who thus sought to escape Russian law as American citizens. The aim of the American Jewish Committee was first to overthrow the Russian government, and later to sustain the Red butchers as they enslaved the Christian populace.

Note the sanctimonious "Hearts and Flowers" pose of the Committee about Russia "refusing to recognize the American passport in the hands of American citizens of the Jewish faith." And what is that holy "faith?" A criminal conspiracy against all humanity, against all civilized laws, all reciprocity, a code which makes that of gangsters seem benign.

Treaty With Russia Broken

Too often unmentioned today is the fact that, too many American lawyers believe, that under Article 6 of the United States Constitution, a treaty becomes the "supreme law of the land; and judges in every state shall be bound thereby; anything in the Constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding." Of course this is not true, but as long as they can convince the American people it is so, they can with one stroke, thereby, all State laws as well as the Constitution itself may be nullified by a treaty.

In our time, this has been done. The United Nations Charter, ratified by almost 100% of the Senate, was accepted by many lawyers and judges, became as a treaty the Supreme Law of the Land, anything in the Constitution or the laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding. The machinery to nullify our freedoms therefore is in place.

That the top American Jewish Committee was well aware of this provision of the Constitution back in 1917-18 when the New York Kehillah report was issued, is evident from the text. The reciprocal trade treaty of 1832 with Russia had to be broken. It had permitted Russia to have some say as to those from the U.S. it must admit through its borders. Russia retained some sovereignty which the Communist Revolutionary Jewry from Russia, armed with American citizenship, could not hurdle. The Jewish mob must be free to return to Russia and put over the Jewish revolution.

The New York Kehillah text states: "The Committee, after serious consideration, determined to recommend to the President the abrogation of the treaty with Russia, and on May 18, 1908, dispatched a letter to President Roosevelt. This began the attempt on the part of the organization to induce our Government to take some effective action to terminate the controversy. Correspondence with the same end in view was also had with President Taft and was supplemented by personal interviews with the President and with Secretaries of State, Root and Knox. (Schiff headed this delegation).

        The effect of the termination of the treaty, was the declaration of the national policy of the United States that it would not tolerate further discrimination against American citizens of the Jewish faith. Since treaties are, under the Constitution, the supreme law of the land, with the termination of the treaty there no longer exists a law which according to the Russian Government's contention was susceptible of the unconstitutional construction that our Government permitted discrimination against American citizens on account of race or religion.

        The action of President Taft and of the Congress of the United States was subsequently approved by all the great political parties of the country, in platform adopted by them in 1912, and again in 1916."

More of the background of these pre-revolutionary activities of the American Jewish Committee, which was headed by Jacob Schiff, was covered in the Henry Ford Dearborn Independent, in an article January, 1921 entitles: Taft Once Tried to Resist Jews and Failed. "Mr. Taft once stood out against the Jews, was strongly denounced as unfavorable to the Jews, was soundly beaten by the Jews on a matter on which he had taken a firm stand, and has ever since shown that he has learned his lesson by accommodating the Jews in their desires...

        For centuries Russia has had her own troubles with the Jews and, as the world knows, has at last fallen prostrate before Jewish power which for centuries, has been working to undermine her...The biggest hoax in modern times was the propaganda against Russia as the persecutor of the Jews. Russia devoted to the Jews a large part of the most favored section of the land, and was always lax in those laws which prohibited Jews from settling in other parts of the country that the Jew was able to create an underground system throughout the whole of Russia which controlled the grain trade, controlled public opinion, and utterly baffled the Czar's government. The cry of 'persecution' arose because the Jews were not permitted to exploit the peasants as much as they desired. They have, however, gained that privilege since."

Reports of American Ministers are quoted showing that while 1500 Jews were registered in St. Petersburg with the police, 30,000 were operating there illegally. Jewish editors and writers wielded power on "the leading newspapers of St. Petersburg and Moscow," and the liquor trade was entirely in Jewish hands. "At every turn the United States Government discovered that Jews were exaggerating their difficulties for the purpose of forcing governmental action...The Jews represented that their life in Russia was a hell...Presently, after years of underground work and open propaganda against Russian in the daily press, until the American conception against Russia was fixed almost beyond correction, the agitation took the form of the 'Russian passport question'...Jews demanded nothing less than that the United States should break all treaty relations with Russia. They demanded it."

How Jacob Schiff, Louis Marshall, Adolph Krauss and Judge Henry M. Fogle (Executive Committee members of the American Jewish Committee) walked in on President Taft at the White House, February 15, 1911, is described. They had demanded the conference, were dined at the White House luncheon table, but Taft insisted upon reading them his conclusions that the trade treaty of 1832 with Russia should not be broken as an exceptional favor to Jews, despite his sentiments in favor of Jewry.

At every stage of the game of take-over for Talmudism, the United States was used as a base of operations for "the synagogue of Satan" to put Christian Russia under the heel. Propaganda flooded this country which inculcated Americans with the conviction that the weak Czar with his outnumbered, out financed foes, wielded a blacksnake whip over little "angel" Jews, made to suffer just because they were presented to them as the "People of the Book."

We were taught that to the tune of millions of dollars spent by the American Jewish Committee and others. MacLeans noted: "The man chiefly responsible for the defeat of Russia was Trotsky." So we owe it to world wide Jewry and to a Jewish traitor by the name of Woodrow Wilson for the loss of 300,000 of America's finest men.

MacLean's ended the sensational article by declaring that the United States State Department under the direct orders from President Woodrow Wilson gave the British specific requests for the release of Trotsky declaring that he was traveling to Russia on a United States Passport. MacLeans ends with this line: "Trotsky had, and continues to have, strong underground influence. His power was so great that orders were issued that he must be given every consideration!"

President Woodrow Wilson had as his chief advisors the Jews powerful Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis, financier Bernard Baruch and, yes, the Jewish banker Jacob Schiff. All three were interested in "freeing" the Jews of Russia. FREEDOM TO THE JEW IS WHEN THEY DOMINATE ALL THE OTHER PEOPLE AS WE TODAY WITNESS IN PALESTINE!

The Jew William Reswick in his book, I Dreamt Revolution quotes Trotsky as saying: "What we need here is an organizer like Bernard M. Baruch."

Thus Wilson sabotaged his own countries war effort by helping the Jews to destroy Russia, a loyal ally during the middle of a world war! And who had helped save the United States from being divided and destroyed by England, France and Spain during the American Civil War.

Jewish Bankers United Behind Trotsky

Sweden was chosen as the best "neutral" country for the transfer of financial aid to the Bolsheviks of Russia. The new Communist Government of Lenin and Trotsky chose the Jew Michael Gruzenberg to run this "money laundering" operation.

Trotsky's cousin who was the Jewish banker Abram Givatovzo and lived in Kiev before the revolution. Now he was moved to Sweden to help manage the Soviet currency transactions beginning in 1918. The World War waged on until its end on November 11, 1918. But through the end of 1917 Germany continued sending money by way of the Jewish agent Israel Helphand in Denmark. He, in turn, passed it on to, the Jew Jacob Furstenberg who was Lenin's banker. Once the war was over the defeated Germans were horrified at the monster they had helped to install in power over Russia. German Army General Staff. Maj. General Hoffman, stated: "We neither knew nor foresaw the danger to humanity from the consequences of this journey of the Bolsheviks to Russia!"

Germans Worry About The Misuse of The Jewish Money Power

The German Under-secretary of State, Brockdorff-Rantzau, first realized the advantages and the potential danger of using Jewish bankers to undermine the Czar. On August 14, 1915, after meeting with Israel Helphand he wrote: "He is an extraordinary man whose unusual powers we must employ for the duration of the war. It might perhaps be risky to want to use the powers ranged behind Helphand, (Meaning the super-rich Jew bankers), but it would certainly be an admission of our own weakness if we were to refuse their services out of fear of not being able to direct them."

United States Intelligence Agent Exposed The Jewish Bankers

"The Sisson Report" was based on a collection of Soviet documents obtained by U.S. Intelligence agent Edgar G. Sisson while serving in Petrograd. "Document No. 64" reports that the Jew banker Max Warburg of Hamburg on September 21, 1917 provided Trotsky with an "account" for the purchase of arms.

Document No. 64

"Stockholm, September 21, 1917. Mr. Raphael Scholan (Schaumann), Haparanda.  Dear Commrade: The office of the banking house M. Warburg has opened in accordance with telegram from President of Rhenish-Westphalian Syndicate an account for the undertaking of Comrade Trotsky. The attorney (agent) purchased arms and has organized their transportation and delivery up to Luleo and Varde. Name to the office of Essen & Son in Luleo, receivers, and a person authorized to receive the money demanded by Comrade Trotsky. -- J. Furstenberg."

     Note: This is the first reference to Trotsky, and connects him with Banker Max Warburg and Furstenberg. Luleo and Varde are Swedish towns, the former near to Haparanda, which on the border of Sweden and Finland. Also, Document No. 63 shows 32,000 Francs by the Jew banker Furstenberg for revolutionary propaganda (Which they refer to as "Socialist Pamphlets.").

Document No. 63

"Geneva, June 16, 1917. -- Mr. Furstenberg, Stockholm: Please note that at the request of Mr. Katz, francs 32,000 (82,000) have been paid for the publication of Maximalist-Socialist pamphlets. Advise by telegram addressed to Decker of the receipt of the consignment of pamphlets, number of bill of lading, and date of arrival. -- (Signed) Kriek, Deutsche Bank."

     Note: Furstenberg is named in Document No. 54 and is Ganetsky in Petrograd. Furstenberg was the banker who raised money from the German Government for transfer to the Bolsheviks. The "Sisson Report" mentions the name of Olof Aschberg the Jew banker from Sweden. In 1917, he was the director of the Nya Bank in Stockholm.

Sisson Report

U.S. State Department Decimal File, 861.516/129, dated August 28, 1922. A State Department report from Stockholm, dated October 9, 1922 (861.516/137), states in regard to Aschberg, "I met Mr. Aschberg some weeks ago and in the conversation with him he substantially stated all that appeared in this report. He also asked me to inquire whether he could visit the United States and gave as references some of the prominent banks. In connection with this, however, I desire to call the department's attention to Document 54 of the Sisson Documents, and also to many other dispatches which this legation wrote concerning this man during the war, whose reputation and standing is not good. He is undoubtedly working closely in connection with the Soviets, and during the entire war he was in close co-operation with the Germans." (U.S. State Department Decimal File, 861.516/137, Stockholm, October 9, 1922. The report was signed by Ira N. Morris)

It should be noted that on November 28, 1917, President Woodrow Wilson ordered that there be no interference on the part of American diplomats in Europe with the Bolshevik Revolution which was then underway in Russia. The United States had entered World War One on April 11, 1917. Thus the U.S. had already been in the war for 7 months before his order.

This should have been considered as Treason because the Bolshevik Revolution succeeded in taking our Ally Russia out of the war. Experts say this made the war last at least one year longer. Which cost the better part of 300,000 American men to lose their lives! Woodrow Wilson was obviously more interested in appeasing his brother Jews than he was in saving the lives of our American Military men! Today we have a very similar situation in Palestine where U.S. leaders place the interests of the Jewish Zionists over American interests.

Vipers -Part  30

   1). 1918-1919: The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, signed March 15, 1918, between Russia and Germany removed Russia from the side of the Allies, added to the political chaos within Russia, and caused additional political and military problems for the Allies. On June 2, 1918, the Allied Supreme War Council voted for military intervention at Murmansk and Archangel in North Russia by a force of mixed nationalities under British command. The original objectives of the expedition were limited: to establish a rallying point for those Czech troops inside Russia who were still loyal to the Allies, to guard the supplies sent to the northern ports for the Imperial Russian Army, and to prevent the establishment of German naval bases at the northern ports.

On July 17, 1918, President Woodrow Wilson agreed with his Jewish advisors to furnish American troops for the intervention of this plan. On August 9, 1918, the 339th Infantry Regiment, 1st Battalion of the 310th Engineers, 337th Field Hospital, and 337th Ambulance Company, all elements of the 85th Infantry Division, were officially designated the "Murmansk Expedition."

On August 27 the expedition, consisting of 143 officers and 4,344 enlisted men under the command of Lt. Col. George E. Stewart, sailed from Newcastle-on-Tyne in England and arrived at Archangel on September 4 where, with other Allied forces, it became part of the command of Maj. Gen. F.C. Poole, British Army. American troops soon began to deploy along the front 450 miles long, extending from Onega in the west to Pinega in the east, and at some points 200 miles distant from Archangel the site of Headquarters, AEF, North Russia, and also Allied Headquarters.

Between September 1918 and May 1919 troops of AEF, North Russia, suffered over 500 casualties (mostly Americans) in combat against the Russian 6th and 7th Armies. In addition to the troops composing AEF, North Russia, there were two other American contingents in the area. The American Military Mission to Russia, headed by Col. James A. Ruggles and including several assistant military attaches, reported on significant political and military events to the War Department and to David Francis, U.S. Ambassador to the Provisional (Bolshevik) Government of the Northern Provinces.

The North Russia Transportation Corps Expeditionary Forces, consisting of the 167th (Operations) and 168th (Maintenance) Companies, Transportation Corps, were sent to Murmansk in march and April 1919 to operate and maintain the Murmansk Railway so that a line of withdrawal for the icebound Allied force at Archangel might be kept open. Maj. Edward E. MacMorland commanded this contingent, which operated and maintained the Murmansk Railway from its headquarters at Soroka.

Early in 1919 President Wilson and his chief advisers decided it was time to withdraw all American forces from North Russia (Their mission had been completed and to prevent an international scandal they were withdrawn). During May 1919 Brig. Gen. Wilds Richardson, who had assumed command of all U.S. forces in north Russia on April 9, began to concentrate AEF, North Russia, around Archangel preparatory to return to the United States via Brest, France. By June 27 the last of AEF, North Russia, had left for Brest. On July 28 the North Russia Transportation Corps Expeditionary Forces left Murmansk for Brest, and on August 5, 1919, Headquarters, AEF, North Russia, was discontinued.

   2). 1919-1920: After many months of prodding by America's Allies and top advisers in the State Department, President Woodrow Wilson agreed in early July 1918 to permit limited U.S. participation in an Allied expedition to Siberia.

Among the reasons Wilson gave for this move by the United States were: to extricate Czechoslovak Armed Forces from Siberia who had been attempting to reach the Western Front; to guard allied military stores at Vladivostok; and to aid the Russian (Bolshevik) people themselves in "self-government and self-defense."

Soon after Wilson's announcement, the War Department made speedy preparations for the transfer of the 27th and 31st Infantry Regiments from the Philippine Islands to Vladivostok. In addition, Maj. Gen. William Graves, who was designated commander of the expedition, received orders to select an additional 5,000 men and officers from his 8th Division stationed at Camp Fremont, Calif., to supplement these two infantry regiments.

On August 3, 1918, orders were sent from the Adjutant General in Washington to the two regiments in the Philippines and to Graves in California to embark for Vladivostok, where they were to establish American Headquarters. The bulk of the expeditionary forces landed in Siberia between August 15 and September 2.

Immediately upon arrival, elements of the 27th and 31st Infantry Regiments took up guard duty along the Ussuri Railroad line from Vladivostok to Nikolsk. During late August and September the remainder of the 27th Infantry under Col. Henry Styer participated in an Allied offensive that pushed back Russian forces in the Spasskoe-Ussuri region. By November most of this fighting had subsided, and the primary tasks of the AEF in Siberia became railroad garrison duty, care of prisoners of war, and guarding Allied supplies at Vladivostok.

In the Spring of 1919, an inter-Allied agreement on guarding the Trans-Siberian Railroad resulted in the assignment of American forces to several widely separated sections of the railroad line: Vladivostok to Nikolsk-Ussuri, Ugolnaya to the Suchan Mines, Spasskoe to Ussuri, and (1,700 miles further west) Verkhne-Udinsk to Mysovaya.

During the period May through August 1919, the garrisons at Ugolnays, Ussuri, Razodolnoe, the Suchan Mines, and Shkotovo sustained the heaviest casualties of the expedition because of strikes, riots, and Russian guerrilla activity. Conditions were so bad that American forces were removed from Shkotovo and the Suchan Mines in August.

Other American garrisons, however, maintained their stations until January 9, 1920, when the War Department ordered the entire AEF in Siberia to assemble at Vladivostok in order to return to Manila (The Bolshevik takeover was complete). On April 1, 1920, General Graves closed his headquarters, and the last American units departed from Siberia.

February 15, 1918, U.S. Secretary of State Robert Lansing warned French Ambassador J.J. Jusserand, "It is considered inadvisable to take any action which will antagonize at this time any of the various elements of the people which now control the power in Russia." Again the power of the Jew prevailed.

Sweden's Nya Bank, founded in 1912, was soon taken over by the Jew Olof Aschberg. He was the chief international financier of the Bolshevik Revolution. His close associates included Carl Furstenberg (Named in the "Sisson Report"). He was the first to serve as "Finance Minister" for the new Communist Government. Next was Max May, vice-president in charge of foreign operations for Guaranty Trust Bank in New York City. Aschberg was so close to Max May that he published a picture of May in his autobiography.

Aschberg was even the Russian Czar's banker before 1917. On August 4, 1916, Aschberg was in New York City to arrange a $50-million loan for Czarist Russia. He secretly met with Jacob Schiff where the two plotted the downfall of the Czar; who was later massacred along with his entire family by a fanatical band of reds led by a Jewish Bolshevist. Thus Aschberg could smile and ingratiate himself with the Czar while working for his destruction! After all, was not money and "freedom for Jews" in Russia the goal of all true "Lovers of Democracy?"

Aschberg Takes Over Soviet Bank

The Communist in Russia founded their first state bank in 1922. It was called "The Ruskom Bank." Lenin named none other than Olof Aschberg to head this new bank! A U.S. State Department telegram from Stockholm dated October 9, 1922, warned against doing business with Aschberg adding, "...whose reputation and standing is not good." It should also be noted that the Jew, Max May, who was employed by the Guaranty Trust Bank of New York, was made a director of the Soviet Ruskom Bank in 1922. There can be no doubt that without the unlimited resources of the "Jewish Bankers" there never would have been a Bolshevik Revolution in Russia in the first place. Communist Jews in Russia were financed into power by Jewish Bankers!

The German Government during World War One never dreamed what a tragedy would follow their support of the Bolsheviks. At least this error was realized and admitted too by Kaiser Wilheim II in a statement he gave The Chicago Tribune of July 2, 1922 stating: "The Jews are responsible for Bolshevism in Russia, and Germany too. I was far too indulgent with them during my reign, and I bitterly regret the favors I showed to prominent Jewish bankers."

Document No. 57

"Circular, November 2, 1914. From the Imperial Bank to the representatives of the Nia-Banken and the agents of the Diskonto Gesellschaft and of the Deusche-Bank: Both the mentioned persons addressed themselves to several financial men, who for their part addressed themselves to our representatives. We are ready to support the agitation and propaganda projected by them in Russia on the (one) absolute condition that the agitation and propaganda noted (planned) by the above-mentioned Messrs. Zinovieff and Lunacharsky will touch the active armies at the front. In case the agents of the Imperial Bank should address themselves to your banks we beg you to open them the necessary credit which will be covered completely as soon as you make demand on Berlin. -- (Signed) Risser."

Addition as part of the document: Zinovieff and Lunacharsky got in touch with Imperial Bank of Germany through the bankers, D. Rubenstein, Max Warburg, and Parvus. Zinovieff addressed himself to Rubenstein and Lunacharsky through Altvater to Warburg, through whom he found support in Parvus.

     Note: Lunacharsky is the present People's Commissioner of Education. Parvus and Warburg both figure in the Lenin and Trotsky documents. Parvus was an agent at Copenhagen. (See "New Europe," January 31, 1918, pages 94-95). Warburg is believed to have been lately in Petrograd.

        Zionist Worldwide Boycott Against German
        Merchandise Creates Domestic Crisis

Rabbi Maurice L. Perlman, the head of the British Section of the World Jewish Congress, stated to a Canadian audience and was reported by the Toronto Evening Telegram of February 26, 1940, that: "THE WORLD JEWISH CONGRESS HAS BEEN AT WAR WITH GERMANY FOR SEVEN YEARS."

Senator Wayne Morse of Oregon, delivered an address on December 20, 1951, and was reported in The National Jewish Post of Indianapolis of December 28, 1951, in which he stated: "One of the major cause for our going to war against Hitler as the persecution of the Jews in Germany."

Dr. Donald C. Blaisdell, at that time was the professor of government at the College of the City of New York, published an important document entitled American Policy for the Near East in a publication called Issues published in New York, the official organ of the American Council for Judaism, in the fall issue in 1959, in which Dr. Blaisdell stated: "No minority of Irish, of German, of Polish, Italian, or Greek extraction has been able to manipulate policy to its advantage as have the Zionist leaders of American Jews. Nor does there appear to be any politically feasible means by which the American government can place the claims of its important clientele in proper perspective. Like American Jews who are presumed to be members of Israel's American clientele are never allowed to forget it, so the American Government, Congress and Executive branch alike, is never permitted to free itself from the pressure propaganda and power emanating from the same Zionist sources."

Jewish Influence In Germany Before World War II

An extract from Schonere Zukunft of November 13, 1932, from Dr. Joseph Eberle, will show the extent of Jewish control of German life before World War II. Schonere Zukunft was a Viennese Catholic weekly directed by Dr. Eberle: "Today, Catholics are almost completely silent about the question of Judaism, though Jewish influence, not only in Russia, Hungary, Poland, France, England, America and Austria, but also in Germany, has attained a degree of power and might, altogether out of proportion to the number of Jews in the total populations of these countries. Three-fourths of the large banking concerns, at the head of which we must place the four big D-Banks; Deutsche Bank, Darmstadter Bank, Diskonto-Gesellschaft and Dresdener Bank, three-fourths of the big exchanges, including those of Berlin, Frankfort and Hamburg, three-fourths of the principal commercial enterprises, including those of Karstadt, Tietz and Werheim, three-fourths of the leading newspapers, of the publishing firms, of the telegraphic and advertising agencies, of the groups controlling theaters and cinemas, are Jewish.

        In Austria, matters are still worse. Of course, there are still many non-Jewish industrial magnates, but they are becoming more and more subservient to banks directed by Jews. There are certainly still to be found rich landed proprietors and wealthy financiers who are Christians, BUT SO FAR AS THE ECONOMIC AFFAIRS IS CONCERNED, THEY ARE WITHOUT INFLUENCE, IN COMPARISON WITH JEWISH FINANCIAL MAGNATES, such as Charles Furstenberg, Dr. Solmssen, Mammroth, Bleichroder, Speyer-Ellissen, Sobernheim, Landau, Arnhold, Dr. Solamonsohn, Eugen Gutman, Von Straus, Kempner, Freiherr von Oppenheim, Warburg, etc.

        There are still influential Catholic publishing firms, but even firms like those of Herder and Kosel-Pustet are much inferior to the Jewish publishing firms of Ullstein, Mosse, Cassirer, E. Goldschmidt, etc. There are many non-Jewish writers, nevertheless we learn from statistics of the publishing business that, in Germany, foreign and Jewish authors are more widely read than German and Christian authors, so that Borries von Munchausen speaks of the passing of the German soul.

        It can be established also that the best known non-Jewish men of letters, as for example Gerhart Hauptmann and Sudermann, owe their literary success to their friendliness towards Judaism. Such are the intellectual and economic power and influence of Jews in Germany today. And yet Christians in great measure keep silence about the matter. This silence is, in part, due to ignorance, especially in the provinces. But it is also due to an already existing dependence on Jews. Three-fourths of the Christian newspapers would be reduced to two-thirds or even one-half of their present size, if they were compelled to give up the advertisements of Jewish shops and banks, and Jewish advertisements would not be forthcoming if the Jewish question were treated."

Now the movement which centers round the figure of Hitler has reacted against the state of affairs outlined by Dr. Eberle. The Jewish claim to be the race and nation destined by God to mould other nations, this is the metaphysically necessary significance of their looking forward to another Messiahs, has led to a partial conflict. The conflict is, however, not so serious as a great portion of the Press of the world would have us believe. Mr. H. Belloc writes as follows in G.K.'s Weekly, May 18, 1933: "I do not think that the way in which the Jews have been treated by Prussia, abominable as it is, will lead to any particularly bad consequences for Prussia itself. I think that if Prussia gets into trouble, it will be through her own grotesquely swollen head and her consequent total misunderstanding of her true position among national forces today.

        Already I see the Jews throughout the Press of the world making excuses for Prussia; and I note that NO GREAT JEWISH BANKER HAS SUFFERED AT THE HANDS OF THE PRUSSIANS, which is significant! I also note that the great Frankfort paper which is the chief expression of Jewish policy in Europe welcomes the new Prussian regime."

Continue on to:- Part 31

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